Military Review

The most brilliant victory of the Eastern (Crimean) War

32
Taking Kars in 1855 was the last significant operation and the biggest victory of the Russian weapons in the Crimean War. The siege went from June to November 1855. Kars was the most important Turkish stronghold of eastern Turkey and was considered impregnable. This victory predetermined the outcome of the war on the Caucasian front of the Crimean (Eastern) campaign. The Caucasian viceroy and the commander of the Separate Caucasian Corps, Nikolai Nikolayevich Muravyov (1794 — 1866), led the siege. He distinguished himself in 1828 at the first capture of Kars.


Caucasian Front 1853-1855

From the very beginning of the Eastern war, the Russian army led successful operations on the Caucasian front. This was explained by the fact that the Russian Caucasian Army had a vast experience of military operations in the mountains. Russian soldiers here were constantly in conditions of a small war with the mountaineers and tensions on the Turkish and Persian borders. At the head of the army were decisive, enterprising commanders, aimed at active operations.

The Ottoman Sultan and his British and French advisers planned to unite the Turkish army with the highlanders of Shamil, cut off the Russian army in Transcaucasia, which could lead to its complete destruction. And then move the fighting to the North Caucasus. By the beginning of hostilities in the Caucasian theater, the Turkish command had a very significant force in this area - the 100 thousand army. 25 thousand people with 65 guns were located in Kars, 7 thousand people with 10 guns in Ardahan, 5 thousand people with 10 guns in Bayazet. In addition, a significant grouping was located in Batumi. The commander in chief of the Ottoman troops was Abdi Pasha. Great hope was on the forces of Shamil, who had more than 10 thousand fighters. Two attack groups were formed for the offensive: 40-thousand. Anatolian army aimed at Alexandropol, 18-thousand Ardagan detachment on Akhaltsikh and Tiflis.

The approach of the war came as a surprise to the Caucasian governor, Mikhail Vorontsov. Russian troops stationed in Alexandropol, Erivan and its surroundings, in Akhalkalaki, Akhaltsikhe. Initially, the Russian forces were insignificant - only 19½ battalions, a small number of Nizhny Novgorod dragoons and irregular cavalry. In the autumn, when the gap with Porto became obvious, the Russian troops in the Transcaucasus were reinforced: the 13 Infantry Division (13 thousand soldiers) were transferred to Georgia by sea, 10-thousand were formed. Armenian-Georgian militia. 30-thousand was formed. Army group under the command of Lieutenant-General Prince Vasily Bebutov.

The first to open the fighting was Shamil. True, he was somewhat hurried, starting them before Turkey entered the war. 5 September 1853 of the year 10-th. A detachment of highlanders appeared near the village of Zakartaly in the Alazani Valley. Russian troops began to push the enemy into the mountains. 17 September Shamil with the main forces attacked an unfinished redoubt near Mesed el-Kera. The position of the besieged was critical, but they were saved by a detachment of the commander of the Caspian region, Prince Argutinsky, who made an unprecedented march from Temir-Khan-Shura directly through five Caucasian ridges. Shamil was forced to withdraw the troops. Having failed, Shamil then remained idle for a rather long time, awaiting the appearance of the Turkish army. However, the Russian command had to reckon with the presence of this threat.

The first clash with the Turks occurred on the night of October 16 (28): a large detachment attacked the post of St. Nicholas, who covered the road from Batum, along the Black Sea coast. Post of sv. Nicholas defended the garrison of 300 people with two guns. The Ottomans seized the fortifications, suffering heavy losses. 2 (14) November under Bayanur 6-th. Russian avant-garde under the command of Prince Ilya Orbeliani joined the battle in 30-thousand. Ottoman army and escaped defeat only thanks to quick help from Bebutov Abdi Pasha did not get involved in a decisive battle with the main Russian forces and led the troops to the Arpachay River. At the same time, the Ardahan Turkish grouping crossed the Russian border and reached the approaches to Akhaltsikh. 14 (26) November in the battle of Akhaltsikhe 7-th. Russian squad under the command of Prince Ivan Andronikov defeated 18-thousand. Ali Pasha's Turkish corps.

Bebutov, after the battle of Bayandur, went on the offensive. The Ottoman command decided to give battle to the Russian powerful defensive turn at Bash-Kadyklyar (Bashkadyklar). On November 19 (December 1) Prince Bebutov, in spite of the threefold numerical superiority of the enemy (13 thousand Russians against 37 thousand Turks), attacked. The Russian soldiers broke through the enemy’s right flank, the Turkish army, having lost 6 thousand people, retreated in disarray. The Russian army lost 1,5 thousand people. In this battle, the brave commander Ilya Orbeliani was mortally wounded. This victory was of great strategic importance. The Turkish army was inactive for several months, and Russia's authority in the Caucasus was confirmed.

After the battle at Bashkadyklar, the Russian army did not undertake serious operations. Emperor Nicholas was a supporter of a decisive attack on Batum, Ardagan, Kars and Bayazet. But Vorontsov, supported by Prince Paskevich, was cautious, pointed to the comparatively small number of Russian troops (and it was not possible to weaken the army in the European part of Russia), the lack of military supplies, the onset of winter, offering to postpone the offensive until spring. This allowed the Turkish command to restore the army and bring its number to 120 thousand people. They also replaced the commander - it was headed by Mustafa-Zarif-Pasha.

The Russian army strengthened not so much - up to 40 thousand bayonets and sabers. The commander-in-chief divided the army into three parts: the main forces under Bebutov - 21 thousand people, covered the central sector in the Alexandropol direction; Akhaltsikhsky detachment of Andronikov - 14 thousand people, defended the right flank from Akhaltsikha to the Black Sea; The detachment of Baron Wrangel - 5 thousand people, defended the left flank, Erivan direction.

