The first American "special forces" in the modern sense are considered divisions of the "rangers" and according to the book "Special Forces of Russia" V.V. Kvachkov in 1756 in the course of the Anglo-French war in the British troops created the first squad of Rangers (Old English-raunger-huntsman) under the command of Major Rogers. Volunteers from among the British colonists and also from among the Indians were recruited into this, and then other similar units, and they acted as typical partisan detachments, possessing a high degree of independence both in command and in behavior.
It was these forces that played an important role in the American "independence war" in the actions of the American army against the British, when they were able to partly compensate for the weaknesses of the American army, which was inferior in training to regular British troops.
Subsequently, during the American Civil War (1861-85 of the year), according to V. Kvachkov and the "southerners" and the "northerners" used in their actions divisions "rangers".
During the Second World War, the Rangers were re-created as separate battalions for action on the European and Pacific fronts, and disbanded after the war.
In the year 1950, with the start of the Korean war, the Ranger units were again recreated as separate companies, and after the war they were again disbanded. With the course of the Vietnam War in 1969, a separate part of the Rangers was again recreated - the 75 th regiment, again disbanded in the 1972 year. In the 1974 year, separate battalions of the Rangers were recreated, and now with the US 1986 there is a truth, already as a classic reconnaissance and sabotage unit - the Rangers regiment, but directly subordinated to the ground forces headquarters.
In practice, the role of the former "Rangers" in the second half of the XX century began to play the forces of "green berets".
The Green Berets forces were created in Fort Braig (USA) in 1952 year as a separate X special-purpose group.
This group was commanded by Colonel Aaron Bank, a veteran of the US special services OSS to support the Resistance Movement in France and the Filipino partisans during the Second World War and a participant in the CIA operations in the rear of the North Korean troops during the Korean War (1950-53).
When recruiting a new part, candidates from among foreigners, primarily from Eastern Europe, were also accepted, since the group was created for action in the European theater of operations.
In 1953, the 77 group was additionally created, later disbanded in 1960, which, like the X, was to fight in Eastern Europe.
Although these groups carried out certain missions in the interests of the CIA in Europe, they had to fight in Vietnam, first as advisers, and then as units representing a kind of core recruited from the Vietnamese, primarily from national minorities, "partisan" and "anti-guerrilla "forces.
President John Kennedy was created in 1961 year (although their formation began in 1960 year, before Kennedy took the oath), seven more special-purpose groups, first 7, whose main area of responsibility was Latin America, 1-th stationed on Okinawa and 5 for which South Vietnam has become the main battlefield.
11, 12, 19, and 20 groups that also participated in the Vietnam War were also created. In 1963, 3-th, 6-th and 8-th special-purpose groups were also created who also took part in operations in Vietnam, but subsequently 6-th and 8-th groups were disbanded in 1972.
By the beginning of the 90s, according to the book “Special Forces” by Colonel Stoyan Jovic, the special forces of the US Army were subordinated through the joint special operations command of the USSOCOM directly to the US Joint Chiefs of Staff.
The command of special operations in the army (ground forces) of the USA was entrusted to the SOCOM 1 team, while the planning of operations was carried out by the SOD special operations department, which has departments responsible for planning and conducting operations, as well as for intelligence and counterintelligence work.
Also in their competence was the conduct of psychological warfare, the use of misinformation and similar related tasks.
According to Stoyan Jovic at that time, the SOCOM command 1 was subordinated to five special forces (green berets), responsible for a certain part of the globe, and four groups (two reserves of the US Army and two national guards) were in stock, while 11 th and special purpose groups 12 were disbanded in 1992 year.
Each group of special forces was divided into three battalions of three companies. Green berets acted, as a rule, in groups (Tim "A"), numbering twelve commandos (professional military personnel selected by competition from volunteers of the American army; or highly skilled specialists from the civil sphere and from intelligence agencies). The commandos also acted as instructors and advisers to local formations (One group "A" led the training and actions of the local fighters 500-600) or independently conducted military operations.
