Military Review

First in space

“For many people of our generation, the flight of Valentina Tereshkova to space meant no less, and perhaps even more, than the flight of Gagarin. For us, members of the first women's group of cosmonauts, this has become the crown of a lifetime. I think I will not be mistaken in saying that the period until the group existed was for us all the most dramatic, the brightest, the most significant and the most difficult. A huge number of people and events of world significance fit in it. ”
Valentina Leonidovna Ponomareva

Fifty years ago, 16 June 1963, the whole world learned that the Soviet Union had sent the Vostok-6 spacecraft into orbit with the first woman on board. Behind the stream of congratulations and pompous phrases, a lot of details and interesting facts accompanying Valentina Tereshkova's path to world popularity are completely lost. Few people know what sacrifices she had to make in order to achieve her dream ...

The sixties were a period of tough confrontation between the two superpowers, who chose a manned cosmonautics to be the place of demonstration of technical potential. Losing leadership in this area seemed unacceptable not only to the leaders of our country, but to ordinary residents. General Nikolai Kamanin, who was at the head of the preparation and conduct of space flights, said: "... Americans should not be given a single chance to outrun us, we must continue to amaze the world with our achievements in space." It was precisely these dominant moods in society that served as the main arguments for the decision to send a woman into space.

Valentina Tereshkova was born in the family of collective farmers 6 in March 1937 in the village of Maslennikovo in the Yaroslavl region. My father was a tractor driver, and my mother kept a household and worked on a collective farm. The girl's father was called to the front in 1939, when the Finnish war began, and did not return from there. After that, the mother with three children moved to Yaroslavl. Here Valya went to school. The childhood and youth of the future celebrity proceeded according to the usual scenario for millions of Soviet children. Her life was neither idle, nor secure, nor easy, she got used to difficulties, learned to overcome herself. In 1953, Valentina graduated from the seven-year-old, and already in 1954, due to a difficult financial situation in the family, she began her career at the Yaroslavl tire factory. In the evenings, Valya attended classes at an evening school for working youth. Further work activity of Tereshkova was held at the Krasny Perekop textile mill, where, in parallel with her work, she managed to complete the correspondence department of the light industry technical school at 1960. In August of the same year, Valentina became the released secretary of the Komsomol committee of the plant, and in March 1962 joined the CPSU.

Valentina was always a sports girl, was fond of parachuting, was engaged in the Yaroslavl flying club. It was here that the future cosmonaut had his first dreams about conquering the sky. Around the same period after the successful flight of Gagarin, the “father” of the Soviet cosmonautics Sergei Korolev had the idea of ​​a pilot experiment with a woman-cosmonaut. The final decision on the creation of a female cosmonaut detachment was made in December of 1961. And at the beginning of 1962 in DOSAAF flying clubs, in the strictest secrecy, a set of challengers was announced. After a medical examination of the eight hundred people in question, according to the stated criteria of age, height and weight, only fifty-eight remained. The advantage was given to women athletes glider, aircraft, and, especially, parachuting (because the future astronaut will have to eject and land on a parachute). At the next stage, fifty-three more people were eliminated; only five women were enrolled in the cosmonaut corps: Valentina Tereshkova, Valentina Ponomareva, Zhanna Yerkina, as well as Irina Solovyova and Tatyana Kuznetsova. The authors themselves called the selection program “super complex”. Requests to the psychophysiological and biomedical parameters of the organism have not been reduced for any item for women. Only the overload on the centrifuge was reduced from twelve to ten units. Tereshkova first overcame all the tests and was a member of the cosmonaut corps from that moment until the end of April 1997. March 12 Valentine's Day 1962 is already located in the Cosmonaut Training Center, the rest of the women arrived a little later. On April 12, the “special women’s cosmonaut battalion,” as Alexey Leonov called them, was formed.