Active fighting resumed in spring 1854. The 1854 campaign of the year was successful for the Russian army. The Akhaltsikhe detachment was the first to fight. At the end of May 12-th. The corps of Gassan Bey from the Batum district moved to Kutaisi. He was met by 3-th. detachment of Lieutenant Colonel Prince Nikolai Eristova. 28 May 1854, the Turkish corps was utterly crushed and fled to Ozugert. The Ottomans lost 2 thousand people, including the commander - Gassan Bey. Russian squad lost around 600 people. The broken parts of the Gassan-Pasha corps were combined with the Selim-Pasha corps, the number of the Turkish group reached 34 thousand soldiers. Ivan Andronnikov gathered his forces into a fist and, without allowing Selim Pasha to go on the offensive, he himself went on the attack. June 8 near the village Nigoeshti Russian troops defeated the 12-thousandth vanguard of the Turkish army. June 16 in the battle of the river Cholok Russian troops defeated 34-thousand Turkish army under the command of Selim Pasha. The Ottomans lost 4 thousand people, Russian troops - 1,5 thousand. These victories secured the right flank of the Russian army in the South Caucasus.

In the middle of July the highlanders of Shamil showed themselves. 7 thousand Shamil squad appeared in the Alazani Valley. This time his raid was more successful, the mountaineers captured more booty and many prisoners, quietly left. In general, this attack had a predatory nature, not being a combat operation. Prince Argutinsky resigned, and the new command did not show determination.

The Turkish command, having failed to break into Russian territory in the Black Sea coast, decided to strike in the Erivan direction. In July, the 16-thousandth Turkish corps launched an offensive from Bayazet on Erivan. Baron Karl Wrangel did not take a defensive position, deciding to attack. The Russian detachment reached Chingilsky Pass by forced marches and on July 29 defeated the numerically superior forces of the Turkish army in a head-on battle. The Ottomans lost 2 thousand people, the detachment of Wrangel - about 400 people. Baron organized an energetic pursuit of the enemy and July 31 took Bayazet. Most of the Turkish troops just fled, about 2 thousand retreated to Van. Thus, the Russian troops secured the left flank of the Caucasian Front.

Prince Bebutov’s forces did not take active steps for a long time - the commander-in-chief did not have the forces and means to assault Kars, when he was opposed by more than three times the superior Turkish army. By June 20 (July 2), Russian troops approached the village of Kuryuk-dara, and began to wait when the Ottomans left the fortress and enter the decisive battle. The Turkish command gained courage for about a month. Hoping for numerical superiority, the Ottomans abandoned their fortified positions and attacked Russian troops. 5 August 1854 of the year 18-th. Russian army commanded by General Bebutov entered into a decisive battle with 60-thousand. Turkish army. The fierce battle lasted 4 hours. Bebutov, used the expansion of the enemy army, and broke it in parts - first on the right flank, and then in the center. The victory was facilitated by the skillful use of artillery and rocket weapons - the Konstantinov rocket. The Ottoman army lost 10 thousand people, Russian losses - 3 thousand people. The defeated Turkish army retreated to Kars. Bebutov, given the numerical superiority of the Anatolian army - she retained up to 40 thousand people and the power of the Karsky fortified area, did not consider it possible to storm Kars. Having received the news of the defeat of the Turkish army, Shamil did not disturb the Russian troops until the end of the war.

Nikolai Nikolaevich Muravyov

At the beginning of 1855, General Nikolai Muravyov was appointed commander-in-chief of Russian troops in the South Caucasus. The fate of Muravyov-Karsky (nicknamed “Karsky”, received for taking Kars during the Crimean War) is quite whimsical. Born 14 July 1794 in the capital of the empire. His father was Major General Nikolai Nikolayevich, and his mother was Anna Mikhailovna (nee Mordvinova). Muravyov began serving as a column leader in the emperor's retinue in the quartermaster unit. Because of his excellent knowledge of mathematics, he was sent by the examiner to the Corps of Railway Engineers, and then taught geometry in mathematical classes at the drawing office of the Suite of His Majesty. He was the caretaker of the Columnar School, as well as the library manager. He was fascinated by the ideas of Freemasonry, and even with his comrades-in-arms developed a charter for a special society that was to establish a socialist republic on Sakhalin. The 1812 War of the Year put an end to these youthful dreams.

During the 1812 campaign of the year, he served in the corps of Grand Duke Konstantin Pavlovich, at the Main Apartment, took part in the Battle of Borodino (for it was awarded the Order of St. Anna 4 degree). After the liberation of Moscow, he served in the corps of Miloradovich, who advanced in the forefront and participated in a number of battles and battles. Since 1813, the participant of the Foreign campaign of the Russian army. Ants distinguished himself in many matters: under Lutzen, Bautzen, Dresden, Kulm, Leipzig and the capture of Paris. He was awarded the Order of St.. Vladimir 4 degree and the Order of St.. Anna 2 degree. Consistently produced in lieutenants, lieutenants and chief quartermaster at the Guards Cavalry Division. Returning to Russia, he was transferred to the Guards General Staff. In 1816, the captain Muraviev was seconded to A.P. Yermolov. He was a member of the emergency embassy in Persia, and then made an expedition to the eastern shores of the Caspian Sea and to Khiva. In 1821-1822 made the second expedition to the east coast of the Caspian Sea.

In the Russian-Persian war 1826-1828. commanded the 13-m of the Erivan Life-Grenadier Regiment, was an assistant chief of staff of a separate Caucasian corps. He distinguished himself in cases against the Persian commander-in-chief Abbas-Mirza, with the capture of the fortress of Abbas-Abad, with the capture of the fortress of Merenda and Tabriz. Muravyov was promoted to major general. When the Russian-Turkish war of 1828 — 1829 began, he commanded the Caucasian Grenadier Reserve Brigade and distinguished himself during the capture of Kars. Muravyov under the leadership of Paskevich in this campaign participated in the battles of Akhaltsykh and the subsequent capture of this fortress, during the occupation of Erzerum and Bayburta and other matters. He was awarded the Order of St.. George 4 degree, Order of St.. Anna 1 degree, Order of St. Vladimir 2 degree. For Akhaltsyh Muravyov was awarded the Order of St. George 3 degree and Order of St.. George 3 degree.

Due to disagreements with Paskevich, Muravyov was transferred to Poland, where he took part in suppressing the Polish uprising of the 1831 year. Ants commanding the grenadier brigade, was noted in the storming of Warsaw and was promoted to lieutenant general. He was appointed commander of the 24 Infantry Division and was awarded the Polish Order of Military Valor 2 class.

