Military Review

Gulag and our victory

55
Arguing on the site about the reasons for the victory of our people in World War II, most of the authors usually never mention the GULAG. Meanwhile, the latter is directly related to this topic, since it was one of the most important components of this Victory. True, this view can not be called popular among historians. Judging by the publications on the Internet, another prevails among them today, the extreme expression of which is the views of P. Krasnov, who asserts that the gulag prisoners could not make a serious contribution to the economy of the USSR, since they were less than 2% of his labor resources (P. Krasnov. What there was a risk of being in the Gulag // www.rusproject.org/pages/analysis_3/risks_stalin.html).


This statement is at least controversial, because it relies on dubious grounds (like most of its other conclusions). Let us dwell on them in more detail. This figure is obtained from this author as a result of dividing the total number of labor resources of the USSR defined by him (120 million) by the maximum number of prisoners by the beginning of the war. In fact, to determine the economic efficiency of the Gulag, it is necessary to compare the number of prisoners not with the general labor resources of the USSR, but with the number of industrial workers, since the labor of prisoners was used mainly in industry. The negligibly small part of them was engaged in agriculture, and the products they produced were used exclusively for the needs of the Gulag itself.

According to the census 1939 of the year, the working class was then 33, 7% of the population of the USSR, and a third of it was engaged in agriculture (workers of state farms and MTS). Thus, 22,4% remains on industrial workers, that is, approximately 44 million people. The working-age population (16 to 59 years) was then in the USSR 55,5% of its total population (www.mysteriouscountry.ru/wiki/index.php/ USSR national economy / 1960 / Territory and population), which means of the total number of industrial workers that's a little over 24 million. If we take only those industries where bonded labor was mainly used (mining, metallurgy, woodworking, logging, construction, etc.), then the number of workers employed in them was, according to the 1939 census of the year, about 15 million people ( Ibid.) It is these numbers that should be put in the basis of calculations. According to Wikipedia, 1 929 729 prisoners, that is almost 2 million, which is more than 8% of the total number of able-bodied industrial workers and more than 13% of the workers of those industries where forced labor was used, were in camps and colonies of GULAG at the beginning of the war.

However, this figure does not reflect the real ratio of free and bonded labor. The fact is that the GULAG included not only camps and colonies, but also special settlements from the so-called “kulaks” and other “suspicious” to the ruling regime of the population categories of the USSR. Special migrants were also employed, as a rule, in industrial sectors (mainly in coal and forestry). Their number on 1 October 1941, Wikipedia defines 936 people in 547. According to her data, one and a half years before the war, they were evicted from the western regions of Belarus and Ukraine, the Poles, the so-called “osadnik”, in the number of 139 596 people. Together with the prisoners, they all made up about 3 a million people, that is, 12,5% of the total industrial labor force in the USSR and 20% in the employment sectors of prisoners and special settlers.

But even this figure does not give a sufficient idea of ​​the true role of the gulag in the Soviet economy of the military and pre-war years. Speaking about the camp management system, it should be borne in mind that one of the main goals of its existence was the development of rich natural resources, but difficult to reach and very sparsely populated areas of Siberia, the Far East, the Northern Urals and the North of the European part of the country. If we take the labor resources of these territories as the basis, then the prisoners and special settlers here made up almost the most of them. For example, in the Far East, the population of the region in 1940 was about 2 750 000 people (Ibid.), And the prisoners were here by the beginning of the war around 500 000 (Calculated according to the table “Forced labor camps in the territory of the Far Eastern region 1929 - 1954) . ”From the book“ I would like to name everyone by name ”: Book-martyrology. Khabarovsk, 2004), that is, they accounted for about a third of all labor resources of the region and most of the labor resources of local industry and industrial construction. If, however, the special settlers are taken into account, the overwhelming part of the labor force for the industry of the Far East was given by the Gulag. He basically provided it with local raw materials.

True, the labor productivity of prisoners, like any other bonded labor, was not great. Nevertheless, the claim of some historians that the GULAG was completely unprofitable and therefore, from an economic point of view, a meaningless enterprise, in my opinion, does not quite correspond to reality. The lower, compared with civilian workers, prisoner labor productivity was partially offset by a longer last working time: 10-12 hours instead of 7-8 and one day off in 3-4 months instead of weekly. The crisis of the Soviet camp system began after its significant increase in prices as a result of the growth of the bureaucracy and the depletion of the most accessible sources of fuel, raw materials and workers (due to large losses in the Second World War) only in the 2 half of the 40's. In the same years, and during the Great Patriotic War, the GULAG apparently fully justified itself in the eyes of the then leadership of the USSR. Of course, he was not fully self-sufficient even then. But this was not required of him. His main task was the speedy economic development in order to industrialize the poorly populated and poorly developed, but rich in natural resources, the northern and eastern regions of the country. In the harsh climatic conditions of these territories, the use of only civilian labor would inevitably require even greater financial costs. At the beginning of the 30s, the Soviet state did not yet have such means. This fact was the main reason for the deployment of the Stalin leadership of the GULAG system in the USSR. The moral and ethical side of this issue was sacrificed to them for the purely economic interests of the state.
The defeats of the Soviet army in the first period of the war and the loss of the majority of the most economically developed territories of the European part of the USSR seriously affected the work of the Gulag. The evacuation of the western camps caused a significant disorganization of the entire system and a large density of prisoners, and the resulting lack of food in the country led to a significant reduction in their rations. At the same time, production rates for them, on the contrary, have increased. Considering that in the pre-war years, the supply of camps, according to Beria (letter to Molotov from 9 on April 1939), was usually carried out only on 60-65%, this situation could not but lead to a catastrophe. And it really happened. According to Wikipedia, from 1941 to 1943, the year only in forced labor camps (without taking into account the colonies) 735 870 prisoners died. This is 47% of the total death toll in the camps for the 22 of the year, from 1930 to 1952 (1 580 750 people). In total, during the war years, about a million prisoners died. Only by 1944, the prisoners' food standards rose again by 12-46%, but even then they remained 30% lower than the pre-war ones.

