Yugoslav modernization T-72
The upgraded MBT M-84AB1 looks like its predecessor M-84А (read - on T-72М1) and has a combat weight of more than 44 tons. It is equipped with a new power plant consisting of an 12-cylinder diesel engine with an 1000 horsepower. The transmission is identical to that installed on the T-72M tanks: two onboard planetary gearboxes with hydraulic control, but they have five forward gears and one reverse gear. In the future, it is planned to use a more powerful (up to 1200 hp) engine with a fully automatic transmission. The V-46TK engine mounted on the tank is a further development of the domestic B-46 diesel engine. This power plant, as reported, allows the car to develop a maximum speed on the highway to 70 km / h and provides acceleration to a speed of 32 km / h from a standstill in 8,5 s.
Tracks with collapsible tracks, like those used on T-80 or Western-style machines, can be equipped with removable asphalt shoes.
The hull and turret of the Degman tank have improved armor protection and dynamic protection of the original design, new systems of collective protection, anti-tank defense and preventing the explosion of fuel in the tanks.
As the main armament left 125-mm smoothbore gun 2А46, but under it developed new ammunition, including armor-piercing sabot projectile with an initial speed 1800 m / s. The barrel of the gun is equipped with a heat-insulating casing and SKPDS. Additional weapons include a paired 7,62-mm PKT machine gun and a 12,7-mm anti-aircraft gun NSVT-12,7.
Automated MSA includes a combined (day / night) SGS-D gunner's sight with an integrated laser range finder, a digital ballistic computer and shooting condition sensors. The gunner's sight has a field of view stabilized in two planes, the night channel is equipped with an infrared-optical amplifier of the 2 generation. At the request of the customer, the TSGS-D gunner's thermal sight can be mounted on the tank.
The tank commander will have at his disposal a combined (day / night) sight, a video display system monitor and controls of the SLA. OMS sensors will be installed at the back of the tower.
Standard equipment of the V2001 tank will include a set of OPVT and a device for self-digging.
Slovak modernization T-72
If someone decided to hold a contest for the most unusual modification of the T-72, then probably one of the first places would be occupied by the Modernity T-72М2. This tank was first presented at the international exhibition "Deffendori-94", where it aroused great interest of military experts.
The first thing that catches your eye is two automatic XAUM caliber XAUM mm cannons placed on the sides of the turret. With their help, it was possible to defeat both ground and low-flying air targets.
The creation of this machine was attended by Belgian and French companies. In particular, the fire control system was subjected to modernization. So, instead of a regular night sight, a thermal imager was installed, which was previously developed for the modernization of the Belgian tanks Leopard-1.
The tank commander received a VS580 panoramic sight from the Leclerc tank, as a result, it duplicates the functions of a gunner, and can also fire from automatic guns.
The tank was equipped with a set of dynamic protection weighing tons in 1,5, which greatly enhanced the anti-cumulative durability of the frontal projection. As a result of all the innovations, the tank "grew stout" to 43,5 tons. So that the mobility characteristics do not deteriorate, the engine 850 hp power was installed on the “Modern”. Power reserve - up to 650 km.
The tank has a warning system for laser irradiation, which is associated with a smoke grenade launching system. To improve the crew has air conditioning. In the control compartment, the bottom was reinforced, and the driver's seat was suspended from the turret armor plate.
Ukrainian modernization of T-72
The T-72AG upgrade provides for the replacement of a standard engine with an HP 780 / 840 power. The new engine series 6TD, which was developed for the T-XNUMHUD / Oplot. There are two different options for diesel engines: 80TD-6 horsepower 1. and 1000TD-6 horsepower 2 Both engines provide high performance when operating in desert conditions at ambient temperatures up to 1200 degrees above zero.
To increase tactical mobility, the T-72AG can additionally be equipped with a satellite navigation system. To increase the level of protection on the T-72AG tank, additional armor modules are installed on the frontal parts of the hull and turret, the built-in dynamic protection (VDZ) on the hull and turret, as well as on-board screens with VDZ in front of the hull. In order to increase crew protection against weapons mass destruction on the tank T-72AG installed collective protection system designed to seal the habitable compartment. Additionally, the Varta optical-electronic countermeasures can be installed on the T-72AG.
