Office of the President of the Russian Federation.
- Just one second. Commander of the Navy fleet to me! Was there a loss in the fleet today?
- No, no!
- Hello, George? A-4, by
The service of the Russian admirals is difficult and dangerous. Stormy attacks of media representatives, accompanied by daily press conferences and reports in the offices of higher instances. The allegations of corruption, negligence and improper performance of their official powers, sounding from all points.
The people are eager for bread and circuses: are there many chances for the nuclear-powered cruiser Orlan to defeat the American aircraft carrier group? When will the battle with NATO ships off the coast of Syria begin? Will Russian sailors be able to defend the Kuriles in case of possible aggression from Japan?
The intellectual stratum of society requires an immediate presentation of a clear concept of development and use of the Russian Navy over the coming years. Where is the course of our fleet? What are its tasks and opportunities?
It is possible to understand well the brave officers with gold admiral shoulder straps: what could be the answer to the question about the concept of using the Russian Navy, if the fleet contains the entire 4 of a ship capable of providing zone defense of a squadron. No matter how strong Peter the Great's TARKR and the three Atlant missile cruisers are, the US Navy has 84 spacecraft equipped with long-range anti-aircraft systems.
Despite the terrible statements of the General Staff, the absolute majority of Russian ships are not capable of hitting tactical targets deep in the coast. In this sense, the only unique ship of the Russian Navy is the Dagestan patrol ship stationed in the Caspian Sea - it was the first to install a module from 8 launch cells for the Caliber family cruise missiles (similar to the American Tomahawk).
In the absence of real positive News, admirals engage in fantasy and shock the public with a statement about the sending of strategic submarine missile carriers to the South Pole of the Earth.
Russian SSBN Ave. 667BDRM
The strategic missile submarine cruiser (SSBN) is not intended for dashing round-the-world trips through NATO storms, reefs and anti-submarine barriers. Combat patrol looks much more prosaic - two hundred meters deep, five-node move, minimal noise. The entire SSBN campaign carefully writes out in the ice fog of the GXNUMX, hiding from anti-submarine aviation thick shell of arctic ice.
It is worth noting that all Russian 667BDRM, Sharks and Boreas are designed for seawater temperature close to 0 ° - leaks will open in the tropics and serious technical problems will begin. And why should they tropics? - The range of the Bulava and Sinevy allows you to cover the “likely enemy” right from the pier in Gremikha.
Finally, combat patrols of the SSBN in the Southern Hemisphere have no practical meaning. Who are you, dear admirals, gathered to punish with a "nuclear sword"? Unhappy Zimbabweans or New Yorkers?
And suddenly - like a bolt from the blue - a message about sending the Navy to the aid of the fighting Syria! Finally, the navy will take part in the present case.
Large landing craft project 775
A lot of surprise caused the squadron of the Russian Navy. The main part - the big landing ships. BDK - specific vehicles, completely defenseless in front of modern means of attack. They themselves need a reliable escort, which is usually absent. Then why are these ships included in the squadron? Is a landing operation planned in the port of Tartus? Of course, there is no mystery here: strong BDK Polish built - one of the few Navy ships who are able to get to the coast of Syria.
The decision to send the Navy to the Mediterranean Sea gave the most positive result. Despite the shortage of ships, the sailors brilliantly fulfilled their task - the Russian military presence did not go unnoticed by foreign politicians and the media. Noise grenade worked - the West abruptly restrained its ardor against Syria.
But every trip to the Arab-Israeli conflict zone is fraught with great risk. Unarmed BDK can at any moment be hit from the shore. In 2003, the Hezbollah fighters bought a batch of Chinese anti-ship missiles and sometimes entertained themselves by firing at the ships going far from the coast - it does not matter to them, this is a peaceful Egyptian long boat or Israeli corvette Hanit.
Damage to INS Hanit, 14 July 2006. Israel was lucky - a rocket hit the helipad.
The ship temporarily lost speed, the "total" 4 of the sailor died
The ship temporarily lost speed, the "total" 4 of the sailor died
What will happen if an Injee firefire hits the side of a crowded BDK? And who then will answer for this? Surely again that crank with golden epaulets, who in August 2000-th sweetly broadcast from television screens: “There is a connection with the crew of Kursk. Air is being supplied to the emergency submarine. ”
However, this is just a terrible tale. I am sure that our guys will get lucky and everyone will return home alive and unharmed.
It so happened that in the second half of the twentieth century, aviation, nuclear weapon and ballistic missiles seized most of the important functions from the Navy. Something the fleet was able to return (placing the SNF on submarines), but the general conclusion is disappointing - the whole surface component: powerful nuclear cruisers, aircraft carriers, destroyers and frigates - all these ships lost their strategic "defensive" value. The navy has become a purely tactical tool to solve pressing problems.
This is easily seen by looking at the fleet of the most warring power in the world - numerous US Navy. With the exception of the Ohio 14 missile carriers, the entire US fleet is used exclusively to support ground forces in local wars. In total, the US Navy has two key functions:
1. Delivery of personnel, equipment, food and equipment to foreign shores (including covering transports at transoceanic crossings, trawling fairways, ensuring security of delivery and unloading at destination ports).
2. Fire support - a massive strike with high-precision cruise missiles on the first day of the war.
Having provided the transfer of thousands tanks to the Persian Gulf region and having “knocked out” Iraqi command posts, airfields and air defense systems with the help of the Tomahawks, American sailors can safely go home and “hang out” nights in taverns and nightclubs in Norfolk. They have nothing more to do in the war - then the Air Force and the Ground Forces decide everything.
The main one who goes to the left. In a combined-arms operation, the value of an aircraft carrier is negligible, but it would be impossible to wage a modern war without the help of Tomahawks.