In 1832-1833 served as a military diplomatic mission in Egypt. Ants was granted an adjutant general, was the commander of the 5-th army corps. In 1834, Muravyov wrote a note “On the causes of escapes and the means to correct the deficiencies of the army”, where he provided a lot of valuable information and suggested measures to improve the situation in the armed forces. He retired and returned to service in 1848, the chief commander of the reserve battalions of the 3, 4 and 5 infantry corps. Then he was appointed a member of the Military Council and commander of the Grenadier Corps. In December, 1853 was appointed to the generals of infantry, and in November, 1854, the governor of the Caucasus and the commander of the Separate Caucasian corps. Muravyov was assigned to lead the Caucasian Front of the Crimean (Eastern) War.

The most brilliant victory of the Eastern (Crimean) War


Kars

The Russian army besieged Kars four times in the 19 century: in 1807, 1828, 1855 and 1878. In 1807, a detachment of Major General Nesvetaev as part of the 6 infantry battalion and two Cossack regiments began storming the fortress, which was defended by a 10 garrison of thousands of people. The attack, in the success of which the Ottomans were confident, was stopped on the orders of Commander-in-Chief Gudovich. In 1828, the fortress was taken by Paskevich’s troops.

Since that time, the fortress has seriously changed. The Ottoman government, conscious of the importance of this fortress in the wars with the Russian Empire, took advantage of the services of British military engineers. First-class European fortifiers included Sharokh, Chakmak and Karadag heights into the defense system. They built modern fortifications. Below the Old Fortress, on the right bank of the Kars-Chay River, a new bastion was built - Arab-Tabiya, armed with powerful caliber implements. The whole fortress line consisted of redoubts, trenches and a high shaft. Artillery batteries well shot through the near and far approaches to the fortifications. The flanks of the fortress were well protected by nature - rocky mountains and steep banks of the river. The message across the river passed through stone bridges and two pontoon bridges. Fortress garrison reached 30 thousand people. And these were regular troops, not the majority of the militias, as in 1828. In addition, on the Caucasian front, many foreign mercenaries fought on the Ottoman side, including members of the Polish uprising of 1830-1831. and the Hungarian Revolution 1848 of the year. They fought against Austria-Hungary and Russia, had a great combat experience, many changed their names and converted to Islam. For many such exiles, the struggle against the Russians has become the goal and the work of a lifetime. The Anglo-French command refused to use them on the Crimean front, so the former rebels fought in the Caucasus. In particular, the Hungarians Kmeti and Kolman became Ottoman pashas - generals.

The commander in chief (Mushir) in 1855 was Vassif Pasha. He was little knowledgeable in military affairs, so virtually all the affairs of the British adviser - William Fenwick Williams. He knew Turkish affairs well, being a military adviser in the Ottoman Empire since 1841. With the beginning of the Eastern War, Williams formally switched to the Turkish service with the rank of Ferik (Major General). Thanks to his efforts, the Kars garrison was well prepared for defense, having an 4-month supply of food, and the fortifications were strengthened. Erzerum was turned into a rear army warehouse.


William Fenwick Williams.

To be continued ...
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  2. cartridge
    cartridge 18 June 2013 09: 26
    +5
    Russian troops were stationed in Alexandropol, Erivan and its environs, in Akhalkalaki, Akhaltsikhe.


    I served for five years in those parts of Georgia in the 147th division in Akhalkalaki. This region is called Javakheti. It is populated almost exclusively by Armenians. It is jokingly called "Armenian Siberia". You take off your winter clothes in May, put them on in September. Holodryga - all year round. A high-mountain plateau, on which there is nothing to catch your eye, except for Mount Abul - the highest mountain in Georgia.
    Nothing grows except potatoes.
    In the military camp there was no light for all five years. Lived with kerosene lamps. There is no heat. In apartments they put stove stoves with a chimney into the street through a window. The Turkish border is visible from the window. Turks do not guard their border. They know that, of their own free will, no one will go to them through these dead and deserted spaces.
    Among the general military officers there was a saying at one time: "He does not know the life of a dog who did not serve in Akhalkalaki"

    Why am I writing this?
    To the fact that I am glad that we left there. We do not need this alien lifeless land.
  3. MilaPhone
    MilaPhone 18 June 2013 09: 56
    +2
    On September 17, Shamil with the main forces attacked the unfinished redoubt near Mesed al-Kera. The situation of the besieged was critical, but they were saved by a detachment of the commander of the Caspian region, Prince Argutinsky, who made an unprecedented march from Temir-Khan-Shura directly through five Caucasian ranges. Shamil was forced to withdraw troops.

    Remembered! The picture is like this. Franz Roubaud "The passage of Prince Argutinsky across the Caucasian ridge":
    1. Gari
      Gari 18 June 2013 10: 14
      +2
      Ivan Malkhazovich Andronikov 1798-1868) - Russian general, hero of the Caucasian and Crimean wars. He came from an ancient family of the Kakhetian princes Andronikashvili. The son of Prince Melchizedek (Malkhaz, 1773-1822) and his wife Tsarevna Mariam Archilovna (1775-1854), the daughter of Tsarevich Archil and the niece of the Imereti king Solomon I, sister of the Imereti king Solomon II; his grandmother, Princess Elena, was the daughter of the king of Georgia, Heraclius II.
      Ilya Dmitrievich (Iliko Zurabovich) Dzhambakurian-Orbeliani - prince, Russian general, hero of the Crimean War, younger brother of General Orbeliani Grigory Dmitrievich. The son of Prince Dmitry Nikolaevich Orbeliani, head of the Tiflis customs.
      Born in 1815, came from an old Georgian princely family.
      1. MilaPhone
        MilaPhone 18 June 2013 10: 23
        +3
        Quote: Gari

        Gari

        In the picture I have presented, the feat was not of Prince Andronikov, but of Prince Argutinsky, nicknamed Argut, the Samur boar and his soldier.
        Moses Zakharovich Argutinsky-Dolgorukov. Born in 1797 in Tiflis. Came from the Armenian princely family, religion: Armenian Apostolic Church. Grandson of the Patriarch of Armenia Joseph Argutinsky. In the reign of Paul I, the Patriarch Joseph of Armenia, his brothers and nephews were granted the title of Princes Argutinsky-Dolgoruky (Dolgorukov). The first part is the Russified form of the name of the patriarch. The second part is the translation of the nickname of the king of ancient Persia, Artaxerxes I “long arm” (according to Plutarch, his right arm was longer than his left), from which the patriarch’s family claimed
        1. Gari
          Gari 18 June 2013 10: 34
          +1
          Quote: Milafon
          In the picture I have presented, the feat was not of Prince Andronikov, but of Prince Argutinsky, nicknamed Argut, the Samur boar and his soldier.