The company of the "green berets", respectively, was deployed in the team "B" (in Vietnam it operated in the area of the corps), consisting, in turn, of six groups "A".
One tim "B" could train a military unit of three or four thousand local "allies", acting in the area of responsibility of the army corps.
Since almost all commandos had ten years of service in the armed forces, and often in combat conditions, and among them were many people from those nations, among whom this group of "green berets" should act, they could establish control on a given, ensuring the actions of the American army.
Finally, SOCOM also had psychological warfare forces - four groups (one - active, three - in reserve) and forces for administration in the occupied territories (including police work), and there was also a special-purpose helicopter brigade.
The SOCOM command then had an ISA reconnaissance group consisting of special agents providing special forces and subordinated to the INSCOM (intelligence service of special forces), which ensured the efficiency of work on the ground and so from the special services and military personnel of the "green berets" to perform tasks in Central America in the XNUMH years, the operational group "Yellow Fruit" was created.
An important role in the actions of the command of special operations of the United States and the detachment played "Delta".
This detachment was created by Colonel Charlie Beckwith on the model of the British special forces "SAS" and was designed to combat terrorism around the world, with the support of all types of US forces.
True, their first use in 1980 in Iran was unsuccessful, because during the operation of Eagle Claw the pilots of the helicopters and airplanes who landed them at the place of the alleged start of the operation were not prepared and after the crashes that had taken place, the squadron was evacuated.
Later, the detachment took part in a number of operations, and one of the most significant of them was the operation in Somalia carried out by the tasks assigned by the US Central Command as part of Operation Continue Hope (Continued Hope), which was to supply and support the activities of the UN peacekeeping mission UNASOM-2.
For the United States at that time, the main obstacle was at that time the largest armed group of Somalia - the militia of General Mohammed Farah Aidid, who relied on his influential clan Khabar-Gidir. General Aidid had by this time enlisted the support of the Islamic world, including a number of leaders of Islamic fundamentalist organizations, primarily Osama Bin Laden, some militants of which were then in Somalia, including Mohamed Atef, who was later killed in Afghanistan.
General Aidid only formally signed a truce, but did not keep it, and moreover, he turned to attacks on UN peacekeeping troops.
On June 5, his police attacked Pakistani peacekeepers, killing twenty-four of them and their bodies dragged through the streets of Mogadishu, and skin was torn from other of them. The UN Security Council the next day adopted Resolution 837, in which it demanded the arrest and trial of those responsible for violence against UN peacekeepers.
July 12 AH-1 "Cobra" attack helicopters struck the house, where General Aidid was to meet with representatives of his Khabar-Gidir clan. The attack resulted in the death of a member of the clan 73. The five western journalists who were in this place were lynched, and only one managed to escape.
After that, the US special forces conducted five raids to search for and arrest the members of the police General Aidid. The Americans conducted their operations at the request of the representative of the UN Secretary General in Somalia, American Jonathan Hove, who replaced Iraqi Ismat Kitani in March 1993 and a former hardliner and, accordingly, wanted to arrest General Aidid.
3 and 4 October was the sixth raid of the American troops to search for General Aidid, known as "The first battle for Mogadishu." The US Special Forces contingent under the command of Major General William Harrison took part in this raid. The grouping consisted of military personnel of the 1 th operational division of special forces (Delta group), the 2 squadron of the 3 battalion of the 75 regiment of US rangers, the 160 th special-purpose aviation regiment (19 of MH-60 transport helicopters " Black Hawk "and MH-6" Little bird "fire support helicopters), the" 6 team "of the US Navy Special Forces (US Navy SEALs), as well as the group of aircraft gunners of the USAF. The purpose of the operation was to capture General Aidid’s headquarters in central Mogadishu so that the Americans went to the operation without armored vehicles during the daytime.