On the T-72AG, when upgrading, it is possible to keep the regular 125-mm 2-46 cannon. However, to increase firepower, it is advisable to replace it with a Ukrainian-made XBA125 1-mm cannon. This gun provides the highest probability of hitting from tank weapons not only when firing from a place in place, but also when firing while moving at a moving target. In addition, there is the option of upgrading the T-72 using an 120 mm caliber cannon and NATO standard ammunition. A distinctive feature of the T-72AG is the presence of a closed-type anti-aircraft installation located on the commander's hatch. Also on a modernized T-72AG tank, a modern fire control system is installed, which makes it possible to effectively hit stationary and moving targets both from a standstill and immediately. Instead of the TPD-K1 sight, the 1-46 sight is mounted with a line of sight, stabilized in both vertical and horizontal planes. Instead of the night sight TPN-1 (TPN-3), the night complex of the gunner TO1-KO1E was installed with the TPN-4E sight. This sight provides a vision range at night in the passive mode to 1200 m. The new tank fire control system may include a guided weapons complex.
Another option for improving the T-72 tank was a joint project to upgrade this machine by Ukrainian, Czech and French designers, which was implemented when creating the T-72MP tank. It can be said that further improvement of T-72AG, but in the framework of NATO cooperation. Ukraine in this project represent the KMDB and ZTM them. Malysheva, Czech Republic - PSP BOHEMIA as companies, France - SAGEM and SFIM companies. The new modernization project of the tank may allow extending the life of the T-72 for 15-20 years and at a cost of no more than 30% of the amount needed to purchase new cars. In terms of cost - efficiency in some respects, the T-72MP has even better results than the new tanks. The retrofit is designed as a modular system, which allows future improvements to be made depending on the needs of customers. Thanks to the use of the latest developments in the field of tank building, in terms of its combat characteristics, the T-72MP tank approached the latest NATO-made vehicles, such as Leclerc, М1А2 Abram and Leopard 2А5.
Modernization of the T-72MP envisaged an increase in all the main combat properties of the tank — fire power, security, and mobility. The problem of increasing firepower is solved by expanding the possibilities of detecting targets and identifying them in any conditions, reducing the response time to an opening fire after detection. This is achieved by installing a VS / MVS 580 commander and a combined (day / night) SAVAN-15 gunner sight with an integrated laser range finder and a thermal imaging camera into the tank. Both sights have independent stabilization of the line of sight in two planes. With the installation of new sights on the tank, an automated OMS with a set of automatic sensors for firing conditions, including the meteorological sensor, the system for monitoring the relative position of the barrel muzzle and the improved gun, the probability of hitting the first shot from the spot and on the move, day and night with any weather conditions. In addition, the crew’s actions were simplified when the tank was armed.
The security of the tank is enhanced by installing on it the built-in and additional dynamic protection of the new generation. As reported in the brochures, it increases the resistance of the reservation against ammunition with a cumulative warhead twice, against armor-piercing sabots in 1,6 times and provides protection even against ammunition with tandem warheads. The T-72MP can be equipped with an optical-electronic protection system against anti-tank guided missiles with infrared and laser guidance, similar to the Shtora-80 and Shtora-90 systems available on Russian T-1 and T-2 tanks. The machine is also equipped with new PPO systems, diagnostics and communications.
The best indicators of mobility of the T-72MP tank compared to the base T-72 are achieved through the use of a different power plant, which does not require body modification and does not change the silhouette of the car. In its composition and characteristics of the power plant T-72MP is no different from standing on the T-72AG.
The orientation to the West of many former partners in the Warsaw Pact, as well as the presence of a large number of different modifications of the T-72 tank, prompted Ukrainian tank builders to develop a seventy-two for NATO - T-72-120. The main difference from the two previous Kharkov models is that the 120-mm smooth-bore gun for NATO ammunition of the appropriate caliber is mounted on this tank. The armament complex is equipped with a new automatic loader, located in the niche of the turret, similar to the one installed on the French Leclerc tank. In the A3 transporter, 22 unitary shots are placed, the remaining 20 fit into a special niche in the rear part of the fighting compartment. The fire control system, auxiliary armament, power plant and protection of the T-72-120 are completely similar to the T-72AG tank.
