Military Review

West against the Russians: the uprising of the Czechoslovak Corps. Part of 2

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West against the Russians: the uprising of the Czechoslovak Corps. Part of 2

In the autumn of 1917, the Czechoslovak Corps was located on the re-formation in the rear of the South-Western Front on the territory of Ukraine. After the October Revolution, the leadership of the Czechoslovak National Council declared the unconditional support of the Provisional Government and concluded an agreement with the command of the Kiev Military District and the South-Western Front on the use of Czechoslovak connections. On the one hand, the Czechoslovak leadership reported non-intervention of the corps into an armed struggle inside Russia on the side of any political group, on the other hand, the desire was declared “to help by all means preserve everything that contributes to the continuation of the war against our enemy - Austro-Germans”. This led to the fact that already at the end of October the Czechoslovak units, together with the junkers of the Kiev military schools, fought with the workers and soldiers - supporters of the Kiev Soviet.


The Czechoslovak National Council began to ask the French government to recognize all Czechoslovak units as part of the French army. Tomash Garrigue Masaryk did a lot of work to create the structures of the future independent Czechoslovakia and in 1917 he established contacts with almost all the “leaders” of the February revolution. In December 1917, the corps was declared an autonomous part of the French army. The French government issued a decree on the organization of an autonomous Czechoslovak army in France. Financially, the Czechoslovak Corps depended on France and the Entente. Thus, external forces interested in the collapse of the Russian statehood got into their hands a powerful military unit on the territory of Russia. And as the Russian armed forces collapsed, its value only increased.

The Czechoslovak National Council initially abstained from any action against the Soviet government. The corps refused to help the Central Rada against the Soviet troops. In February, 1918, Masaryk concluded an agreement on neutrality with M. A. Muravyov, the commander of the Soviet forces advancing on Kiev. The Soviet government as a whole did not object to the departure of Czechoslovak units to France. In the Czechoslovak parts even allowed Soviet agitation. But the result was insignificant - only a small group left the corps and joined the international brigades of the Red Army. There were ideas to use the Czechoslovak Corps in the Don area, where the generals M. V. Alekseev and L. G. Kornilov, as well as one of the leaders of the liberals, P. N. Milyukov, wanted to transfer to Czechoslovakia. The corps was to create the conditions necessary to protect the Don from the red forces and the organization of the Volunteer Army. At the same time, Masaryk established close ties with a number of revolutionary leaders. Russian officers were gradually removed from command positions.

The shortest and most optimal way to evacuate the corps was through Arkhangelsk and Murmansk. However, it was abandoned, allegedly because of fear of the German underwater fleet. They decided to send the Czechoslovak legionnaires a longer way - along the Trans-Siberian Railway to Vladivostok, and from there through the Pacific Ocean to France. When the Brest Peace was signed in March 1918 and German-Austrian troops began to enter Ukrainian territory, the Czechoslovak Corps retreated through Kiev to the Penza region. March 26, 1918 in Penza, representatives of the Soviet government (Stalin) and the Czechoslovak National Council, the Czechoslovak Corps signed an agreement on the unhindered sending of corps from Penza to Vladivostok. The Czechoslovak corps was supposed to move not as a single combat unit, which violated the sovereignty of Soviet Russia, but divided into groups of free citizens with a certain number of weapons for self defense. The Soviet government promised the Czechoslovak every assistance on its territory, with their loyalty. March 27 in the order for the body was reported on the number of weapons for self-defense: in each echelon formed an armed company of 168 people with one machine gun, for each rifle 300 charges were allowed, on the machine gun 1200 charges. The rest of the weapons surrendered to a special commission. The artillery park was mainly transferred to the Red Army when the corps was transferred from Ukraine to Russia.