Nevertheless, despite the famine, the Gulag made quite a significant contribution to the development of the war economy of the USSR. According to the historian Zemskov, from the beginning of the Second World War to the end of 1944, GULAG prisoners released 70,7 million units of ammunition (including 25,5 million mortar mines, 35,8 million hand grenades and fuses for them, 9,2 anti-personnel mines, 100 thousand bombs and others .), 500 thousand coils for a field telephone cable, 30 thousand boats of drags, 67 million meters of fabric (of which 22 million units of clothing are sewn), 7 million meters of wood, etc.

During the same period, the NKVD of the USSR transferred about 3 billion rubles to the state income received from other people's commissariats for the labor provided to them. Since mid-1944, 225 thousand Gulag prisoners have been working there. They were used, in particular, in the production of weapons and ammunition (39 thousand), in ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy (40 thousand), in aviation и tank industry (20 thousand), mining and oil industry (15 thousand), power plants and the electric industry (10 thousand), timber industry (10 thousand), etc. 200 thousand prisoners were sent to build defensive lines during the first period of the war.

In the 1941-1943 years, hundreds of thousands of prisoners were sent to construction sites under the jurisdiction of the NKVD itself. In particular, 448 thousand people were transferred to the construction of railways, 310 thousand to industrial construction, 320 thousand to camps in the forest industry, 171 thousand to mining and metallurgical industries, 268 thousand to aerodrome and highway construction. Examples of such work include the construction of the Magnitogorsk and Kuznetsk Metallurgical Combines in June 1941 (4300 ЗК), the Dzhezkagansk Copper Smelting Plant (3000), the Ufa Refinery (2000), the Yaroslavl Plant. SM Kirov, People's Commissariat of the Tank Industry (2000), Chelyabinsk Metallurgical Plant. In the same years, prisoners built a number of railways necessary for the front, in particular: Sviyazhsk-Ulyanovsk and Saratov-Stalingrad (military construction units played a significant role in the construction of the latter).

In general, by type of work, prisoners were used during the war as follows: in construction work - 34%, in production - 25%, in the mining industry - 11%, in others (logging, loading and unloading, etc.) - 30 5% (V.N. Zemskov. GULAG (historical and sociological aspect) // Sociological studies. 1991, N 6. C. 10-27; 1991, N 7. C. 3-16). To characterize the level of influence of the Gulag on the country's economy, Nikolay Vert’s statement is well suited that at the time of its higher development, at the beginning of 50, the GULAG provided 100% of the country's need for platinum and diamonds, 90% in silver, 25% of non-ferrous metal mining , 12% of demand for coal and wood (Nikolai Vert. GULAG through the prism of archives. Shalamov.ru/research/61/1html). It is unlikely that these figures were lower in the war years.

In 1942, the "hard-mobilized" citizens of the USSR, the German and other nationalities of the warring countries against us, joined the ranks of the forced labor of the rear. Of these, workers' columns were formed, living behind barbed wire and working with prisoners on construction sites and in industrial workshops. The number of them for the entire war was more than 400 000 people (Zemskov). On the restoration of the destroyed economy of the USSR, prisoners of war worked side by side with other slaves of labor, the number of which, according to Wikipedia, reached 3 486 206 people (not counting the Japanese, who were also 575 000). They formed the working battalions. In 1944-1945 155 262 of able-bodied civilian Germans and “enemy elements” interned in Eastern Europe and East Prussia were added to them. Hungarian historians claim about 200 thousands of interned civilian Hungarians. True, we have not yet confirmed this information. The workers battalions were also enrolled in 1945, also about 600, thousands of Soviet citizens from among the repatriates who returned home.

Lastly, without touching the topic of the repressed for our society, let us determine the total number of citizens of the USSR who have passed through the punitive system of Stalinism. The total number of prisoners who passed through the camps and colonies of the Gulag, apparently, is already known. According to V. Rogovin, from the archival materials of the GULAG it follows that during 1921-1953 about 10 million people passed through the camps (Party of the shot. Vadim Rogovin. Web.mit.edn / people / fik / Rogovin / volume5 / pit.html) . Apparently, he included prisoners of colonies in this number. The total number of special settlers for all the years is, according to Wikipedia, more than 5 million people. To these must be added the other categories of voluntary citizens of the USSR listed above (“labor-mobilized” and repatriates) - only about 1 million people.

In the same connection, we can also mention the so-called BIRs (Correctional Work Bureau) in which, according to the Decree of the USSR Supreme Council on June 26 of the Year, workers were placed for six months who were late for work by more than 1940 minutes. Already by the beginning of the Second World War in their account was about 20 1 264 people (Zemskov). Taking this figure into account, we can conclude that more than 000 million Soviet citizens passed through various forms of forced labor in our country, not counting more than 17 million prisoners of war and about 4 thousands of interned foreigners.
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  1. treskoed
    treskoed 18 June 2013 07: 01 New
    18
    Arguing on the website about the reasons for the victory of our people in the Great Patriotic War, most authors usually never mention the Gulag.

    THE SOVIET PEOPLE HAD VICTORY! And not the gulag, the penal battalion, the detachment, etc. etc.
    1. Komodo
      Komodo 18 June 2013 07: 08 New
      11
      Exactly, that's just Solzhenitsyn probably didn’t have to be released from the Gulag.
      1. SergeySK
        SergeySK 18 June 2013 07: 15 New
        14
        And he didn’t have to be planted! It was necessary to shoot!
        1. Vovka levka
          Vovka levka 18 June 2013 13: 31 New
          -3
          Quote: SergeySK
          And he didn’t have to be planted! It was necessary to shoot!