          Good afternoon, I know that Prince Argutinsky, I just wrote about all the participants in those battles, and you didn’t have time to write Argutinsky before and wrote in such detail that I can only add a picture of the Great Leader
          Armenians, like Georgians, faithfully served the Russian State
      2. Gari
        Gari 18 June 2013 10: 29
        +1
        Vasily Osipovich Bebutov 1791-1858) - Prince, Russian general, hero of the Caucasian campaigns and the Crimean war
        He was born in Tiflis on January 1, 1791. The family of the Bebutov princes belonged to the oldest in Armenia; subsequently, the Bebutovs moved to Georgia and held important posts here as hereditary rulers of Tiflis (Meliks) and jägermeisters (Miskarbashi) of Georgian kings
        1. Gari
          Gari 18 June 2013 10: 43
          +2
          Bebutov February 13, 1844 was appointed to the post of commander of troops in Northern and Nagorno-Dagestan.
          In 1845, Bebutov took part in the campaign against the murids and brought significant benefits to the cause; having cleared Andy and Gumbet, he set up a shop there and supplied the expedition troops with food; in the reverse movement, when the highlanders, animated by success, relentlessly pursued the convoy of his rearguard, he did not lose a single wagon. For these merits, he was awarded the Order of St. Vladimir of the 2nd degree.
          In the fall of 1846, Shamil, taking advantage of the dissolution of Russian troops into apartments, invaded the Darginsky district, but Prince Bebutov did not give him time either to develop an uprising or to gain a foothold in the occupied area: on October 13 he stormed the aul Aymyaki, which was transferred to Shamil, and on the 13th he defeated the head of Shamil himself near the village of Kutishikhi. Shamil’s gathering, reaching up to 20 thousand at the beginning of the case, took to flight, and Shamil lost 1200 killed and wounded, 300 prisoners, a mountain gun, charging boxes and an ax - the emblem of his power. Deputies from the villages of the Darginsky district appeared to Bebutov on the battlefield with an expression of humility, and by night no murid remained in the district. With the same energy, enemy crowds were scattered near the tracts of Tsukhedar and Khujal-Makhi.
          For his feat Bebutov November 5, 1846 received the Order of St. George 3rd degree number 462
          1. MilaPhone
            MilaPhone 18 June 2013 11: 00
            +4
            Quote: Gari
            Armenians, like Georgians, faithfully served the Russian State

            Yes it is. It's a pity that it happened with the Georgians - an "uncle with an American upbringing" came and poured a bullet into relations rich in common heroes and exploits. It's a pity.
            1. Gari
              Gari 18 June 2013 11: 07
              +4
              Quote: Milafon
              Yes it is. It's a pity that it happened with the Georgians - an "uncle with an American upbringing" came and poured a bullet into relations rich in common heroes and exploits. It's a pity.

              True, it’s a pity that the relations between Russia and Georgia, Western Orthodox brotherhoods spoiled two Westerners, but I can say with confidence, since I visit Georgia very often and have good friends, I can say that I spent my childhood there, the people of Georgia, the Georgians are set up just side of Russia, everyone is waiting for the abolition of visas, the opening of the road through Abkhazia, and they are tired of Saakashvili, of his shyness, they are waiting for October, his term of office will expire, although even now his guard does not obey him
              1. rodevaan
                rodevaan 19 June 2013 07: 55
                +2
                Nothing! We will restore everything, and we will defeat this pin-dos infection! I think that our peoples will be united, in one big and mighty power.
                Oh how many centuries we stand, I think we will survive this misfortune!
  4. smersh70
    smersh70 18 June 2013 10: 04
    +3
    [
    Quote: cartridge
    This region is called Javakheti. It is populated almost exclusively by Armenians.


    I completely agree with you, except for the aforementioned ..... actually, the Meskhetian Turks lived there. And the region was called. Meskheti ... Stalin sent them to Uzbekistan in 1941, fearing that they would support the Turks ... and they settled specially not even Georgians, namely Armenians ... as if to counterbalance the Turks, in the hope that they would fight as partisans ...
    and the places are definitely harsh, though it’s super in the summer! There’s still an alpine lake -Parvana ... where trout was found in the years of the USSR, though the locals all destroyed it ... from starvation ......
    1. Gari
      Gari 18 June 2013 10: 17
      +1
      Quote: smersh70
      -Parvana ... where trout was found during the years of the USSR, though the locals all destroyed it ... from hunger ......

      Again, the ships got why you can’t live without humiliation
      the region was called Samtskhe-Javakheti, ask the Georgians, and now there is fish, no one died of hunger
      1. smersh70
        smersh70 18 June 2013 11: 04
        +3
        Quote: Gari
        Again, the ships got why you can’t live without humiliation



        Yes, my friend .... I know these places not by hearsay .... I spent my childhood in the Dmaniski region of Georgia adjacent to this territory ...... in the summer there we rested and fished .....
        so according to your words .. where did the Meskhetian Turks expel ....
        The territory of historical Meskhetia corresponds to the three current administrative regions of Georgia - Adigen, Akhaltsikhe and Aspindza, which are included in the Samtskhe-Javakheti region, as well as adjacent regions of Turkey. A small group of Meskhetians lived in eastern Adjara and northeast of modern Turkey.
        This ethnic group has several names, which often causes confusion and disagreement even among representatives of this people. To begin with, the Meskh is a subethnos of Georgians, who, being Orthodox Christians, do not associate themselves with the Meskhetian Turks, who are Sunni Muslims, besides speaking the Turkic language. And the latter, for the most part, also do not recognize kinship with either the Meskhs or the Georgians in general. They call themselves not Meskhetian, but Akhaltsikhe Turks (Ahıska Türkler)