Polish upgrade T-72
From its prototype tank "Tvardy" differs primarily in the new fire control system SKO-1M "Drava", designed and manufactured in Poland.
Another new element is the active armor of the type "Erawa-1" (single-layer) and "Erawa-2" (double-layer). Similar protection against cumulative projectiles for the T-72 was once developed by Soviet designers, but the Erawa is located differently and protects a large surface. In addition, "Tvardy" is equipped with a coating that absorbs radiation, the Obra-4 system, which warns that a tank is irradiated with a laser, the 12-barreled 81-mm Tucha smoke grenades launch system and the single-barrel 80-mm anti-laser grenades launch system Tellurium ". Anti-aircraft armament of model ZU-72 is installed on the tower. The driver has a passive night vision device "Radomka". The bottom under the driver’s seat is reinforced with additional armor. At the end of 1994, with the start of mass production, the French fire control system "Savan-91T" began to be installed on the PT-15. The main armament, transmission and undercarriage are preserved from the T-72, but a new Polish 12-cylinder turbo diesel S12U with 625 kW of power (2300 rpm) is installed, with which the tank reaches a speed of up to 70 km / h, and in the future it is planned to use more powerful , 735-kilowatt (i.e., 1000-strong) unit.
The mileage of a tank with one refueling reaches 650 km. RT-91 is intended primarily for the Polish army; however, if they wish, they can buy this tank for about 2 million dollars. The Poles are aware that the “Tvardy” is the last opportunity to at least to some extent adapt the design adopted by 1972 to today's requirements. But Poland needs a new generation tank, and work on it was started in 1995 in the hope of In the middle of 1998, make running tests of the prototype, conventionally called "Gorilla".
Unlike RT-91, Gorilla will have a western-type tower with almost vertical walls, ceramic armor plates and active armor protecting from sub-caliber and cumulative projectiles as well as a special layer to absorb electromagnetic radiation must cover the top. Engine - diesel power about 1000 kW. The main armament is Russian: two machine guns, 125-mm smooth-bore gun with automatic loading (which can also serve to launch 9М 119 Svir ATGM), hitting targets at a distance of 5000 m and piercing armor up to 700 mm. Fire control systems and the power unit, coupled with the transmission, developed specifically for the "Gorilla" should be computerized. The Poles are looking for cooperation in the creation of this 55-ton tank with the military industry of France, Israel and South Africa.
It is difficult to say whether the outdated RT-91 “Gorillas” will be replaced in the future, because the cost of developing a new vehicle is commensurate with the cost of creating the best Western European tank Leopard. But buying a lot of modern tanks - even in the West, even in the East - is no cheaper, and in the latter case, own industry suffers
Israeli upgrade T-72
T-72SIM-1, upgraded by the Israeli company Elbit Systems.
In the course of modernization, T-72 tanks were equipped with new communications, a friend-and-friend system, GPS navigation equipment, two thermal imaging cameras (in the driver’s monitoring device and gunner’s sight). The fire control system was refined to provide the ability to fire a guided missile through the bore.
The armament of the T-72SIM1 is stabilized to ensure the possibility of firing immediately.
The hull and tower are protected by mounted dynamic protection elements.
When upgrading to tanks installed a new command and control system. This is a computerized system that allows the commander and crew to obtain information about the battlefield.
The GPS navigation system provides additional information for subordinate crews using the short message service (SMS). The navigation system works in any meteorological conditions, which makes it different from other GPS systems.
The T-72 SIM-1 has a friend or foe system, which, if aimed at a friendly tank, warns the crew of a potential error in the disturbing sound.
As for the communication system, the old R173 was replaced by the FALCON digital tactical radio communication system manufactured by HARRIS Corporation. It has a frequency hopping, which reduces the ability to decode and encrypts conversations.
The radio station has the ability to communicate in a radius of up to 20 km and operates at microwave frequencies. The ability to send SMS messages is also available.