          Justify.
      2. My address
        My address 18 June 2013 07: 26 New
        12
        According to Solzhenitsyn.

        Читал "Один день Ивана Денисовича" Литературная неплохая драма, но именно литературная и жалостливая, как мыльная опера. Пробовал читать "Раковый корпус" и др. - написано на тройку с минусом в литературном отношении, а по фактам вообще никуда не лезет. Читал очень правдоподобную версию о грамотной литературной обработке "Ивана Денисовича" одной корреспонденткой и о самостоятельности написания других опусов, почему они так резко отличаются. И этого графомана заставляют почитать как титана пера и мысли!

        Солженицын попал в лагеря во время войны за антисоветские заявления и выпущен после. "Мученик" СтРАнНЫЙ (!!!), блин. В то время любое государство так поступило бы.
        1. domokl
          domokl 18 June 2013 07: 56 New
          +9
          Quote: My address

          Солженицын попал в лагеря во время войны за антисоветские заявления и выпущен после. "Мученик" СтРАнНЫЙ (!!!), блин. В то время любое государство так поступило бы.

          I welcome you to Alexander. In general, Solzhenitsyn received his honors and regalia only because he wrote what the West needed. In Russia, after some short period of reading his works, they simply forgot about him. The writer, I agree with you, is weak. And links on him, as an eyewitness of events I consider stupid
          1. smile
            smile 18 June 2013 12: 19 New
            +5
            domokl
            Complement
            1. Этот ... сам признавал, что в его "Гулаге"- нет фактов - он их заменял художественным вымыслом и эмоциональностью(жалко, забыл. в какой книге интервью-привёл бы-попадали со смеху. как этот...сам себя разоблачает). он считает это достоинством книги.
            2. Эта сотрудничала с НТС. Если кто не помнит - Национально Трудовой Союз создали нацисты из русских - ну, цели, думаю, понятны. Штаб квартира- Мюнхен. Американцы банду сохранили, только изменили - "национальный" на "народный". Штат был сохранён в неприкосновенности. Деятельность не изменилась. То есть он сотрудничал с гитлеровскими прихвостнями.
            3. I saw his interview when he was still young. 40 minutes of the story about how he wanted to play the violin, and the commissioners did not give him such an opportunity .... in general, I believe that when they tell him on TV, then in vain for some reason they are embarrassed to acquaint us with the records of his propaganda speeches over the hill, and there is generally a dark gulag in comparison with his oral speculations, the standard of honesty and impartiality ...
        2. IRBIS
          IRBIS 18 June 2013 09: 34 New
          +6
          Quote: My address
          Solzhenitsyn got into camps during the war for anti-Soviet statements

          Чуточку поправлю. За антисоветчину в военной время, еще и на передовой могли поставить к стене, однозначно. Шурик был "мудрее". Желая смыться с передовой, капитан Солженицин написал письмо своему корешу, в котором изложил свое видение в вопросе повсеместного распространения идей коммунизма. Он прекрасно понимал, что письма с фронта перлюстрируются все без исключения. За космополитизм тоже карали, но наказание совсем другое. И главное: "товарищи" с такими идеями в штрафные батальоны не отправлялись. Тип просто таким образом откосил от войны.
          1. Avenger711
            Avenger711 18 June 2013 12: 49 New
            0
            Among all the other versions, this one is the most sensible with one clarification, Solzhenitsyn was not sitting in the trench at the front line, but with a sound meter battery. He even dragged his wife there, in the conditions of the defeat of the German troops it was safe there. He feared a future war with the allies.

            And they planted in other countries for similar even women from a citizen.
        3. aviamed90
          aviamed90 18 June 2013 12: 01 New
          +3
          I will surprise you.

          I did not read Solzhenitsyn, although I re-read a lot of things.
          And I have no desire to litter my brains with unnecessary and often false information!

          And did not read on the recommendation of those who read.

          Although, the wife, she read it, was impressed.
        4. Avenger711
          Avenger711 18 June 2013 12: 52 New
          +2
          Открой "Архипелаг ГУЛАГ" на любой странице и задохнешься от всей этой злобы, кторая исходит со страниц. Солженицин не просто предатель, он неблагодарная скотина, которого страна вывела в люди, учила, лечила, даже в тюрьме чуть ли не как в санатории просидел, т. к. инженеров не хватало.

          But as a writer he is ZERO without a wand.
        5. Bosk
          Bosk 18 June 2013 21: 06 New
          0
          He also tried at one time to read Solzhenitsin did not pull ... probably not matured ... and most likely I will not grow. I think if it weren’t for Perestroika Boom, then he would not have been so famous ... I repeat it is KNOWN as a desident, not a writer.
    2. Komodo
      Komodo 18 June 2013 07: 15 New
      +2
      But without the gulag, penal battalion, detachment, etc. etc. it is quite possible that the same mess would be created as is observed now.
      1. Ruslan67
        Ruslan67 18 June 2013 07: 24 New
        14
        Colleagues! stop carrying intellectual delirium negative All the people fought and not some kind of penal battles and gulags. It was impossible to shoot all the Solzhenitsyn — they were crawling out of the cracks like cockroaches in the communal kitchen. We won but couldn’t finish the whole bastard. By the way, I’ve complained about Lavrenty Pavlovich!
        1. domokl
          domokl 18 June 2013 07: 49 New
          +4
          Quote: Ruslan67
          By the way, the claim to Lavrenty Pavlovich - I didn’t work!