        Among the Meskhetian Turks, there is no agreement about their own origin. More than 80% of them consider themselves descendants of the ethnic Turks “irli” (Turkish-speaking farmers) and “teryakly” (shepherd-Azerbaijanis), the rest build their ancestry to the part of Meskh Georgians who converted to Islam in the XNUMXth-XNUMXth centuries and converted to Turkish . There is also a version that the Meskhetian Turks descended from the symbiosis of one of the clans of the Ottoman Turks who settled here, all with the same Georgian Meskh tribe. Most experts believe that two main components nevertheless participated in the ethnogenesis of the Meskhetian Turks: the ancient Georgian tribe of the Meskhs and the Türks.
        Recent History [edit]

        In 1944, the Meskhetian Turks (along with Kurds, Khemshills), “due to the fact that a significant part of the population was connected with the residents of the border areas of Turkey by kinship and emigration sentiment, accused of complicity with the enemies, smuggling and serving for Turkish intelligence agencies as a source for the recruitment of espionage elements and planting gangs ”, by decree of the State Defense Committee of the USSR No. 6279 dated July 31, 1944. Meskhetian Turks were evicted from Georgia to Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan, all EHO 115,5 thousand. [2] 17 thousand of them died on the way
        1. Gari
          Gari 18 June 2013 11: 17
          0
          Yes, my friend .... I know these places not by hearsay .... I spent my childhood in the Dmaniski region of Georgia adjacent to this territory ...... in the summer there we rested and fished .....
          A pleasant surprise, this appeal to me is surprised, otherwise it’s always normal with your countrymen, I spent my childhood in Georgia in an international city, and childhood friends were of so many nationalities, and still Russians, Ukrainians, Georgians, Azerbaijanis. We are friends together, we drink tea, but on this site, only, I understand that there was a war between our countries, and now the border is the front line, but I’m trying to conduct a polemic normally, from your only humiliation, insults, and indeed we will meet at the front, see you in the sight .....
          1. smersh70
            smersh70 18 June 2013 11: 38
            +4
            Quote: Gari
            I spent my childhood in Georgia in an international city


            and in which, if not a secret ... the most international was DMANISI ..
            our tutu normally lead a polemic .... know problems ..... the only one I really want to see in the scope is Stoic.)))))))) that definitely provokes .......
            1. Gari
              Gari 18 June 2013 11: 53
              0
              Batumi is no secret in my opinion the most international city in the Union
              Quote: smersh70
              our tutu normally lead a polemic .... know problems ..

              -Parvana ... where trout was found during the years of the USSR, though the locals all destroyed it ... from hunger ..
              Who wrote, and so almost always
              1. smersh70
                smersh70 18 June 2013 12: 19
                +3
                Quote: Gari
                Who wrote, and so almost always



                right ... like all fish in 3 lakes of the Dmanisi region .... and local there --- I didn’t write nationality, but local ones .. because right now representatives of many nationals live there .....

                in the summer of 2012 I arrived in dmanisi to catch - and there instead of such a chic lake - there was a puddle ... fool
        2. Gari
          Gari 18 June 2013 11: 22
          +1
          Quote: smersh70
          Among Meskhetian Turks there is no agreement on their own origin

          Meskhi is the Georgians, and in general the Georgian name, even there is such a surname
          Meskhetian Turks, in principle, are Turks, Stalin evicted them from this region, as they were not trustworthy and loyal to the Turks, but there were not so many of them, they were evicted to Uzbekistan, where in the late 80s the Uzbeks already evicted them, remember of course these events
          1. smersh70
            smersh70 18 June 2013 11: 36
            +2
            Quote: Gari
            The Uzbeks evicted them, of course, remember these events



            Yes, we sheltered .. and a part was settled in Khojaly ..... so what, then your countrymen did with them ... well, you yourself know ... hi... then I had to step on the village of Maragu with the aim of taking hostages in order to exchange them for Meskhetian Turks .......
            1. Gari
              Gari 18 June 2013 12: 04
              0
              Quote: smersh70
              Yes, we sheltered .. and a part was settled in Khojaly ..... so what, then your countrymen did with them.

              So you constantly repeat Khojaly, when peaceful people die, those who are innocent are a tragedy, I know that you have elevated it to the level of official propaganda - they say the Armenians massacred in Khojaly, I will not give other examples, only Mutalibova The first legal president of Azerbaijan:

              As those Khojaly residents who escaped say, it was all organized so that there was a reason for my resignation. Some force was acting to discredit the president. I don’t think that the Armenians, who are very clear and competent in such situations, could allow the Azerbaijanis to receive documents exposing them in fascist actions. It can be assumed that someone was interested in subsequently showing these shots at the session of the Armed Forces and focusing everything on my person.
              If I declare that it is the fault of the Azerbaijani opposition, they can say that I slander them. But the general background of reasoning is such that the corridor along which people could leave was still abandoned by the Armenians. Why should they shoot then?
              Especially in the territory close to Agdam, where by that time there was enough strength to go out and help people. Or simply agree that civilians are leaving. This practice has been all the time.
              They told me all the time that the Khojaly people are holding on, that they need help with weapons, people, and food. I gave instructions to do this by helicopters. However, the pilots, as they explained to me, refused to fly there, since they do not have special devices to get away from the stingers. Almost a whole week passed in this way. There was also an Agdam group located nearby, which was obliged to monitor the development of the event all the time. As soon as the equipment surrounded Khojaly, it was necessary to evacuate the population. Even earlier, I gave such an order for Shusha: to leave the men, and to take out the women and children. These are also the laws of war: they must be saved. My behavior was objective and unambiguous: I gave such instructions, but why they were not carried out in Khojaly, it is not clear to me. By the way, I spoke several times during this period with Mkrtchyan, the chairman of the NKR Supreme Council: "You have laid thousands of people. Give us the opportunity to take out their corpses." But he replied that there should not be any corpses, they have our people who are fed, although there is not enough food, and are ready to release them in exchange for their hostages.
              Question - When were you informed of these dead?

              Answer - The day after it was reported that there were only a few dead in Khojaly. Information came from the Minister of the Interior.

              Question - Who was responsible for this information?

              The answer is the Minister himself. By that time, a press service had been created in the Ministry of Defense. After the story with the helicopter, we agreed that no one would give unverified information.

              Question - Do you consider Prime Minister Hasan Hasanov to be responsible?