The terms of this agreement are quite clear. The Soviet government did not want to have an armed unit on its territory, which was subordinated to external forces. At the same time, they didn’t want to spoil relations with their former allies, all conditions were created for the peaceful evacuation of a military unit. However, the withdrawal of the Czechoslovak Corps from Russia did not suit either certain external forces or the internal “fifth column” that Trotsky represented. They needed a full-scale civil war in Russia, and not a quick establishment of Soviet statehood, which inherits all the major achievements of the Russian Empire. It is also necessary the fate and the fact that by the time of the uprising of the Czechoslovak Corps, let me remind you - he was completely dependent on France and the Entente, the Western powers had already made a decision in principle to support anti-Bolshevik forces and intervention. At the end of November 1917, the meeting of the heads of government of Great Britain, France and Italy recognized the Transcaucasian governments. On December 22, a conference of representatives of the Entente countries in Paris decided to maintain contacts with the anti-Bolshevik governments of Ukraine, the Cossack regions, Siberia, the Caucasus and Finland. And also to support them from the financial side. December 23 an agreement was reached between France and England on the division of spheres of influence in Russia. In March, 1918, the British landing force drove in Murmansk. Planned seizure and other strategic ports.

By the end of May 1918, the Czechoslovak Corps connections stretched from Penza to Vladivostok: in the Penza-Syzran-Samara areas, 8-thousand were located. Chechek grouping; in the area of ​​Chelyabinsk - Miass - 9 thousand Wojciechowski group; Novonikolayevsk - Art. Taiga - 4,5 thousand Guyda squad; in Vladivostok - 14 thousand grouping under the authority of Diterikhs. In addition, the Czech troops were located in the area of ​​Petropavlovsk - Kurgan - Omsk. The moment was perfect for rebellion. The Czechoslovak Corps occupied the most important strategic communication linking the European part of Russia with Siberia and the Far East. In fact, it was one artery through the entire vast expanse of Siberia. Czechoslovak troops stood in the most important cities of Russia - from the Volga to the Pacific Ocean. At this point, the Czechoslovak Corps was almost the only combat-ready force in Russia, its strength reached 50 thousand bayonets. By the summer of 1918, the former royal army had already completely decayed and collapsed. The Red Army was just being formed and its combat capability was low. The White Army was in its infancy. We should not forget about the plans of the interventionists in the division of Russia. The United States and the “financial international” drew to Siberia with Transsib. After the Civil War, with the complete suppression of the Russian resistance, Siberia and the Siberian Railway were supposed to be prizes of the American financial oligarchy. And the Czechoslovak Corps was assigned the role of security and punitive tools. Therefore, he and evacuated only after it became clear that Soviet Russia survived.


Czechoslovakia in Samara.

But for the uprising needed a provocation. On the whole, the Czechs wanted to get to Europe without lingering in Russia. This provocation was quickly invented. If the trains were moving east with the Czechoslovakians, then German and Hungarian prisoners from East Siberia were carried west. And to put it mildly they did not like each other. Hungarians and Germans rightly considered the Czechs as traitors, and the Czechs - the Germans and Hungarians, the oppressors. Moreover, the Germans and Hungarians were given the "green light", their trains were allowed in the first place, the Czechs were driven into dead ends, they stood idle on the siding. People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs Chicherin, at the suggestion of the German ambassador Mirbach, even sent a telegram to the Krasnoyarsk Soviet to suspend the further movement of the Czechoslovak trains to the east.

Skirmishes between the Czechs and the Red Guards, with former German-Hungarian prisoners of war joined them. In Chelyabinsk, the Czechs, freeing their arrested comrades, disarmed the local Red Guard detachment and seized an arsenal with 2800 rifles and an artillery battery. The order of Lev Trotsky from 25 May immediately followed, which became the reason for the large-scale uprising: “Every Czechoslovakia who are found armed on the railway line must be shot on the spot, every train that at least one armed person will be thrown out of cars and imprisoned in a camp for prisoners of war. " The order is called "unreasoned and short-sighted," but given the role of Trotsky in the Revolution in Russia, his relationship with the world "financial international", as well as his highly sophisticated mind, this is clearly not a mistake. This order was a conscious provocation. Trotsky was a conductor of the interests of the "world behind the scenes" and fulfilled their order. In Russia, it was necessary to kindle a full-scale civil war that would bleed the Russian people and throw it to the side of the world historical process. The Russians themselves "pulled" the beginning of the war, all conflicts, insurrections, uprisings were insignificant, did not lead to much blood. It was necessary to "help".