          Well, you’re in vain. The department worked to the fullest, and so much so that even the convicts believed in the Stalin-Lenin case. They seemed to be wrongly condemned. The Gulag gave enough fighters, in addition to products. part of the thieves went to war. Which then led to a change in the status of many thieves in law
        2. Shadowcat
          Shadowcat 18 June 2013 13: 33 New
          0
          Quote: Ruslan67
          By the way, the claim to Lavrenty Pavlovich - I didn’t work!

          He didn’t finish it, but they didn’t give him a month to finish it, otherwise many would have sat down, if not forever, then for a very long time.
          During the war, there was no time for this, the questions were more acute than others, and if they had planted all such, then there would have been no one to fight.
      2. cartridge
        cartridge 18 June 2013 07: 34 New
        10
        Speaking about the system of the Central Administration of the camps, it should be borne in mind that one of the main goals of its existence was the development of rich in natural resources, but inaccessible and very sparsely populated territories of Siberia, the Far East, the Northern Urals and the North of the European part of the country.


        When you find out about the next stolen by millions and billions of officials from Serdyukov to Navalny, about the North Caucasians shooting in Moscow at passers-by from their wedding processions, about untied migrant workers, about hordes of pedophiles and rapists, etc., I personally want to The Gulag has revived and all of the scoundrels listed have perished forever in its depths, mastering the most remote corners of the country for the people with hard hard labor without rest and days off for the rest of their lives.
        1. Komodo
          Komodo 18 June 2013 07: 40 New
          +3
          Quote: cartridge
          villains have perished forever in its depths, mastering for the people the most remote corners of the country with hard hard labor without rest and days off for the rest of their lives.

          Serdyukov Nitsche so healthy wild boar, I would have him on a shovel, I took concrete to knead.
    3. Truffoff
      Truffoff 18 June 2013 07: 23 New
      +8
      If now a German stood 30 km from Moscow, how many people would have already dumped, deserted, switched to the side of the enemy ?? And Stalin wisely all those capable of such things already kept in the Gulag. Those of whom he did not shoot of course.
      1. domokl
        domokl 18 June 2013 07: 53 New
        +3
        Quote: Truffoff
        And Stalin wisely all those capable of such things were already kept in the Gulag. Those of whom he didn’t shoot, of course

        Once Stalin wrote the article Vertigo from successes. It concerned the collective farm movement, but it also fit perfectly with the work of the OGPU.
        When the conviction turned into a planned action on the amount of labor needed by the Gulag, it was probably not serious to say that they planted future enemies.
        1. Truffoff
          Truffoff 18 June 2013 08: 02 New
          +1
          Quote: domokl
          When the conviction turned into a planned action on the amount of labor needed by the Gulag, it was probably not serious to say that they planted future enemies.

          He got rid of dubious personalities and gathered so much labor for special projects. Normal move.
          1. domokl
            domokl 18 June 2013 08: 27 New
            +1
            Quote: Truffoff
            gathered so much manpower for special projects. Normal move.

            Of course, normal ... But only for business, not for people. In this way, society turned into a large concentration camp.
            Georgy Zhzhenov, who was landed at the same time in NorilskLag, as a very young artist, warned another artist-Smoktunovsky-Begi to come to me in Norilsk. He did so, and they didn’t put him in, although there was already a case.
            So business broke destinies and people under Stalin
            1. Truffoff
              Truffoff 18 June 2013 08: 42 New
              +1
              Quote: domokl
              Georgy Zhzhenov, who was planted at the same time in NorilskLag, as a very young artist, warned another artist-Smoktunovsky

              What did Zhzhenov do that he ever told?
              Probably every first innocent is sitting in the zone, according to them.
              You ask them. You SUCH will be told. What then what now.
              1. domokl
                domokl 18 June 2013 09: 05 New
                +1
                Quote: Truffoff
                What did Zhzhenov do that he ever told?

                To his anniversary, television released a whole series of documentaries. They brought it under the camera to places of rest. For transfers and camps ... So if you are interested, you can watch it. It's on the network.
                And specifically what the joke said. Well, the informer tried ... 10 years.
                1. Truffoff
                  Truffoff 18 June 2013 09: 25 New
                  +1
                  Quote: domokl
                  And specifically what the joke said.

                  In the face of participation in the information war on the side of the enemy and propaganda.
                  Not once did he tell him. Not just one person.
                  Maybe not just a joke. Then he forgot the rest.
            2. Truffoff
              Truffoff 18 June 2013 08: 44 New
              +1
              Quote: domokl
              Thus, society turned into a large concentration camp.

              And when criminals walk the streets and the court cannot do a damn thing with them, what kind of society is this?
              1. domokl
                domokl 18 June 2013 09: 08 New
                +2
                Quote: Truffoff
                And when criminals walk the streets and the court cannot do a damn thing with them, what kind of society is this?

                Do you think that the criminal is the one you pointed at? Eats evidence, bring it to the prosecutor’s office, the investigative committee. We love to do good with other people. And we run away from criminals like cockroaches ... It’s scary for us.
                1. Truffoff
                  Truffoff 18 June 2013 09: 33 New
                  +3
                  Quote: domokl
                  Do you think that the criminal is the one you pointed at?