              Answer - The head of government, of course, is responsible for everything, although he denies this, saying that he does not deal with such issues. But the government is the government.
              1. smersh70
                smersh70 18 June 2013 12: 32
                +3
                Quote: Gari
                Here you are constantly repeating Khojaly, d


                tutu is not this topic ---- like what was there in Khojaly .... I mean the continuation of the theme of the Meskhetian Turks ..... would have placed them elsewhere, I would have written. in Khojaly - wrote about it .... hi
                I’ll really advise you to read the memories of the journalist Ivleva, who comes with Khojaly with the 366th regiment .... well, by the way ....
                1. Gari
                  Gari 18 June 2013 14: 16
                  +1
                  Quote: smersh70
                  tutu is not this topic ---- like what was there in Khojaly

                  So I didn’t raise this topic first to Khojalu, and why Ivliev when there are memories of your legitimate president, and also the recollection of another journalist Dana Mazalova incidentally related to the Azerbaijani cameraman and television journalist Chingiz Mustafayev who just shot the truth about these events and then mysteriously died, ok, close this topic
                  1. smersh70
                    smersh70 18 June 2013 14: 30
                    +2
                    Quote: Gari
                    And why Ivlieva when there are memories of your rightful president,


                    Mutallibov defended his interests when he gave an interview ... and Ivleva .. once I entered tanks in Khojaly, I saw everything with my own eyes ... you catch the difference ....
                    why don’t you smoke - don’t like or don’t want))))))))))
                    1. Gari
                      Gari 18 June 2013 15: 21
                      +2
                      Quote: smersh70
                      .a Ivleva.

                      I seem to have already written that we will close this topic, which you yourself proposed to close.
                      Ivleva I don’t know who she is and she might have an interest, at least financial
                      And here is your Mutalibov and your journalist Chingiz Mustafayev mysteriously killed. We will continue on this topic, but I recall the open topic of the massacre in the Armenian village of Maraga, when up to 100 people died and more than 50 were taken hostage, and I don’t smoke though I drink on holidays
                      1. Gari
                        Gari 18 June 2013 15: 25
                        0
                        Srach begins, if we talk normally, who puts the cons?
                      2. smersh70
                        smersh70 18 June 2013 16: 45
                        +3
                        Quote: Gari
                        who puts the cons?


                        I'm not sure fellow
                      3. Gari
                        Gari 18 June 2013 16: 57
                        +1
                        Quote: smersh70
                        I'm not sure

                        I believe, I myself do not like to put minuses, pluses yes
    2. Gari
      Gari 18 June 2013 12: 28
      0
      Quote: smersh70
      khemshilyami
      --

      Hamshens, Khemshils, Khemshins (self-names: Hemshinli, Homshetsi; Armenian Համշե (ն) ցիներ; Turkish Hemşinli) - sub-ethnic groups of Armenians. The settlement area is the Black Sea coast in Turkey, in the region of Amshen, Abkhazia, Armenia and Russia. After the forcible deportation in 1944 from Georgia, a small number live in Kazakhstan and (since the 1990s) in the interior of Russia. The total number of ethnic groups can reach from 400 thousand people to more than 1 million.
      They speak dialects of Armenian and Turkish. Most of the Khemshil living in Turkey profess Islam (Sunnis of the Hanifi madhhab), some are adherents of the Armenian Apostolic Church.
      1. smersh70
        smersh70 18 June 2013 12: 40
        +3
        Quote: Gari
        Hamshens, Khemshils, Khemshins (self-names: Hemshinli, Homshetsi; Armenian Համշե (ն) ցիներ; Turkish Hemşinli) are sub-ethnic groups of Armenians.



        You do not confuse them with the population of Meskhetia .. they lived in Adjara ...
        KHEMSHILS, an ethnic group of Turks (see TURKS), live in the Russian Federation (1,5 thousand people, 2002; mainly in the Krasnodar Territory), Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Turkey. The total number of khemshilov is estimated at 4 thousand people. They speak the Pontic dialect of the Armenian language; most Hamsils speak Turkish. Believers are Sunni Muslims.
        Most scholars consider Khemshil as descendants of the Muslim part of Hamshen Armenians. The features of life and culture, they are largely similar to the Turks.
        In the 19th century, the Hemshiles inhabited the eastern regions of Trapezund province (Ottoman Empire). In 1878, according to the San Stefano Peace Treaty, the Batumi District entered the Russian Empire, on the territory of which there were twelve Khemshil villages. On November 25-26, 1944, the Khemshils, together with the Greeks, Kurds, and Turks, were expelled from Adjara as "an unreliable population." Most of them were placed in small groups in the position of "special settlers" in southern Kyrgyzstan (mainly in the Osh and Jalalabad regions), a small part - in the Chimkent and Dzhambul regions of Kazakhstan.
        In 1982-1984, 22 Khemshil families moved from Kyrgyzstan to the Absheron region and, at about the same time, together with the first families of the Turks and Kurds - to the village of Pshekhskaya, Belorechensky district, Krasnodar Territory. Interethnic conflicts in Central Asia pushed about 200 Khemshil families from Kyrgyzstan to flee to the Krasnodar Territory. The Islamization of the ancestors tore the Khemshil from the pan-Armenian environment. They recognize their identity, but consider themselves part of the Turks, not the Armenians. Murat Karayalchin, the former mayor of Ankara is a Hemshil, the former Turkish Prime Minister Mesut Yilmaz also comes from the Hemshil,smile
        1. Gari
          Gari 18 June 2013 14: 22
          0
          Hamshens are divided into three main groups: Hamshens (Hemsils) of the western group (Hemschins), or bash Hamshens, live mainly in the mountain villages of silt Rize. These are Sunni Muslims, represented in large numbers in the areas of Chamlykhemshin (Viyya) and Khemshina. Smaller Khemshil communities live far in the west of Turkey in the silts of Istanbul, Erzurum (il), Sakarya, Duzce, Kocaeli and Zonguldak. The Western group uses a special dialect of the Turkish language called Hemschinche.
          The Hamshens of the eastern group (Homshetsi), or hop-khemshins, are also Sunni Muslims and live in silt Artvin, mostly in the city of Kemalpasha (Makriali), in the Khopa region, as well as in the village of Muratly (Berlivan) in the district of Borchka. A large number lived in Adjara (Georgia), but they, like the local Turks (including Meskhetian Turks), were deported to Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan during World War II. A significant part of these immigrants in 1989 moved to the Krasnodar Territory together with the Meskhetian Turks. The spoken language of the eastern Hamshens is the archaic dialect of the Armenian language (Homshetsma).
          Oriental Hamshens are divided into the following patronymic subgroups:
          Turtsevans (including Germaktsi) - the largest group
          Ardlets
          Sevkedatsi (karaderli, information about them is currently absent)
          clan Topaloglu (a separate ethnic group classifying itself as hop-hemshilah)
          The Hamshens of the northern group (Hamshentsi) are the descendants of the non-Islamized part of the Hamshens who left Hamshen during the conversion of the rest of the population to Islam and initially settled in Samsun (Dzhanik, Kursunlu, Charshamba), Horde, Giresun and Trabzon (in the Kara-dere valley, “Black rivers "east of Trabzon). Most of these Hamshens now live in the Krasnodar Territory, in particular in Sochi, in Abkhazia and Adygea. As Christians, they preserve a distinctive culture and special Hamshen identity. Like the Hamshens of the eastern group, they speak the Hamshen dialect, calling it hayren (Armenian). Among the peculiarities of the dialect are “oceans,” replacing the sound “p” with “y,” using the suffix “-ush” instead of “-el” and “-al” in the indefinite form of the verb, etc. For example: thing-ban-pon, wind -kami-komi, no-aranz-ronts, mouth-beran-peron, pear-tandz-dondz, slow-kamatz-gomats, open-banal-snake, torture-tangel-dongush, strong-cupid-omur, man-march -masht, four-chors-chois, high-barsr-paysr, outward-durs-tus, field-art-id, bride-hars-hayis, cold-tzur-tsuid, respectively, in Russian, Armenian and Amshen dialect.
          Amshentsians of the northern group are divided into the following patronymic subgroups:
          Dzhanik-Horduy (including Units, Termets, Charshamps, Fatsats)
          Trabzonians (including mala)