The 16-20 of May also hosted a congress of Czechoslovak military delegates in Chelyabinsk, which established the Provisional Executive Committee of the congress of the Czechoslovak army, which included Chechek, Gayda, Voitsekhovsky and Pavel. Czechoslovak delegates came against the surrender of weapons (three rearguard regiments in the Penza region had not yet surrendered their weapons), they took the position of a break with the Soviet government and following “their own order” to Vladivostok. The Provisional Committee sent an order to all echelons and formations: “Do not surrender the weapons anywhere to the Soviets, do not cause any clashes, but in the event of an attack, defend yourself, and continue eastward by your own order.” Clashes broke out between the Red Guard detachments, which tried to disarm the legionaries, and the Czechoslovakians. The Czechoslovak Corps defeated the Red Guard detachments and captured several cities. On June 8, in Samara captured by the Czechoslovakia, the first anti-Bolshevik government was created - the Committee of the members of the constituent assembly (Komuch), and on June 23 - the Provisional Siberian Government was established in Omsk. Thus, the uprising of the Czechoslovak Corps marked the beginning of the creation of anti-Bolshevik governments throughout Russia. Trotsky's provocation was a success. The Civil War flared up throughout Russia.

It should be noted that after the uprising, the corps could easily proceed to Vladivostok on its thousands of cars with loot. The Red Army simply did not have the strength to stop this mass of troops. However, they remained. Their owners needed the Czechoslovak Corps to remain on the Trans-Siberian Railway. As a result, the Czechs "went home" for three years. We must not forget the fact of the supply of the Czechoslovak Corps (actually already the army). We remember that the White armies constantly experienced difficulties with the supply of weapons, ammunition, ammunition, etc. The Czechs did not have such problems, because de facto they were the expeditionary force of the Entente and the USA in Russia. They even put the latest American armored train, with which they completely blocked the Trans-Siberian Railway. Therefore, the white parts of Kolchak were forced to retreat along the taiga, not the road. They had no chance against Czech power - the latest armored trains with rapid-fire cannons on rotating towers. To fight such monsters, long-range artillery was needed, which the whites did not have.



The Czechoslovak Corps itself gradually emerged from the front ranks of the opponents of the Soviet regime, and in the fall of 1918, Czechoslovak units began to be relegated to the rear. At the same time, the corps continued to control the Trans-Siberian Railway and completely left the territory of Russia only in 1920. The actual owners of Transsib were beaten by representatives of the Entente. It should also be noted that the Czechoslovak Corps became an instrument of pressure on the Kolchak army and the Czechoslovak forces played an extremely unattractive role. The time of the retreat of Kolchak troops from Western Siberia to the east at the end of 1919 - the beginning of 1920. They interfered with the retreat of the white troops, occupying the railroad, and gave Kolchak a massacre. Without the Trans-Siberian Railway, Kolchak's army was isolated without any prospect, losing the opportunity for maneuver. In addition, the Czechoslovakians "distinguished themselves" in the plunder of Russia, even during the indiscriminate flight of the civilian population to the east, they managed to take away locomotives, fuel and property from refugees. Given the harsh winter conditions, on their conscience thousands of people who died from the cold. In addition, the corps received a share of the gold reserves of the Russian Empire, apparently, as a reward for its role in the unleashing and during the Civil War in Russia. This gold and the valuables stolen in Russia became the basis of the “independent” Czechoslovak state created on the ruins of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