                  Я для "АтомРудметЗолото" вместе с другими 30 компанииями делали один объект. Естественно обворовали. Естественно и нас тоже. Написали письмо президенту.Все рассказали,предоставили. Дело закрыли через две недели из-за отсутствия состава преступлений. Все, до последнего работяги, знали, что происходит.А оказалось"недостаточно доказательств".
                  And this is all over the place.
              2. Middle-brother
                Middle-brother 18 June 2013 11: 11 New
                0
                Quote: Truffoff
                And when criminals walk the streets and the court cannot do a damn thing with them, what kind of society is this?

                and what society do we have now?
              3. yurta2013
                22 June 2013 16: 12 New
                0
                And when innocent people are planted and shot to fulfill a plan launched from above - is this not a crime? There were many such criminals in the streets of Stalin. And with complete impunity. True, many then ended up doing the same. Just like now.
            3. Captain45
              Captain45 18 June 2013 09: 47 New
              0
              Quote: domokl
              Georgy Zhzhenov, who was landed at the same time in NorilskLag, as a very young artist, warned another artist-Smoktunovsky-Run to me in Norilsk. That's what he did

              I don’t know, from the point of view of global humanism and democratic values, it was wrong to put Zhzhenov and Smoktunovsky in NorLag (great artists, I adore and respect them), but if they hadn’t been sitting here, there wouldn’t have been great things in Norilsk at the moment The Drama Theater named after V.V. Mayakovsky might have been, but not of such a level. Did these artists themselves come here to raise the culture to the proper level. And so the bar set by great artists at one time makes modern theater directors and actors to keep this plank at the proper level. And the theater has a gallery of portraits of all famous actors who at one time somehow got to Norilsk and served in the theater. People remember them.
            4. DEfindER
              DEfindER 18 June 2013 09: 54 New
              +3
              Quote: domokl
              . Thus, society turned into a large concentration camp.

              It’s hard not to believe in such statements, if we take the figure from this article of 17 million who have gone through involuntary labor, then it turns out that every Soviet person should have at least someone from the Gulag among his relatives, but I really don’t have anyone, neither I nor my friends . There is only the fact that almost every Soviet man went to work in the North, i.e. there could easily be millions of 20-30 free-salaried employees with large salaries, with the total number of convicts not exceeding 2 million, they could hardly play a decisive role in the development of the North. And by the way, why the author did not indicate that all the prisoners worked for parole, which is why the interest in work was high.
              1. Avenger711
                Avenger711 18 June 2013 12: 46 New
                -1
                For 30 years, in the Stalinist USSR there were only 10 million prisoners in all respects, including all sorts of Vlasovites after the war, due to them the population in the camps reached its maximum.
                1. yurta2013
                  22 June 2013 12: 28 New
                  0
                  According to documents, the centralized Gulag file cabinet already in 1940 contained data on almost 8 million people who were in the camps or passed through them. So the figure of 10 million is the lowest possible. In fact, there were probably more prisoners.
              2. yurta2013
                22 June 2013 16: 32 New
                0
                Quote: DEfindER
                It’s hard not to believe in such statements, if we take the figure from this article of 17 million who have gone through involuntary labor, then it turns out that every Soviet person should have at least someone from the Gulag among his relatives, but I really don’t have anyone, neither I nor my friends .

                Do you well know the history of your entire kin, even to the third knee? The fact of the matter is that after the Stalin era, few Russians can even name their great-grandmothers and great-grandfathers, not just to look further into a kind of history. And even more so, we cannot say who they were. Fear for the fate of children in those days did not allow adults to tell them about themselves and their ancestors.
                Quote: DEfindER
                There is only the fact that almost every Soviet man went to work in the North, i.e. Millions of 20-30 free-salaried employees with large salaries could easily be there, with the total number of convicts not exceeding 2 million, they could hardly play a decisive role in the development of the North.

                You did not confuse the 30-50s with the 60-80s? In the days of the Gulag, there was no need for so many civilian employees in the North. Managed by forced labor.
                Quote: DEfindER
                why the author did not indicate that all the prisoners worked for parole, which is why the interest in work was high.

                If there was a high interest in labor, then the camp authorities would not complain about the low productivity of prisoners, compared with civilian employees. But there are such documents. In addition, half of the money received on hand, according to the thieves' laws that prevailed in the camps, the prisoners had to give to criminal authorities. And the authorities, to keep the prisoners in control, turned a blind eye to this.
    4. Vanek
      Vanek 18 June 2013 07: 31 New
      +2
      Quote: treskoed
      And not the gulag, the penal battalion, the detachment, etc. etc.


      And who do you think they are? NOT SOVIET PEOPLE. YES?

      Hello to everyone. hi
      1. Tersky
        Tersky 18 June 2013 07: 33 New
        +3
        Quote: Vanek
        Hello to everyone.

        And ours to you, hi !
      2. treskoed
        treskoed 18 June 2013 07: 40 New
        +1
        Quote: Vanek And who do you think they are? NOT SOVIET PEOPLE. YES?
        I had this in mind, do not distort! Otherwise, you can talk about the contribution to the development of the production of slippers, overalls prisoners today and show how thieves, rapists and murderers became well done. In the Gulag, there were most of them. Which scale outweighs?
    5. andrejwz
      andrejwz 18 June 2013 11: 09 New
      +1
      Quote: treskoed
      THE SOVIET PEOPLE HAD VICTORY! And not the gulag, the penal battalion, the detachment, etc. etc.

      Yesterday, one of Karaulov’s themes in the program Moment of Truth was the submarine K-219 - The Feat of Sailor Sergei Priminin. The host wondered why the vast majority of our citizens simply do not know this name? Why does Hollywood make films about the exploits of our submariners committed in seemingly peacetime?
      Several individuals set treskoedу минус. Подозреваю, что из соображений созвучных идеям "Мемориала".
      Государство выделяет огромные (наши с вами) деньги на поддержку кинематографии - нам снимают "Штрафбат". И на замечание об исторических "неточностях" (куда уж корректней) режисер "на голубом глазу" отвечает, что это "художественный прием" укладывающийся в контекст "картины".
      Выделяться гранты писатялям, публицистам, историкам. К этим деньгам присосалась определенная прослойка "типа демократических" подмастерьев определила себе круг тем и долбит об одном и том же. Они искренне не понимают и возмущены тем, что востребованность этих "модных" тем в обществе прошла. Они с упорством отца Федора, сошедшего с ума в поисках Воробьянинских брилиантов повторяют : "Покайтесь...". Чтож удивлять, что нам об этом уже и немцы пытаются протолкнуть.
  2. My address
    My address 18 June 2013 07: 05 New
    +1
    Everyone got it then. It could not be otherwise.
  3. Rattenfanger
    Rattenfanger 18 June 2013 07: 18 New
    +6
    Не думаю,что какой-нибудь з/к-рцд в Норильлаге,которому было нас_рать и на страну,и на народ,работал так же самоотвержено,как труженники тыла. Это только в дешёвой х*не а-ля "Штрафбат" Досталя вчерашние урки войну выиграли,а за их спинами кровавая гэбня сушки с маком жрала.
    Further: the author, apparently, was bitten by Rezun-Suvorov, otherwise I can’t explain his 3,14 here.
    Examples of such work include the construction of the Magnitogorsk and Kuznetsk metallurgical plants in June 1941 (4300 ZK)