Aircraft also conducted reconnaissance aviation US Navy R-3A and reconnaissance helicopters OH-58. An assault force of 160 soldiers and officers in MH-60 Black Hawk helicopters, with air support, landed at the Aidid headquarters in Mogadishu, arresting two of his assistants, Omar Salad and Mohamed Hassan Ovale. However, during the operation, two Black Hawk helicopters were shot down from grenade launchers, with one pilot Michael Durant being taken prisoner, and three more helicopters sustained severe injuries. The advancement of the ground group on Hummer vehicles was complicated by both the resistance of the Aidid fighters and the local population, who built barricades of stones and burning tires on the way of movement, and one truck was hit.
The paratroopers from both downed helicopters, among which were wounded, remained cut off. When another ground group reached one of the groups, it was cut off in the area, and at nightfall, it took up defenses in neighboring buildings, taking local Somalis hostage. Due to poor coordination, inexperienced Rangers fired at their Delta colleagues.
Somali militants under the command of Colonel Sharif Hassan Jiumale began to fire mortars at Americans. Another group of paratroopers, including two detachment snipers who took up positions on the roofs of the building, was discovered by Aydid militants and destroyed. The next morning, the mechanized group of the UNASOM-2 peacekeeping force, which included units of the American 10th Mountain Division (2nd battalion of the 14th regiment and 1st platoon of the 1st battalion of the 87th regiment), Pakistani units (15th battalion border regiment and the 10th battalion of the "Beams" regiment) and the Malaysian (19th battalion of the Royal Malay regiment) contingent, made its way to the besieged Americans. Armored vehicles were represented only by Pakistani tanks M-48 and Malaysian APCs Condor. The group lost two Americans and one Malaysian killed and evacuated the Americans to a Pakistani peacekeeping base. Two days later, the Somali militants of Aidid launched a mortar attack on the Americans at this base, killing one and injuring 12 people.
In total, in that 3-4 operation in October 1993, the Americans lost 18 people to the dead and 73 to the wounded, one prisoner (later exchanged). A Malaysian soldier was also killed, and 7 Malaysians and Pakistanis were injured. General Aidid’s militia lost up to half a thousand dead, but some of them were civilians living in these quarters.
As a result, US President Bill Clinton ordered the then Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, David Jeremiah, to stop all operations. Then Clinton proclaimed that the American troops leave Somalia no later than 31 in March of 1994. US Secretary of Defense Les Aspin 15 December resigned. In Somalia, there are only about a thousand people left from the US military and civilian personnel under the protection of the UN peacekeeping forces, only Air Force and Navy aviation continued to support the peacekeepers. To ensure the complete evacuation of the Americans, a battalion of the 24 Infantry Division of the US Army was sent to Mogadishu, and by March 1994, the Americans were completely evacuated from Somalia.
During the war in the former Yugoslavia, the Green Beret servicemen took part in the 1994-95 years in the training of units of the Croatian army under the guise of the Private Military Company MPRI.
So the attack on the positions of the Serbs in the Republic of Serbian Krajina in Croatia was already developed directly by the US military advisers of the American private military company MPRI ("Military Professional Resources Inc.").
Last in September 1994 of the year, according to an article by the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists published by The International Consortium of Investigative Journalists, published on the Privatizing Combat, the New World Order, was awarded a contract by the US government to the training of the Croatian army and at the same time the same contract with the US government received for training the army of Bosnia and Herzegovina
During hostilities in Croatia and in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1994-95, MPRI performed the task in the interests of the US government and through General John Seval, the military adviser to the US Secretary of State Voren Christopher, she received direct instructions from President Bill Clinton.
Created by the company in the General Staff of the Croatian Army, the Command, Control and Coordination Center and the Intelligence Processing Center participated in both operational and intelligence work of the Croatian General Staff, and also ensured close cooperation between the Croatian and US intelligence agencies, including including in the area of tapping conversations between the Yugoslav and Russian sides, and supplied the Croatian headquarters with data about the Serbian troops.