Unfortunately, about this unsightly and bloody page stories The civil war in Russia is now almost forgotten. Since 2000-s in Russia there have been several events aimed at perpetuating the memory of the Czechoslovak Corps, sticking out its role in the struggle against the Central Powers and the Bolsheviks. The history of the Czechoslovak Corps is described in positive colors. The memory of the corps as an instrument of the western invaders and interventionists is being lost. Monuments to Czechoslovak legionnaires, actually invaders invaders, opened in Krasnoyarsk, Buzuluk, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Tagil, Chelyabinsk. The Czech Ministry of Defense plans to supply and upgrade several dozen monuments to Czechoslovak legionaries who fell in Russia in the battles of the First World and Civil War. We see a similar loss of historical memory in relation to the Great Patriotic War: memorable signs to German, Hungarian and other enemies are increasingly appearing on the territory of Russia.

Looting of the Czechs. According to the general of the Kolchak army, Konstantin Sakharov, “Czech legions in Siberia. Czech betrayal "

The biggest trophy of Czech compounds is part of the empire's gold reserve, 414 million. 254 thousand gold rubles. It was a huge sum for those times. In particular, J. Schiff gave Trotsky a revolution 20 million dollars. During the seizure of cities, the Czechoslovakians plundered everything that came to hand. They carried away literally everything, from medicines to books and objects of art. For three years and such a robbery, the Czechoslovak army has accumulated enormous wealth. Some drugs were robbed on 3 million gold rubles, and rubber on 40 million rubles gold. The Czechs seized 20 thousand cars and many locomotives, where they kept their wealth. They even beat off one car with gold rubles from the whites and another 8 million rubles in gold from General Sketpetrov when they attacked his train in Irkutsk. And before leaving Irkutsk, they gutted the building of the state bank, taking away all the machines printing money. On the way to Vladivostok, banknotes were printed all the way.

As a wild horde of Czechoslovakia robbed all the trains along the way. Locomotives were taken in their favor. As a result, all railway traffic in Siberia was paralyzed. Russian trains with the wounded, children, women could not move from the Czech corps. The winter of the year, 1918, was approaching, and they could not get anywhere, as did warm clothing, food and medicine. As a result, tens of thousands of Russians, hungry, robbed, half-dressed, sick and wounded, were left to die along the railroad.

The Czechs considered themselves to be full masters of the situation in Siberia. In Khabarovsk, they grabbed a German orchestra and whipped it. When the Russians wanted to reason with them, saying that the Germans were here from the Red Cross, they were asked to shut up until they were shot. German musicians were asked: "Who wants to be a Czech?" In response, silence. All Germans were shot. Such incidents were commonplace. Therefore, the Russians hated the Czechs, called them "Czechs". Before sailing to the Czech general Syrov, commander of the Czech army, soldiers and commanders of the Izhevsk and Votkinsk regiments sent 30 silver coins, "thirty pieces of silver, as the price for blood and treason."

Former half-starved Czech prisoners of war returned to the Czech Republic heroes. They were simply overloaded with various jewels, gold, silver, objects of art. Calculate the damage that the Czechoslovak Corps brought to Russia is impossible. These are many hundreds and hundreds of millions of rubles in gold, even without a part of the imperial gold reserve. With these enormous riches, the Czechoslovak legionaries established their own vault bank, where there were safes for all legionnaires. The building consisted of several massive buildings with numerous steel safes. Its initial capital amounted to 70 million kroons in gold. These are the “heroes” in modern Russia who began to erect monuments.
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  1. valokordin
    valokordin 21 June 2013 10: 26
    +4
    Ah, brothers, Slavs, with the devastation and confusion, these Czechoslovakians plundered, made an effort, and that, as always happens, as in the 90s, and now some of those chosen by God have also come up. Saint Joseph was right that he pressed them to the nail like bugs, regardless of their nationality.
  2. v1128069
    v1128069 21 June 2013 11: 06
    +1
    I agree with the specified article. I myself am from Chelyabinsk and I remember how we (near the railway station) erected a monument to the Czechoslovak legionaries who died during the Czech uprising). The Czech delegation came to this event. In addition, many are unaware of the following fact: during the departure of the A-319 aircraft of the Czech presidential squad, the plane crash almost happened, on a scale equivalent to Smolenskaya — all computers on board refused to take off (all 5 - if not wrong), responsible for the aircraft control system. If it had happened after the entry, it’s scary to even imagine what would have happened. At least the crew looked pretty scared, even the next day. The delegation was sent to the Czech Republic on the same day by another side. This fact is known to me by the fact that the circumstances of this incident became known to me upon arrival on duty at Balandino airport, as a senior task force.
    1. Denis
      Denis 21 June 2013 16: 36
      +2
      Quote: v1128069
      scary to even imagine what would happen.
      Did the accident near Smolensk scare anyone?
  3. pensioner
    pensioner 21 June 2013 11: 18
    +3
    Quote: v1128069
    there was almost a plane crash, on a scale equivalent to Smolenskaya — the take-off of the plane resulted in the failure of all computers on board (all 5 — if I'm not mistaken) responsible for the aircraft’s control system. If it had happened after the entry, it’s scary to even imagine what would have happened.