Immediately after enrollment in the space detachment, all the girls were called up for military service with the rank of privates. And besides this, during the first conversation with the selected aspirant candidates, Korolev said that in order to achieve a dream, they would have to make a choice between personal life and heaven.

The characters, inclinations, habits and life experiences of women differed from each other. However, for all their dissimilarity, they had one common quality - the desire to achieve the goal, the ability to gather all their will into a fist, to fight to the last. The period of time spent preparing the women's group for the flight was one of the most difficult in their lives. Fearing unforeseen situations and unnecessarily securing themselves, the instructors gave loads that were several times higher than the overload standards. The training program developed for men was not changed for the women's group. The pressure chamber, centrifuge, sound chamber, heat chamber, all kinds of training of the vestibular apparatus, parachute jumping, general physical training. In addition, the applicants had to repeatedly go through a number of medical examinations, some of which were not just unpleasant, and sometimes even cruel. Classes were held in training and fitness classes, women lived in a dispensary. At the same time in abbreviated form, they comprehended the course of the young fighter and crammed the statutes of the Red Army, learned to shoot straight and engaged in drill training.

Extremely difficult for the girls were training in a heat chamber, where the temperature reached seventy degrees Celsius, and humidity - thirty percent. At the same time, they were in full flight uniform. No less exhausting were occupations in zero gravity when performing a parabolic slide on an MiG-15 aircraft. Weightlessness was set four times in a forty-second flight. During this, it was necessary to perform some task - to write your name, talk on the radio, eat. And only a very courageous and purposeful person could stand for ten days in the isolation chamber with full sound insulation. There were also parachute jumps into the sea in a technological (not fitting in size) space suit.

None of the girls broke or surrendered. For their stamina and courage, men of the first composition of the astronauts called them "space Amazons." Only the squad leader, Gagarin, did not like this nickname. With his submission, the girls-cosmonauts were affectionately called "cosmic birches." Of course, at that time there were many opponents of the flight of women into space among the program managers, and among the astronauts themselves, and among people at least a little involved in aviation. However, the female group was especially patronized by Gagarin himself, carefully following the progress of their training and classes. It is possible that in his heart he felt sorry for the girls, because to whom, no matter how well he knew, what was the only preparation for the flight. During the State Examination in November 1962, as a member of the commission, he was constantly present with women, wondering if they understood everything and prompted answers if necessary.

29 November 1962 of the year, Valentina Tereshkova passed the final exams for "excellent" and 1 December 1962 became the astronaut of the First Division of the First Division. Preparing for the flight began in January 1963-th year, with the launch was scheduled for the end of March. However, at the preparatory stage, the OKB specialists encountered many problems; they had to re-develop or change chairs, suits, sanitary facilities, and many other equipment. Also, for a long time it was decided whether it would be a group flight or a solo flight. There was even an offer to send two ships with women.

It was very difficult to choose a specific candidate for the first role, because all five candidates showed themselves perfectly in preparation. Nikolai Kamanin recalled: “The main candidates were Ponomarev and Tereshkova. Tereshkova made a very good impression on everyone — a model in education and behavior. ” However, when setting priorities, taking into account not only the physical condition, but also the theoretical fitness of women, Tereshkova lagged behind Valentina Ponomareva. Nevertheless, political factors played a decisive role: Tereshkova’s social origin (from a working family, and Ponomarev from civil servants) and the death of her father in a war at a time when the girl was very young. Nikita Sergeyevich himself insisted on her candidacy, and no one dared to object to him.

An interesting fact is that for men-cosmonauts always one double was appointed, but Valentina Tereshkova had two of them - Valentina Ponomarev and Irina Solovyova. As a justification, the State Commission pointed out that the female body is worse than the load. It is worth noting that after going through many trials on a par with the main participant of the events, the doubles after Tereshkova’s flight not only did not receive any honors, but generally remained secret figures for a very long time. Although Korolev promised to organize the flight of the entire women's team in the future, his plans were disrupted by the tragic events of the death of Gagarin. And after the death of the “cosmic father”, his ideas were completely abandoned.