The company MPRI has also provided Croatian headquarters with data from both US military satellites and unmanned aerial vehicles of the American army installed on the island of Brac
At the same time, MPRI sent its groups of instructors-MTT (Mobil Traning Team - mobile training groups), to the operating units and subunits of the Croatian army, first of all, to the composition of special forces and guards units of the Croatian army and just among these instructors soldiers of the "green berets".
The United States special forces did not directly participate in the hostilities in Bosnia, because the United States refused to send troops to NATO ground forces participating in operations against Serbian forces in August-September 1995.
The only case of combat use of US units during the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina was the operation to rescue the pilot of the F-16 American fighter Fighting Falcon on the 512 fighter squadron of the US Air Force shot down by the Serb self-propelled Cube against Myrkonich-2 June 1995.
The pilot of the plane Scott O'Grady, descending by parachute, was noticed by the Serbs, but while they reported to the headquarters the pilot managed to escape and 8 June was successfully evacuated by the search and rescue team of the United States Marine Corps (TRAP-Tactical Recovery of Aircraft and Personel Team). ) taken off from an aircraft carrier in the Adriatic.
After making peace in November 1995 at the Dayton airbase in the United States, the United States Special Forces conducted active propaganda activities against the “enemies of the Dayton Treaty”. According to the book “Bosnian Front of Gloom (America in the Balkans)” by Dragan Jamic, the American command was especially active, using the 4 group of psychological special-purpose operations as well as the 193-th special purpose squadron of the US Air Force to counter-propagate. From the latter, according to Jamic, after the war, three EU-130 F “Command Solo” aircraft were allocated to support the operations of American troops in Bosnia and Herzegovina. These aircraft, created on the basis of military transport aircraft C-130, were tested by the American army in Panama, Haiti, and in the Persian Gulf and served for the psychological treatment of the population.
Also, to participate in peacekeeping operations in Bosnia and Herzegovina as part of the American contingent of international security forces IFOR, the US command used the Delta squadron.
In Bosnia and Herzegovina, a detachment was used to arrest suspected military offenders at the request of the International Tribunal in The Hague.
True, the arrests they carried out among the local war crimes suspects could well have been carried out by the usual units of the Italian Carabinieri, which the latter did with success.
The search for and arrests of those accused by the International Tribunal in The Hague were by no means Hollywood-style “militants”, but rather “dramas” in the spirit of the “Latin American series”. Certain forces in the West used the activities of the Tribunal for their own purposes, including in the creation of a unified Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The documents obtained under international pressure and the threat of economic sightings were transferred from the International Tribunal in The Hague to the Supreme Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina for war crimes and to the prosecutor’s office for war crimes in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Thus, an effective lever was obtained for managing society in the interests of the "international" community.
This is not surprising that the Americans were playing their own game, and so according to the Yugoslav Contradictions document published in 2008 for five years by a group of international experts, the American command in Bosnia and Herzegovina impeded the work of the International Tribunal in The Hague in Bosnia and Herzegovina for years. "examples from the case report were given when the US military command consciously avoided arresting suspects.
Important role played in the activities of US special forces in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the task of combating the influence of Iran on the Government of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which began to break out of control of the United States.
Back in 1993, the Bosnian special services were sent for retraining to Iran at the “center” of the Kods division of the Iranian Revolutionary Guard.
According to the documents announced in the 60 Minutes program from 14 December 2009, the state-owned television company FTV itself has been trained since the end of 1993 to the beginning of 1995, thirteen people.
It is obvious that the creation of an influential network of agents in Bosnia and Herzegovina by Iranians clearly went beyond the framework of the agreement between Iran and the United States, and because of this the IFOR international security forces raid in February 1996 of the year in the Pogorelitsa Revolutionary Guard camp, with the arrest of several Iranian instructors.