Azerbaijani modernization of T-72
T-72 Aslan The modernization project was developed by the Israeli company Elbit Systems together with representatives of the industry of Azerbaijan.
In the course of modernization, a computerized fire control system is installed on the tanks to ensure the execution of automatic operations. This is a computerized system that allows the commander and crew to obtain information about the battlefield. The fire control system was refined to provide the ability to fire a guided missile through the bore.
The modernization package also includes two thermal imaging cameras for the driver and, in the gunner’s sight, tank guns. A set of surveillance systems allows you to conduct combat operations in any weather conditions and at night.
The hull and turret of the T-72 Aslan are protected by mounted dynamic protection elements.
The GPS navigation system provides additional information for subordinate crews using the short message service. The navigation system works in any meteorological conditions, which makes it different from other GPS systems.
The T-72 Aslan has a friend-to-others system, which, when aimed at a friendly tank, warns the crew of a potential error with an alarm sound.
Kazakhstan modernization T-72
The tank received a built-in dynamic protection, anti-cummer grilles.
The gunner’s day sight remained the same, but the old active-passive night sight was replaced with a thermal imaging one. The tank commander was able to duplicate the actions of the gunner. The driver also received a new surveillance device.
Established new means of communication and navigation of Western production. Installation of the conditioner and auxiliary power unit is possible.
The tank received a track with rubber pads.
Engine - power up to 840 HP (mobility characteristics remain the same).
Romanian modernization T-72
TR-125 in the design of the new machine focused on enhancing the protection of the tank. As a result, its weight has increased by 7 t compared to the base model. The increase in weight led to changes in the chassis, which on the TR-125 tank has seven road wheels on each side.
In order to preserve the necessary mobility, it installed a more powerful 8VSA3 engine with a capacity of about 900л.с., Developed in France.
But it didn’t fit in the MTO, therefore the tank had to be extended to one roller, having received the characteristic semi-support undercarriage and recognizable outlines of MTO.
The armament of the TR-125 tank is similar to the Soviet T-72 tank, and all eight smoke grenade launchers are mounted on the left side of the tower
Czech modification T-72
Armament remained in the same composition as the base tank T-72 and its modifications. However, on a modernized machine, the gun is equipped with a system for monitoring the relative position of the barrel muzzle (SKPDS), allowing you to control the discrepancy between the axis of the bore of the gun and the optical line of sight resulting from bending of the barrel. The growth of the firepower of the tank was carried out by increasing the accuracy of shooting weapons at fixed and moving targets, both when firing from a standstill and when firing on the move. The effective range of shooting from the tank during the day and especially at night has been significantly increased. This is achieved thanks to the installation of the automated TURMS-T control system in the tank, which greatly expanded the capabilities of both the gunner and the tank commander to effectively detect and destroy targets. The OMS is combined with a weapon stabilizer and an automatic loading of the base tank. It controls the operation of these systems, prepares and automatically enters raw data for firing, automatically adjusts aiming angles in accordance with the raw data for firing, and also directs the 2А46 cannon and the PKT machine gun coupled with it to the target.
Another direction to increase the firepower of the new tank is the development of new ammunition for the standard 125-mm tank gun 2А46. The Czech gunsmiths created a new shot for it with an armor-piercing-sifting projectile, which reportedly has better dispersion characteristics and greater armor penetration compared to existing ammunition,
Taken together, the measures taken made it possible to increase the effective range of the upgraded tank on the move to 2000 m. The target detection range of the tank type began to be up to 5000 m in the daytime and to 4000 m at night.
Enhancing the security of the tank is provided by the DYNA-72 Dynamic Protection Kit, manufactured by the VOP 025 plant. The set of DZ DYNA-72 provides additional protection of all vital places of the tank against all types of available ammunition. This DZ is safe to handle, resistant to the action of small arms bullets and shell fragments.
The T-72 CZ series tanks are equipped with a LARDIS laser radiation detection and warning system, which is connected through the TBV to the MSA. DGO-1 smoke grenades of the new generation are fired from 12 grenade launchers located six on each side of the turret.