If we consider the issue in a broader sense - the naval forces of various countries of the world perform dozens of other, less significant, but quite relevant tasks:
-Egis destroyers are included in the strategic missile defense system as mobile launch platforms for interceptor missiles. Alas, a major “problem” arises here: the flight of Russian ICBMs takes place along the shortest and most efficient route - through the North Pole. Those. for effective interception, destroyers should be placed in the middle of the Arctic ice, and this, as you understand, is unrealistic.
However, the Yankees know what to do - the Spacedard 3 interceptor missiles can be used to destroy enemy spy satellites and emergency spacecraft in low-Earth orbit. The interception is facilitated by the emergency mobility of the platform itself - the destroyer can take a position anywhere in the oceans.
- Protection of territorial waters. Violators, most often, are their own poachers, illegal migrants and drug couriers - work for boats and Coast Guard helicopters.
- Protection of overseas possessions. This graph is relevant only for the United States and the former colonial power of Great Britain - our country has no such territories.
Open covers of MK.41 UVP launchers on the American Orly Burk destroyer
In each of them hid "Tomahawk"
In each of them hid "Tomahawk"
- Control of marine communications. A foggy concept, consonant with the terms "blockade", "deblokada", "isolation" ... Much depends on the country's position on the world map - for example, it is impossible to block Russia from the sea, because Russia's vital interests are in no way connected with the sea routes. It is no less difficult to imagine how China will block the United States from the sea or the Indian aircraft carrier Vikramaditya to go raiding the Atlantic. In this sense, the fleet lost its strategic function - a more reliable means appeared in its place - the “nuclear club”.
However, the concept of “blockade” is still relevant for a number of small players in the geopolitical arena. An example is the Israeli blockade of Gaza from the land and from the sea.
- The notorious "demonstration of the flag." The presence of a warship in any part of the ocean unambiguously hints that the state has its own interests here and is ready to protect them. However, everything is not easy here. The demonstration of power must be supported by political will and readiness to use this force. You need to be clear about your requirements and just as realistic to formulate your threats. Just to drive the cruiser to the shores of India or France, in the hope of "scaring" these countries, means throwing money away.
TFR "Fearless" on a long hike
- Special operations: ensuring the safety of navigation, covert surveillance of the coast, point landing of sabotage groups, search and rescue operations, delivery of humanitarian aid, the fight against maritime piracy ...
Sometimes as one of the most important functions of the Navy is called the task of "covering areas of combat patrols SSBN." In fact, this is a purely “disservice” - the underwater bomber does not need any help, and the ships and aircraft circling near it only unmask its position. In addition, in peacetime, it is impossible to prevent the flight of foreign anti-submarine aircraft in any way (unless they violated the airspace of the Russian Federation).
In the old days, the fight against strategic "city killers" was actual - alas, in our time it has become useless to put barriers in the way of submarines, modern missile carriers can launch missiles without leaving territorial waters.
What is the meaning of the existence of the modern Russian fleet, taking into account all the above circumstances? What is the most realistic scenario for the development of the Russian Navy? What does the Russian seafarers expect in the near future?
It is often said that the fleet should be well balanced. Correct, in its essence, the statement does not help in determining the future appearance of the Navy. The term “balanced fleet” merely means the compliance of the ship composition with the tasks facing the fleet. But what specific tasks facing the Russian Navy are not known even in the General Staff.
However, some conclusions can be made now:
The submarine component of the Russian Navy is one of the key elements of ensuring the sovereignty of our country and the most important factor of strategic nuclear deterrence. It is for these tasks that the Borey-type submarine cruisers are created - this is the basis of our fleet, its Main Task and the main purpose.
As for surface combat ships, let us be honest: despite the loud reassurances of the need for the emergence of "ocean combat groups" of the Russian Navy, no one is able to give a concrete answer: what role will these connections play and what tasks will be assigned to our sailors.
"We will fight in these waters, we have no others, and here we must make every effort, but try to solve this problem"
- Order of Admiral Essen on the Baltic Fleet
The glorious admiral well understood the limited capabilities of the Russian Navy, which are limited, first of all, by the geographical position of Russia. For a purely continental power, the fleet has never been a priority for the Armed Forces, usually performing auxiliary tasks on the flanks. In difficult times, Russian sailors preferred to sink their ships and fight the enemy on the coast - the fate of Russia was always decided on land.
Therefore, there is no point in taking an example from the US Navy or the Royal Navy of Great Britain. It is equally pointless to refer to the former glory of the USSR Navy - the Soviet Union had satellite allies and naval bases in both hemispheres of the Earth, the fleet served as a powerful link that allowed to link all the separate components into a single combat network. Now this, with all the desire, is not observed.
Following the precepts of Admiral Essen, tasks for sailors are always there - and recent events off the coast of Syria are a clear confirmation of this. The main thing is to try to clearly distinguish the functions of the Navy and build up power in the chosen direction.
First of all, a demonstration of the military presence in the zones where the state interests of Russia and foreign powers collide. Of course, for this purpose it is not bad to replace the BDK with more suitable means — for example, the upgraded heavy nuclear cruiser Orlan or the helicopter carrier Mistral. Despite their seeming uselessness, both ships have a formidable monumental appearance and solid dimensions - what is needed to display the St. Andrew’s flag. Escort - a pair of modern frigates or upgraded BOD.
Of course, there can be no question of conducting any wars far from home shores - for such operations, in addition to the Eagles and Mistral, hundreds of warships and support vessels are needed, which, of course, now there is no place to take. But you should not despair - Russian sailors are not faced with the task of “democratization” of countries on the other side of the Earth.
How all this will look in reality - time will tell, to make any accurate predictions about the future of the Russian Navy is completely ungrateful. As is known, in the Russian Navy they plan one thing, do another, and report the third. To understand what is actually happening is almost impossible.