    Why "Scary"? Not scary...
  4. pensioner
    pensioner 21 June 2013 11: 20
    +3
    My grandfather in Yekaterinburg barely blew his feet from the whites. He escaped to the underworld.
  5. v1128069
    v1128069 21 June 2013 11: 40
    +5
    I want to note one fact. A month before these events, while on duty at the airport, I spoke with the commander of the passenger side of the Czech airline, who landed in Chelyabinsk due to the closure of Koltsovo Airport (fog). This commander spoke fluently in Russian, and was quite friendly in communication — in short, a normal man — he recalled the times of the Soviet Union. Communication with the crew of the presidential board was reminiscent of interrogation of Germans from partisans in captivity - from the first moment it was announced that they did not know the Russian language only through an interpreter, and in general there was an unmotivated hostility in communication, and one form of the Czech Air Force was essentially similar to the Luftwaffe of the times of World War II what it was worth. In short, the impressions of communicating with these NATO members are extremely unpleasant.
  6. Pelican
    Pelican 21 June 2013 11: 55
    +1
    The armored train in the photo is curious. Ready-made armored modules were installed on ordinary platforms, and it turned out well!
  7. pinecone
    pinecone 21 June 2013 12: 44
    +1
    It is unclear why the author called the mutiny "uprising". To make it more "politically correct"?
  8. velikoros-xnumx
    velikoros-xnumx 21 June 2013 16: 14
    +1
    The author plus for the article. I learned a lot about the White Bohemian rebellion, to be honest, the article laid out the confusion in the head about this rebellion
  9. Denis
    Denis 21 June 2013 16: 43
    +3
    The shortest and most optimal way to evacuate the corps was through Arkhangelsk and Murmansk. However, it was abandoned, allegedly because of fear of the German submarine fleet
    Yes, brave guys
    But they didn’t confuse the 1st from the 2nd World War?
    It should be noted that already after the uprising the corps could safely proceed to Vladivostok on its thousands of wagons with looted goods. The Red Army simply did not have the strength to stop this mass of troops. However, they stayed. Their owners needed the Czechoslovak Corps to remain on the Trans-Siberian
    And after this and labor for the benefit of the Wehrmacht, they are yapping something about the Prague spring?
    There is also a version that they could have hidden Kolchak's gold
    1. Alex
      Alex 9 September 2013 15: 25
      +2
      There is also a version that they could have hidden Kolchak's gold