First in space

Careful training of female cosmonauts was not in vain. According to Korolev and other members of the State Commission who watched the piloting process, Valentina Tereshkova made a start on June 16, 1963, better than her predecessors Popovich and Nikolaev. The only “but” was that the flight was delayed for a day, and the psycho-emotional state of the astronaut, due to stress, went beyond the limits established by physicians. Even relatives of Valentina did not know what day she should start, for the sake of secrecy, she told them that she was going to jump. Family members learned about the start of the flight only from the issue. News. Like Gagarinsky "Let's go!" Valentina Tereshkova said after the start: “Sky! Take off your hat! I'm coming! ”

Despite the tough discipline, which the girls strictly adhered to, it could not do without funny incidents and emergency situations. So practically before the day of the start a hairdresser came to the town, and the girls wanted to dye their hair. Seeing Tereshkova and her understudy in a new image, with a new hair color, the program managers were horrified, because their photos had already been sent to Moscow and approved. The girls had to quickly destroy the works of the hairdresser and return to the usual form.

Although the process of preparing for the flight and the start itself went without a hitch and problems, the same cannot be said about the subsequent flight of the first female cosmonaut. The duration of Tereshkova’s stay in space was two days, twenty-two hours and fifty minutes, during which the Vostok-6 ship made forty-eight turns around our planet. Despite the trepidation of the long-awaited moment, the irresistible desire to fly and the scrupulous preparation, Valentina's well-being left much to be desired. At the communication sessions, of course, she tried not to show fatigue, but in fact she was holding out. The main problem was the cabin of the ship "Vostok". She was very close, the engineers called each other her “tin can”, the astronaut in full robe could move in it with great difficulty. And therefore, according to experts, to be in such conditions for almost three days was tantamount to a feat. Despite the constantly tormenting nausea and periodic vomiting, “The Seagull”, namely Tereshkova's call sign, was heroic, managing to keep a logbook in a similar position and take photographs according to the assignment. On the ground from the ship came the usual reports that the flight was proceeding normally.

Nausea - the body's natural reaction to the effects of weightlessness and the main problem for astronauts. The harmful effects of this factor could not be avoided by anyone. All astronauts and cosmonauts experienced it to one degree or another. Only with the help of special training can you adapt to it, weaken the impact, having developed vestibular stability on Earth. For wide publicity, this topic was considered taboo. This was bashfully silent in order not to "stain" the honor of the "uniform". If the astronaut felt the approach of a vomiting attack, he was obliged to report a conditional code to Earth: “I am watching a thunderstorm ...”. Such phrases from astronauts were not uncommon. The difficulties that Valentina Tereshkova endured weightlessness became one of the main reasons that the next appearance of a woman in space took place only nineteen years later.

Despite the successful completion of the flight, after decades it became known that Tereshkova could well not return from her space trip. To hide the truth that a mistake was made in the piloting program, Korolev himself asked her after landing. And the truth was told by one of the designers E.V. Shabarov. On the very first day of the flight, Valentina accidentally discovered that instead of data to reduce the orbit of the spacecraft, coordinates were entered to increase it. If the astronaut had not noticed the inaccuracy in time and had not corrected the data, having entered new values ​​obtained from the MCC, then her first flight might well have ended tragically.

Along with the "Vostok-6" in the near-earth orbit there was another ship - the "Vostok-5" with Valery Bykovsky on board. Start Bykovsky passed 14 June, that is, two days earlier Tereshkova. The landing day is the same - 19 June. The flight of the “Hawk” (Bykovsky's call sign) deserves a separate story, it was rich in curiosities and serious troubles.