    If I lived in Ryazan, for example, or Kaliningrad, then the history of the Kuznetsk Metallurgical Plant might not be well known to me. But I lived in Kuzbass for more than 20 years and worked at this plant for 5 years. Moreover, I had the opportunity to work with archival documents. But to this day, I had no idea that KVM was built in 1941, and even by prisoners.)))))) The question is, who gave metal to the country from April 3, 32nd?
    Z.Y. The article is below the skirting board.
    1. yurta2013
      22 June 2013 16: 37 New
      0
      Quote: Rattenfanger
      Until today, I had no idea that KVM was built in 1941, and even by prisoners.

      Take another look at the archives. Kuznetsk Metallurgical Plant was built (expanded) during the war.
  4. domokl
    domokl 18 June 2013 07: 19 New
    +4
    Any material based on numbers is quite controversial. I think the author’s links to other sources are simply from hopelessness.
    The rest, in principle, is true. The Gulag really helped in the settlement of hard-to-reach and climatically difficult territories. The Gulag really mined the necessary wood, coal, gold, but I think it’s not very true to talk about it as an industry.
    1. Tersky
      Tersky 18 June 2013 07: 26 New
      +3
      Quote: domokl
      but to think of it as an industry seems to me not very true.

      Alexander, hi ! You can talk about one of the auxiliary links of the component, although the very same Norilsk was founded by prisoners, and the first nickel went not without their participation
      1. domokl
        domokl 18 June 2013 07: 44 New
        +1
        Quote: Tersky
        the same Norilsk was founded by prisoners, and the first nickel went not without their participation
        Victor, ours is for you! That's the thing. Land development, the initial stage ... BAM (I recall the Soviet joke) was built by Komsomol members, on the one hand green and with epaulets, and on the other striped and swearing ...
        I generally do not like radicalism in such matters.
    2. yurta2013
      22 June 2013 12: 22 New
      0
      Any historical material that ignores the numbers is always controversial. The links in this article are given to works written according to primary sources, that is, according to archival documents of the GULAG.
  5. zxz71
    zxz71 18 June 2013 07: 23 New
    0
    There is evidence that every fourth bullet was made in the Gulag and lead was mined by ZK.
  6. pakfa-t-50
    pakfa-t-50 18 June 2013 07: 25 New
    +2
    The victory was won by the Russian spirit
  7. Belogor
    Belogor 18 June 2013 07: 30 New
    +2
    The winner of fascism is the peoples of the USSR. In the Gulag was the same people who also needed a victory. I think that for the most part there were normal Soviet people who, by the will of fate, ended up there.
    1. Rattenfanger
      Rattenfanger 18 June 2013 07: 35 New
      +2
      Quote: Belogor
      In the Gulag was the same people who also needed a victory.

      Do you seriously think that all the polls for the country were happy?
      1. Belogor
        Belogor 18 June 2013 07: 42 New
        0
        and where did you read from me that everyone was polite?
        I wrote about the majority and I think that is right. Not only enemies got there, but also for other reasons. (knocking, orders and excessive activity of organs, etc.) These enemies were usually shot
    2. treskoed
      treskoed 18 June 2013 07: 50 New
      +2
      Quote: Belogor I think that in the majority there were normal Soviet people,

      Not in the majority, he once spoke with a prosecutor who was engaged in rehabilitation, according to him, no more than 10-15% are being rehabilitated. So compare the harm and benefit to the country from the Gulag!
  8. Pit
    Pit 18 June 2013 07: 39 New
    0
    Tell me, please, what the hell ... is going on? I’m opening the third news site and everywhere the first thing that catches my eye is the white-tape dreg !!! And not the first day already.
  9. Curculum
    Curculum 18 June 2013 07: 40 New
    +2
    In the camps and colonies of the Gulag at the beginning of the war was, according to Wikipedia ...

    Далее не стал читать: "Википедия" (правильное написание) - "свободно распространяемая многоязычная онлайновая энциклопедия, создаваемая энтузиастами в рамках проекта фонда "Викимедиа"" (цитата из сайта). Получается, в своих "исследованиях" автор опирается на данные "энтузиастов", что, как минимум - несерьёзно.
    1. yurta2013
      22 June 2013 12: 19 New
      0
      In this case, Wikipedia refers to the conclusions of the historian V.N.Zemskov, who directly worked in the archives of the KGB back in the late 80s and early 90s.
  10. pensioner
    pensioner 18 June 2013 07: 48 New
    +3
    Quote: Komodo
    Solzhenitsyn probably did not have to be released from the Gulag.

    А его никто не и выпускал. По той причине, что он там и не был..."Один день..." он со слов других писал.
  11. Avenger711
    Avenger711 18 June 2013 08: 32 New
    -1
    ak called "fists" and other "suspicious"


    It is urgent for the author to teach what a fist is.

    The article is another liberal diarrhea.