      I think they hid it. There was no one else like.
  10. Motors1991
    Motors1991 21 June 2013 18: 29
    +2
    I always said and say little was given to them in 1968, only 100 killed and 500 wounded. The author forgot to add that, due to the Czechs' betrayal, the three Kolchak armies had to make their way through the taiga all winter on impassability. At the end of November they entered from Zima station went to the taiga and in the beginning of March in the Chita region. What it cost only God knows. Not a single woman, not a single child (and the whites were retreating with their families and refugees) survived. Nearly fifteen thousand people came out under Chita. Was not in the White Emigration movement higher rank - kappelevets. Commanded by the united army and V.O.Kappel, who died during the campaign from time to legkih.Kto inflammation visited in the winter in Siberia, can appreciate the transition appreciated.
    1. Denis
      Denis 21 June 2013 23: 07
      +1
      Quote: Motors1991
      Who has been in Siberia in winter can appreciate this transition
      So appreciated
      To the Czech general Syrov, commander of the Czech army, soldiers and commanders of the Izhevsk and Votkinsk regiments sent 30 silver coins, "thirty pieces of silver, as the price of blood and treason."
  11. My address
    My address 21 June 2013 22: 48
    +1
    In Siberia, during and after the Civil War, the Czechoslov hated. They behaved just gangsters. They didn’t shoot, robbed, raped, mocked. Previously wrote about this in comm. to the first part of the rebellion. White was not loved for mobilization, for free mass requisition, but they were hated. Mom told me this from the words of her father, and the village is entirely Old Believers.
  12. pinecone
    pinecone 22 June 2013 06: 23
    +3
    Shaky, reckless people. They changed the Austrian emperor, went over to the Russian tsar, committed atrocities on Russian soil, in 1938 surrendered to Hitler without a fight, then worked hard for Germany, and in 1945. The Germans were massacred.
    1. Lech from ZATULINKI
      Lech from ZATULINKI 22 June 2013 06: 30
      +2
      Yes, there is such a documentary film - the Czechs in a car crush German prisoners (a terrible picture)
    2. datur
      datur 22 June 2013 15: 25
      0
      [quote = pinecone] Shaky, reckless folk. They changed the Austrian emperor, went over to the Russian tsar, committed atrocities on Russian soil, in 1938 surrendered to Hitler without a fight, then worked hard for Germany, and in 1945. the Germans staged a massacre ------- Czechs are good artisans! therefore, they need a violet-pan-Slavic idea — pay money and fly !! they have proven it for centuries !!!
      1. Denis
        Denis 22 June 2013 19: 17
        +1
        Quote: datur
        Czechs are good artisans
        As for the artisans, it is doubtful, and decent people may not understand
        Quote: datur
        pay money and fly
        And that motto resembles the more ancient, they are still with journalists (although the difference between them is not visible) called. the oldest, profession
  13. datur
    datur 22 June 2013 15: 23
    -2
    Czechs are artisans, good !!! - who paid more for that and they work !!! and at all times !!! AND YOU ARE SLAVES, SLAVES !!!! - business, only him !!!!
  14. ia-ai00
    ia-ai00 23 June 2013 08: 02
    0
    Quote: v1128069
    scary to even imagine what would happen.

    Denis (3)
    Did the accident near Smolensk scare anyone?

    I think it was meant here that in case of death of people, they would blame Russia, just as they are trying to blame Russia for the accident near Smolensk.
    1. Denis
      Denis 23 June 2013 19: 41
      +2
      Quote: ia-ai00
      they would blame Russia, just as they are trying to blame Russia for the accident near Smolensk.
      But wouldn’t it be time to give a damn, put, score and other synonyms?
      Only Russia is to blame for these unconventional ones. Some kind of prez-spider offers to apologize, then in French, although the country itself is very easy-going, the documentary speaks about the USSR, accidentally forgetting about Munich, as an ally of Germany, but you never know ...
      The dog barks, the caravan goes
  15. Alex
    Alex 9 September 2013 15: 33
    +2
    I see that nothing comes out of the universal Slavic brotherhood. Czechs - well-known avenues, Poles - they hate us so much, because of the Serbs they plunged into the WWII (we know what came of it), the Bulgarians were brothers while they were fed for free. Now everything is backwards to Russia and the muzzle in NATO. But they do not repent: both Smolensk and Chelyabinsk are not good, they strive to arrange all the dances on the coffins. When will they be forced to apologize and repent before us ??? !!! angry