          In principle, my paternal ancestors are rooted in Hamshen Armenians
          1. smersh70
            smersh70 18 June 2013 14: 31
            +2
            Quote: Gari
            In principle, my paternal ancestors are rooted in Hamshen Armenians


            I agree ... but they did not live in Meskhetia .... and before the Armenians, Meskhetian Turks lived there ...... hi
            1. Gari
              Gari 18 June 2013 15: 31
              0
              And you have few revered them 38000 people
              1. Gari
                Gari 18 June 2013 15: 34
                0
                Among the Meskhetian Turks, there is no agreement about their own origin. More than 80% of them consider themselves descendants of the ethnic Turks “irli” (Turkish-speaking farmers) and “teryakly” (shepherd-Azerbaijanis), the rest build their ancestry to the part of Meskh Georgians who converted to Islam in the XNUMXth-XNUMXth centuries and converted to Turkish . There is also a version that the Meskhetian Turks descended from the symbiosis of one of the clans of the Ottoman Turks who settled here, all with the same Georgian Meskh tribe. Most experts believe that two main components nevertheless participated in the ethnogenesis of the Meskhetian Turks: the ancient Georgian tribe of the Meskhs and the Türks.
                In general, in essence, they can be considered Muslims by the Georgians., Moreover, this is on Georgian land
              2. smersh70
                smersh70 18 June 2013 16: 46
                +2
                Quote: Gari
                And you have few revered them 38000 people



                the rest left for Turkey or directly from Uzbekistan to Russia and Kazakhstan ...
                1. Gari
                  Gari 18 June 2013 16: 58
                  0
                  Why did you leave?
                  Although it’s clear that they’re not talking and it’s hard for you to live
                  1. smersh70
                    smersh70 18 June 2013 17: 42
                    +1
                    Quote: Gari
                    Although it’s clear that they’re not talking and it’s hard for you to live



                    we have a high standard of living ... and at least better than our neighbors)))))))
  • Valery-SPB
    Valery-SPB 18 June 2013 10: 08
    +4
    I do not agree with the author about the introduction of the designation - "the last victory in the Eastern War." The entire Eastern War was a victory.
    It is high time to abandon Lenin's interpretation of the Eastern War, such as "The defeat in the Crimea is a disgrace to Russia, the failure of the policy of Nicholas 1, the reason is the backwardness of Russia, etc."

    It should be noted that by 1853, at the time of the outbreak of war, there was still a template for waging wars before the pre-Napoleonic era, when the advance of the army into the enemy’s country was impossible without taking fortresses in order to protect their communications.

    The strength of Russia was proportionate to the enemy forces, the Turks, in this theater of operations and without any technical backlog. The Russian army and navy brilliantly proved this.

    The coalition invasion forces got stuck in Bulgaria due to properly organized opposition from the local resistance forces with the support of the Russian side, which led to the loss of support bases.
    Landing in the Crimea is an act of despair.

    The coalition armies could not develop a strategic offensive inland without taking the Sevastopol fortress, and they got stuck at this stage of the war without even engaging in a clash with the covering army.
    The intention of other potential adversaries, newly formed traitors, to carry out an invasion of Russia, forced the latter to keep the main part armed forces on the western borders, and not use them for their intended purpose in the Crimea.

    Talk of superiority in armaments (rifled weapons) has no ground beneath. there was a use of palliative - shooting from rifled weapons, but muzzle-loading, by a Mignier bullet.
    1. Standard Oil
      Standard Oil 18 June 2013 11: 47
      +2
      The Crimean War was not a victory for Russia, rather, according to its results, everyone was unsatisfied, Russia temporarily lost influence in the Black Sea, as well as the sailing fleet, but by that time the sailing fleet was more and more obsolete and it was replaced by steamboats, so it was easier rearmament, and most importantly, Germans like Nesselrode, who was replaced by Gorchakov, were removed from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Russian politics began to go in line with its interests. The Turks seemed to fend off okay, but everyone understood that Russia had not gone away, and without the help of Great Britain and France they never they wouldn’t win. In general, the Turks were left with nothing but the start. In France, Napoleon 3 amused the Czechoslovakia, France received nothing more than the destruction of good relations with Russia, and everything ended for France with the Sedan and the Paris Commune. Great Britain, as always, is unhappy, she always Russia is dissatisfied as long as it exists on the world map, and all these embarrassments in Crimea, cholera mowed out half of the expeditionary force, an attack by a light brigade, etc. It seems like there was intimacy, but no one got high. I don’t understand anything about the Sardinian kingdom how did it get there.
      The article is interesting. In addition to academician Tarle, very little has been written about the Crimean War.
      1. Valery-SPB
        Valery-SPB 18 June 2013 12: 08
        +1
        And if you look at the geopolitical scale?
        Who has lost?
        Russia? Fleet? So all the same it was necessary to build a new one. Under all agreements, Russia left the exit from the Black Sea. But, earlier, the output depended on the presence of the Turkish fleet commensurate with the Russian, I apologize, Ottoman, but not after the war.