The creation of this special training camp was supervised by the then Minister of Internal Affairs of Bosnia and Herzegovina Bakir Alispahich, the head of military security of the army of Bosnia and Herzegovina Enver Muezinovic, and the head of the AID (Muslim special service, later dissolved) Kemal Ademovic. It was suggested that for the failure (or surrender) of the Pogorelitsa camp paid 28 September 1996 with the life of Nejad Uglen, the then deputy chief of the AID, who was suspected of being too closely connected to the CIA under unexplained circumstances.
An important role was played in Bosnia and Herzegovina and units of the British special forces SAS.
British special forces - SAS were created by Scottish officer David Stirling in 1941 in North Africa and were operatively subordinated to the British special service Mi-6 (or SIS).
Under her leadership, SAS forces organized guerrilla groups and conducted reconnaissance and sabotage activities in the German-occupied territories of Libya and Egypt, and then in Italy and France, and also participated in separate sabotage operations on other sectors of the front, in particular in Norway.
Towards the end of World War II, they participated in suppressing the movement of communist partisans in Greece, and after the end of World War II, Britain used them to suppress partisans in Malaya and Borneo and then in Ulster and in other areas of British interests.
By the beginning of the Yugoslav war, the army’s special forces (SAS command) consisted of three regiments: the 22, and the 21 and 23, the reserve regiments.
In addition, there were also special forces of the Navy (SBS command) from one squadron.
The SAS regiment consisted of four squadrons and support units, and squadrons of four platoons (each had four groups of four) assault, mountain, parachute, and sea. The SAS and SBS commandos were selected from volunteers and, as a rule, from the parachute regiment (the one carrying out reconnaissance and sabotage tasks) and the marines. In their composition were foreigners.
These forces later took an active part in the Yugoslav war itself, both as part of the "peacekeeping" troops and as part of the NATO rapid reaction forces created in 1995 for strikes against the Serbs.
Thus, in particular, they induced laser-guided guided bombs on the positions of Serbian forces near Gorazde in April 1994, losing one killed and several wounded from small-arms Serbs.
The British SAS played a key role in the operations of the UN peacekeeping forces and because the commander of these forces was British General Michael Rose who was the former commander of the 22 regiment.
We can assume, given that this regiment played a key role in the "foreign" operations of British intelligence MI-5, that this fact predetermined the appointment of Michael Rose to this position, which additional evidence was played by the veterans of this regiment in post-war Bosnia and Herzegovina, indeed, throughout the former Yugoslavia, controlling a wide range of political and economic projects, from the oil and gas sector to demining and recruiting candidates for private military companies in Iraq and Afghanistan.
After the war, in the international security forces of IFOR, British special forces participated in the search and arrest of persons accused of war crimes by the International Tribunal in The Hague and, in particular, in July 1998 was arrested in Predor by doctor Milana Kovacevic and in an attempt to resist, Predor was killed in an attempt to resist Simo Dirlyachu, who managed to hurt one of them.
Since the beginning of the Kosovo war in 1998, the 10 Special Operations Group of the US Special Operations Command - USSOCOM carried out, according to the Serbian special services, the training of Albanian militants in Albania.
With the start of airstrikes on Yugoslavia, this group took part in the fighting, transferring to
the territory of Kosovo and Metohija by the forces of the 325 th air group.
The AFSOC 325 Air Group, using both bases in Albania and the Brindisi and Vicenza air bases in Italy, ensured the transfer to Kosovo’s internal front of both UCH militants and Western special forces and US Special Forces groups that commanded UCH groups, coordinated actions UCHK with NATO aircraft and target designation for NATO aircraft ground targets.
The command of the special forces of the US Air Force to participate in the operation transferred the AU-130H aircraft which, according to the book "NATO-Air Force Aggression and Air Defense in Defense of the Fatherland," of the former Yugoslav Air Force commander General Spasvo Smiljanich used in areas of Kosovo and Metohija where the air defense was depressed or absent.
For the transfer of personnel and cargo deep into the territory of Kosovo and Metohija, a number of types of special airplanes and helicopters were used for low night flights with a reduced intrinsic noise level — MS — 130 E, MH-53, MH-47 E, MH — 60 K.