    And only a complete liberal nerd, or traitor, to whom the place in this very GULAG can write about any significant role of prisoners in industrial production. Because to any person who has been at least once at the factory, it is obvious that the prisoners have nothing to do there for a number of reasons.
    1) A large factory is always located next to a sufficiently large settlement, which will provide a sufficient amount of labor and no one will ever mix ordinary workers and convicts, especially political ones, who would only be glad to such an expanse for agitation.
    2) Any complicated production requires skilled labor, it can take years to prepare a specialist, it is obvious that convicts are not a category where there are many who want to be a turner, or a locksmith, or God forbid a steelmaker.

    Therefore, any use of convicts, by the way, is ubiquitous in the world, because the fact that a person in prison does not relieve him of the need to work is limited, as a rule, to work with a shovel. Maximum wall of bricks to fold, or the simplest semi-handicraft production.

    Well, and how much does it cost to maintain a person, hell knows where, together with him to maintain protection and all this to provide? The American prison business is based solely on the fact that the convicts are kept by the state, but they transfer them into slavery to the private trader. Stalin, on the other hand, had a much more effective way of increasing labor productivity due to the same Stakhanov movement.

    Not in the majority, he once spoke with a prosecutor who was engaged in rehabilitation, according to him, no more than 10-15% are being rehabilitated. So compare the harm and benefit to the country from the Gulag!


    What kind of rehabilitation? Perestroika rehabilitation is generally pay-as-you-go, no one has picked these things up, and for a number of articles they are imprisoned and executed for the whole world, because it’s impossible otherwise, they have all been declared innocent. The man was engaged in anti-Soviet activities, he was completely and rightfully imprisoned according to all the then laws, and Mishka Mechny with Yakovlev made an innocent victim of a fighter against the regime.
    1. yurta2013
      22 June 2013 12: 15 New
      0
      Quote: Avenger711
      And only a complete liberal nerd, or traitor, to whom the place in this very GULAG can write about any significant role of prisoners in industrial production.

      The data presented in the article are taken from the works of authors who personally worked in the archives. References to these works in the article are available. Take the trouble to re-read my article and do not make hasty conclusions based on false ideological beliefs.
  12. Aleksys2
    Aleksys2 18 June 2013 09: 39 New
    +1
    In this connection, we can also mention the so-called BIRakh (Correctional Work Bureau) in which, according to the Decree of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of 26 on June 1940 of the year, workers who were late for more than 20 minutes were placed for six months. By the beginning of the Second World War, about 1 264 000 people (Zemskov) were registered in their records.

    Согласно п.5 данного Указа: "Установить, что за прогул без уважительной причины рабочие и служащие государственных, кооперативных и общественных предприятий и учреждений предаются суду и по приговору народного суда караются исправительно - work at the place of work на срок до 6 месяцев с удержанием из заработной платы до 25%."
    Так что автор не прав утверждая, что "БИРах (Бюро исправительных работ) в которые, согласно Указу Верховного Совета СССР от 26 июня 1940 года, помещались на шесть месяцев рабочие, опоздавшие на работу более чем на 20 минут." Дьявол кроется в мелочах.
    1. yurta2013
      22 June 2013 12: 07 New
      0
      As far as I know, being late for work for more than 20 minutes, at that time, was equated to absenteeism.
  13. Reserve buildbat
    Reserve buildbat 18 June 2013 09: 44 New
    +4
    Вопросы реабилитации и сейчас не решены. Реабилитируют безоговорочно только по ст. 58-10 (за длинный язык и анекдоты). А горбачевская реабилитация, насколько я помню, как раз и касалась этого пункта. Я в годы работы в архиве не раз отправлял дела в прокуратуру на рассмотрение о реабилитации. Причем отправляют далеко не каждое дело. Сначала рассматривается спецами архива, потом ФСБ, потом идет на реабилитацию. Это если первые 2 инстанции дали "добро".