The upgraded Czech tank is equipped with a new BUA type ASU system capable of detecting and eliminating an emerging fire and the danger of an explosion inside the vehicle. Vital places of the tank (combat compartment, engine compartment and control compartment) are equipped with thermal and optical sensors, as well as cylinders with an environmentally friendly fire extinguisher DeuGen.
To protect the tank from magnetic mines, a mounted electromagnetic trawl was developed, which creates an additional magnetic field and thus causes a detonation of the electromagnetic mines both from the front and from the sides of the moving tank.
The problem of increasing the mobility of the tank is solved in two versions, and, as a result, two types of upgraded tanks are produced - T-72М3 CZ and T-72М4 CZ.
The T-72MZ CZ tank has a “native” engine and on-board gearboxes, improved in such a way that, at least, the mobility and maneuverability indicators are kept at the same level with the increased combat weight of the new tank. The main feature of the modernization of the engine B-46TK is the installation of two turbochargers. Improving the onboard gearboxes is to reduce the load on their main components and prevent damage in case of improper control of the tank. In addition, some changes have undergone and undercarriage of the tank.
On the tank T-72М4 CZ installed a new power unit - POWERPACK, which allowed to increase the mobility and maneuverability of the machine. Compared with the standard power plants, this option greatly simplifies the control of the tank, has a high engine power, provides the best acceleration characteristics and allows you to increase the average speed of the car when driving in different terrain conditions. The main element of the POWERPACK power unit is a four-stroke V-shaped 12-cylinder diesel engine Condor CV-12 1000 TCA with liquid cooling, having a power 746 kW (1013 hp). The engine is equipped with a twin-turbocharger supercharger.
Indian upgrade T-72
When at the beginning of the new century it became clear that the T-72М1 increasingly did not meet modern requirements, India decided to rely on its own forces in the modernization of these tanks.
The approach was radical, the tank completely lost the turret with an 125-mm cannon. Its place was taken by a very similar, but reworked under a lighter chassis tower with multi-layered anti-shell booking. As well as the Arjun, the tank, which received the designation "EX", was armed with a 120-mm rifled gun. Since the Hindus did not automate the loading process, another person appeared in the crew.
The sights were more advanced than on the T-72М1, the gunner, in particular, received a thermal imager, which the commander can also use in the "double" mode. He, in turn, has a panoramic sight stabilized in two planes.
Since the tank was heavier than the original weight of the 41, the engine power was no longer enough, and the 1000-strong diesel had to be installed, which allowed us to maintain satisfactory mobility characteristics at the level of the base sample.
Croatian modernization T-72
M-84D - Croatian version of the modernization of the Yugoslav MBT M-84. It is equipped with a new engine power 1200 l. with. (895 kW) and the new dynamic protection RRAK. The M-84D can be equipped with a remote-controlled Ramsal Samson module or a Protector M151 module from Kongsberg, as well as an Omega digital ballistic computer made by Fotona. The electric drive of the tower provides a quick transfer of fire, a new set of protection of vulnerable zones provides protection for the crew against biological, chemical and nuclear threats.
Advanced thermal imaging cameras provide the ability to operate in reduced visibility conditions - at dusk, at night, in fog, smoke, etc. All new tanks M84D and M84A4 are equipped with the latest communication kit from Racal. The power reserve of the M-84A4 and M-84D is 700 km, the maximum speed is 65 km / h. Improving the autoloader increased the rate of fire from 8 to 9 rounds per minute, efficiency increased by 15%.
The striker is protected by anti-cumulative screens, the engine at the rear is additionally protected by chains. For storage of additional ammunition added a tower basket, the protection of which is reinforced with anti-cumulative screens. LAHAT ATGM and LIRD-4B laser irradiation warning system are installed.
Iraqi modification T-72
At the end of the 80s, Iraq organized the release of a licensed version of the T-72М1 called "Assad Babil" (Babylonian Lion). The main difficulty in the production of tanks was to establish the release of high-quality cannon barrels. Barrel life was 120 shots. It is not known exactly how many "Lviv" managed to produce: according to one data - only a few pieces, according to others - around 100.