The US Special Forces in conjunction with the unit of special forces of Great Britain was mainly involved in the use of laser-powered anti-aircraft missiles aimed from the ground.
This made it possible to provide direct fire support to the forces of the Albanian UCHK during the operations of the Yugoslav army.
By destroying single targets in the form of tanks, armored personnel carriers and trucks, the forces of the special forces of the USA and Great Britain compensated for the superiority of the army of Yugoslavia over the UCH.
Thus, the task of the special forces was not to organize ambushes and capture "languages", as it appeared in the Hollywood films, which after the end of the war and the overthrow of Milosevic over time began to dominate the psychology of a number of military and civilian officials of Serbian security agencies, with laser seeker) using laser designators, installing radar beacons and ensuring the operation of various electronic reconnaissance systems.
Under these conditions, the special forces of the British and American troops entered into direct fire contact, and there was no such contact if the units of the Yugoslav army were able to find bases where, in addition to the UCH units, they also had US special forces or British special forces.
It was very rare and only two cases of similar clashes in Kosovo and Metohija were known, while the case of the capture of three American servicemen captured took place in neighboring Macedonia, which refers to the area of special operations already on the Serbian side.
After the withdrawal of the army of Yugoslavia from the territory of Kosovo and Metohija and its occupation by the international security forces KFOR, the special forces of the USA retained their important role in the conduct of the so-called civil-military operations - “Civil-Military Operations” when according to which the US military forces together with civilian organizations “Peacekeeping” activities in the framework of cooperation between the US army, NATO and the UN - the so-called CIMIC (civil-military cooperation).
The headquarters of KFOR in the framework of these operations ensured the synchronization of actions of civil organizations and multinational brigades, according to the NATO-OPLAN 31402 plan.
This plan as Larry Wentz writes in his book Lessons from Kosovo-Experience of KFOR obliged KFOR forces to support the actions of the UNMIK administration In the field of construction, humanitarian aid, civil administration and economic reconstruction. So in each sector (multinational brigade) weekly meetings were held on security issues-JSC (Joint Security Committee) of KFOR and UNMIK representatives.
Support also had to be enjoyed by all international organizations - IO (international organizations) and NGOs (non-governmental organizations) so that the representatives of: UNHCR, UN Civil Administration, OSCE (Organization for Organization and Cooperation in Europe) and the EU had the priority.
The US Army in this case attracted from the composition of the command of civil administration and psychological operations - USACAPOC (US Army Civil Affairs and Psychological) the so-called civilian administration battalions (civil affairs) and psychological operations battalions - PSYOP.
Even during the Kosovo war, in the headquarters of the ARRC, as in the KFOR headquarters of the first rotation, according to the book “Lessons from Kosovo - the KFOR experience” by Larry Wentz, there are more than two dozen officers of the civil administration command - US Operational Civil Affairs Presence; constantly decreased.
Representatives of this command, in addition to supporting the headquarters of the command in the United States, also had support for the special operations command in Europe - SOCEUR (Special Operations Command, Europe) in Stuttgart in Germany.
After entering KFOR forces in the East sector, according to Larry Wentz, the 411 and 443 civilian administration battalions (civil affairs) of the US Army reserve and 315 company of psychological operations PSYOP of the US Army reserve acted.
According to Christopher Holshek's “Operational Art of Civil-Military Operations: The Operational Art of Civil Defense: Christopher Holshek” from the book “Lessons with Kosovo-Experience of KFOR” by Larry Wentz in September 2000, there existed in Kosovo 650 of various international organizations, including non-governmental - NGO (nongovernmental) and “volunteer” - PVO (private voluntary organizations)
The 411 commander of the “civil administration” battalion - Civil Affairs, according to Christopher Kolsek, considered in the summer of 2000 that CMO operations should be part of the military planning process.
In this case, according to the American doctrine of the use of special forces, such operations should be carried out both to support the troops and to support the political processes in the civilian environment.
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