    And by the way, I have never seen that under Article 58-10, etc., for a joke, give 10 years. usually 3-5. And that is not always the case.
    1. ImPerts
      ImPerts 18 June 2013 14: 16 New
      0
      Is it true that the affairs of the people who were rehabilitated after the 20 congress were destroyed? And to solve the problem, they were rehabilitated due to the lack of the fact of a crime or because of the conjuncture, it is not possible?
      1. Reserve buildbat
        Reserve buildbat 18 June 2013 15: 21 New
        +2
        True. Cases destroyed mostly. And to find out here is very difficult. Although I personally saw things from the 20's to the 60's.
  14. gura
    gura 18 June 2013 11: 54 New
    -9
    Из Минска. Да, почитав комментарии, все больше убеждаешься, что история не учит ничему потомков ленина-сталина-ежова-берии,этих славных палачей русского, и не только его, народа. Такое ощущение , что все здравствующие потомки собрались на этой странице на их призывное карканье из Гулага. Снисходительно цедят о Солженицыне, Жженове. Да вы их плевков недостойны! Недаром у этой страны всегда ощущение осажденной крепости. Самое ей место в средневековье, куда она шагает стройными колоннами. Мне часто казались несправедливыми суждения европейцев о России. Вот слова Наполеона из приказа по армии после сражения при Баутцене 2 мая 1813г., где он одержал победу над союзными войсками: "Солдаты! Я доволен вами. В один день вы опрокинули все планы ваших врагов-отцеубийц.(им. в виду император Александр Первый, сын императора Павла. прим.) Мы отбросим татар в их ужасные края, откуда они не должны вылезать. Пусть они остаются в своих ледяных пустынях, обители рабства, варварства и разложения, где человек находится наравне со скотиной. Вы честно заслужили цивилизованную Европу, солдаты. Италия, Франция и Германия выразят вам свою благодарность".
    Но если после того, что "Ленин и Кампания" сделали с Россией, этой банде "поется осанна",становятся понятны эти пророческие влова Наполеона. Мировой поезд давно ушел, а Россия осталась на разрушенном полустанке в драной шапке,
    with a rusted nuclear club. She swears after the train, but she is not heard.
    Убивает и грамматическо-словарная убогость "гросс-специалистов" по Гулагу! "Культур-мультур" в комментариях аж зашкаливает! И это граждане страны соседки, с которой нас призывают объединиться! Лучше уж мы сами, от вас подальше.
    1. dmb
      dmb 18 June 2013 12: 35 New
      +3
      Патетично, ничего не скажешь. Особенно понравилось по Наполеона. Видимо он с остальной своей шоблой приперся в Россию исключительно для продвижения гуманистических идей в "этих ужасных краях". А чтобы сподручнее было воспитывать варваров, привез с собой фальшивые рубли, ободрал иконы и пытался взорвать Кремль. Очень и очень демократично. Надо сказать, что и его последователи, начиная с 17-го года. тоже видимо, испытывая любовь к русскому народу, да и другим народам СССР, напихали вокруг нашей страны военных баз с ядерным оружием, вкладывали гигантские деньги в пропаганду, поддерживая того же Солженицына. (Что-то не припомню, чтобы вермонтский старец от денег отказывался), душили нас гонкой вооружений не давая возможности вкладывать средства не в ракеты, а в мирную продукцию. Слава Богу в Минске порядочных людей много, и когда мы будем объединяться, то такие, как написавший комментарий "славный потомок Пилсудского", будут в меньшинстве.
    2. Avenger711
      Avenger711 18 June 2013 12: 56 New
      0
      Заткнись. Именно из-за таких подонков, которые верещали про ГУЛАГ и "незаконные репрессии" страна сейчас в заднице, и отрицать это может только кретин.
    3. Standard Oil
      Standard Oil 18 June 2013 13: 02 New
      +2
      Я даже прослезился,"поезд давно ушел","разрушенный полустанок","драная шапка","заржавевшая ядерная дубина",какой текст,какие слова!Раз вам так ненавистна Россия и люб Солженицын,то забирайте хоть все его книги и с богом в Европу(правда бог в Европе один и Мухаммед пророк его,и не забудте вазелинчику прихватить с собой).Вас там ждут на радио свобода и ВВС,а также в исламских кварталах.
    4. My address
      My address 18 June 2013 13: 39 New
      +2
      When some civilians were conceived, they knocked loudly on the bedroom door ... It turned out unfamiliar with the syntax and grammar of the Russian language, but stubborn, a fan of Solzhenitsyn. And about Zhzhenov is not the topic.
  15. Parabelum
    Parabelum 18 June 2013 12: 59 New
    +1
    It remains to add a matryoshka, vodka, a bear and a balalaika and there will be a complete set of stamps.
  16. gura
    gura 18 June 2013 13: 08 New
    -3
    ДМБ. "От славного потомка Пилсудского". Немного истории. Москву в 1812г. сжег не Наполеон, а "герой-граф" Растопчин,(прапрапрадед Зои Космодемьянской).В Царстве Польском - территории отвоеванной у России (куда входили и белорусские земли), Наполеон ввел паспорта для всех сословий, а советские колхозники - самая пострадавшая от большевиков часть населения, получила паспорта в конце 50г.г.20 -го столетия. С уважением.
    1. dmb
      dmb 18 June 2013 14: 17 New
      +1
      Увы не могу ответить тем же, ибо привык говорить людям то. что о них думаю. Не припомню, чтобы я в комментарии писал по сожжение Москвы. Про фальшивые рубли и взорванный Кремль было. Ростопчин к этому отношения не имеет. Введение паспортов в Царстве Польском к интервенции в России если имеет отношение, то только как использование поляков для этой интервенции. Пострадавшие больше всех советские колхозники составляли подавляющее большинство страны, но почему-то не смотря на страдание пошли за большевиками, а отнюдь не за каким-нибудь Пилсудским, Врангелем или Колчаком. Белорусские колхозники, насколько мне известно опять же не смотря на "страдания" поддерживают сатрапа Лукашенко, а отнюдь ни какого-нибудь Милинкевича.
  17. serge
    serge 18 June 2013 13: 46 New
    0
    The biggest help to the camps to the front is that they sat in their entire fifth column. And now this fifth column is sitting in the media and the state apparatus.
  18. ImPerts
    ImPerts 18 June 2013 14: 11 New
    0
    I have long wanted to read articles based on real facts, and not so that one article talked about another article that cited dreams and desires. Triple link, who will get to the truth.
    1. yurta2013
      22 June 2013 12: 04 New
      0
      V.N.Zemskov, to which there is a link in this article, is one of the few historians who worked on the Gulag in the archives of the KGB in the late 80s. There are simply no more competent specialists on this topic in our country. Wikipedia also refers to it. Judging by their articles, Vadim Rogovin and Nikolai Vert, also took data directly in the archives. Unfortunately, I couldn’t check their numbers, because I live in the Far East and I can’t visit the capital for financial reasons.
  19. gura
    gura 18 June 2013 14: 58 New
    -4
    Из Минска.ДМБ. "Славному потомку Ленина-Сталина" от "славного потомка Пилсудского". Недаром в библии сказано "не мечите...". Поэтому "С уважением" отзываю, если позволите. На этом общение прошу считать законченным. А о настроениях белорусов посмотрите на TUT.BY.Сделаете много неприятных для себя открытий. Поиск по словам - "российская авиабаза в Беларуси".
    IMHO.
  20. Rattenfanger
    Rattenfanger 18 June 2013 15: 58 New
    +2
    Reading the comments of some ... in general, some, the question arises: why does Old Man Lukashenko have microcephals free access to the Internet? They will teach them bad there! wassat
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