        Turkey? But the Ottoman Empire turned into Turkey. Formally, the Ottoman Empire broke up following the First World War, and de facto, following the results of the Eastern War, having lost a number of territories in favor of France and England.
    2. alicante11
      alicante11 18 June 2013 12: 01
      +4
      Well, about "victory" - you turned it down. But what about the ban on having a Black Sea fleet? Isn't this the quintessence of defeat?
      Regarding the technical superiority of the Allies over Russia, I agree that it was not too serious for our steam ships (although those machines still did not give a strong advantage, if not calm), and threaded unions in the troops and bombing weapons. And the French armored batteries did not dare to repeat the trick with Kinburn in Sevastopol.
      The main problem of our army was not even that they feared the strike of the Austrians. There was a problem of logistics supply and reinforcements in the Crimea. The Allies had a well-organized transportation by sea, and for several hundred kilometers we had all the supplies brought in by tug. The lack of supply capacities did not allow deploying the forces necessary for the deblockade near Sevastopol. Which led to the defeat at the main theater of war. And this depreciated the success on other fronts.
      In addition, at sea we, nevertheless, were seriously inferior to the Allies. Which, however, is not surprising, given that the two largest fleets of the planet acted against us. As a result, the actions of the Russian fleet at sea were reduced to passive defense in the Sevastopol region, in the Baltic Sea (loss of the Aland Islands), in the North (Solovki bombing) and in the Far East - a reflection of the assault and the next year surrender of Petropavlovsk and the hide and seek of the Okhotsk flotilla at the mouth Cupid.
      Although, again, we can say that our situation was not so critical. Indeed, for some time at the World Cup in battleships there was even parity with the allies. So the active operations of the Black Sea Fleet could allow to disrupt the landing in Crimea. In the Baltic, the Allies themselves were not active, and attributing this only due to still very imperfect barrage mines would be foolish. Not a single ship that exploded on them sank, even taking into account their still mediocre survivability. And the British, for example, did not consider the war with Russia an easy walk. Since they not only did not want to attack the practically unprotected Alaska, they even set the treaty to neutrality of Russian possessions in Alaska in exchange for the neutrality of their Pacific colonies.
      So we can say that this war was the crown of the military power of the Russian Empire, its peak. However, the enemy forces were still superior, especially in the field of finance. And after the Crimean War, the sunset of the Russian Empire began.
    3. Gato
      Gato 18 June 2013 12: 06
      +2
      The victory was the entire Eastern war.

      Good victory for myself. Under the Paris Treaty, Russia lost the right to have a fleet in the Black Sea, the Aland Islands and the Danube Delta.
      Landing in the Crimea is an act of despair.

      Is the 11-month siege and capture of Sevastopol also an act of despair?
      Talk of superiority in armaments (rifled weapons) is groundless

      - not even funny.
      1. Valery-SPB
        Valery-SPB 18 June 2013 15: 59
        +3
        Gato SU Today, 12:06 PM ↑ New

        Good victory for myself. Under the Paris Treaty, Russia lost the right to have a fleet in the Black Sea, the Aland Islands and the Danube Delta.


        The results of the war.
        The results of the Eastern (Crimean) war are complex and far from straightforward, which is enshrined in the very structure of the Paris Peace Treaty. To consider them outside this integrity, proceeding from ideological considerations, suppressing or belittling the significance of their results and arbitrarily inflating the significance of others, is both unscientific and historically unfair, even if only with respect to Russia and our ancestors.
        Despite the widespread opinion that Russia was officially the loser, you will not find the phrase "Russia lost the war" anywhere in the documents - neither in the Paris Peace Treaty (March 30, 1856), nor in the manifesto of Alexander II (March 31, 1856) ... The document said that Russia "stopped the war." When peace was concluded in Paris without capitulations, annexations and indemnities, the French ambassador Burquinet, having familiarized himself with the provisions of the peace treaty, exclaimed: "It is not clear who lost in this war and who won." His statement was paraphrased: "It was not the one who lost, but not the one who won, won."
        1. Gato
          Gato 18 June 2013 16: 44
          +1
          The results of the Eastern (Crimean) war are complex and far from straightforward

          Yes, in fact, this can be said about the outcome of any war. Especially if you consider the long term.
          I don’t think at all that Russia lost that war, but you must agree that victory cannot be discussed either.
  • Motors1991
    Motors1991 18 June 2013 14: 22
    +4
    Well told the elder Moltke about the Crimean War to the Russian Tsar Alexander II. You did not lose the war, you did not WIN. Considering which coalition opposed Russia, the results of the allies are more than modest.
  • Valery-SPB
    Valery-SPB 18 June 2013 20: 39
    0
    Quote: Gato
    The results of the Eastern (Crimean) war are complex and far from straightforward

    Yes, in fact, this can be said about the outcome of any war. Especially if you consider the long term.
    I don’t think at all that Russia lost that war, but you must agree that victory cannot be discussed either.


    I moderately agree. But, re-read the article. We fought with the Turks (Ottomans). A chain of brilliantly won battles on land and at sea. This could be the whole war and limit. But ... The first stage is a confident victory, the second stage is a draw (1 + 0). The Turks have a defeat from the Russians and a defeat from the Allies, the loss of territories (-1 and -1 = -2). The coalition forces (England, France and the Kingdom) have a defeat in Bulgaria (-1) and a draw in Crimea (0), a total of (-1 + 0).