However, the mistakes in the preparation of the technical part did not end there. When it became necessary to manually control the landing of the ship, Valentina could not orient the ship for a long time. The reason was the incorrect installation of wires, because of which the polarity of the commands was changed and opposite to the direction of movement of the control stick. No less problematic was the landing Tereshkova after the ejection. She was in the Altai Territory in a strong wind. It was impossible to hold the dome of the parachute, and it was not possible to quickly unfasten the straps in the spacesuit that constrained the movement. In the end, Valentina was turned over several times; she hit her head quite hard on the helmet, hitting her face. She was found practically unconscious and immediately sent to the hospital. Only the next day, staged shots were taken, in which the world saw Tereshkova smiling after landing with carefully masked bruises on her face. Thus, Valentina Tereshkova became the sixth Soviet cosmonaut who had been in near-Earth space.

An interesting fact is that, despite the popularity and merit recognized by both the inhabitants of the country and the party, Tereshkova was reprimanded for violating the landing regime. The thing was that, in joy after the safe return, Valentina distributed the rest of the space supply to the local residents, and, despite medical bans, after a three-day fast, she ate the food brought by the inhabitants.

From space, "The Seagull" has returned a female legend, a female symbol. The ladies in the hairdressers asked for the same haircut, the Chaika watch appeared on the shops, a small planet was named after her, a crater on the Moon and streets in many cities. Tereshkova was invited to the Kremlin, and public associations around the world wanted to see her in their ranks.

Space flight in her life became the pinnacle with which vast life horizons were opened. Of course, there was a choice: to storm the next peak or stop, comfortably sitting in the shadow of its glory. And Tereshkova chose the road, the most suited to her character - the road of daily labor. Much of the time, Valentina Vladimirovna, in parallel with her further work in the cosmonaut detachment, began to take over social activities. A lot of trips, both in the Soviet Union and abroad, meetings with people, as well as charitable activities did not prevent her from graduating with honors in 1969 with honors from the N.Ye. Zhukovsky and get a specialty "pilot-cosmonaut engineer". Such a combination cost her enormous mental tension, because no “special” conditions were created for her. Millions of people from different countries, especially women, always greeted her with joy and love. From 1968 to 1987, Valentina Vladimirovna headed the Committee of Soviet Women, also being the vice-president of the International Democratic Women's Federation.

22 January 1969 year Tereshkova along with astronauts Leonov, Nikolayev and Beregovoy drove in the second car of the government motorcade, which was shot by junior lieutenant Viktor Ivanovich Ilyin during the unsuccessful attempt on Brezhnev. She did not suffer, but the driver of the car was killed, Beregovoy was scratched by glass fragments, and the bullet struck Nikolayev on the back.

The wedding of Valentina Tereshkova and Andriyan Nikolaev in 1963 was attended by 1-th Secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU Nikita Khrushchev

After the realization of the main dream, Tereshkova was finally able to take up her personal life, the time for which she did not have at all during the intensive training and preparation in the OKP. She married cosmonaut No.3 Andriyan Nikolaev on 3 on November 1963, and soon 8 on June 1964 bore him a daughter. However, there was a catastrophic shortage of time for the family, the mass of honorary positions took all the power. Soon, family life cracked at the seams, and after the daughter reached the age of majority in the 1982 year, the Nikolayev family collapsed. The divorce of a unique couple shook many. First of all, it was not easy for them, since any serious family quarrels of the astronauts from the detachment at that time were subjected to analysis on numerous commissions. Only Nikolay Kamanin, who was well versed in people, was still 10 in November of 1963, when the family of Nikolayev and Tereshkova had just appeared, wrote in a diary: “They are too different: he is water, and she is fire. And both strong-willed, strong people, never one of them will voluntarily submit to the other. ”

In the early eighties, the first female cosmonaut met Julius Germanovich Shaposhnikov, Major General of the Medical Service, Director of the Central Research Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics. Unfortunately, in the 1999 year, this modest and hardworking man died of cancer. Today, Valentina Tereshkova has almost no relatives left. Mom and her younger brother, Vladimir adored by her, who worked as a cameraman, have already died. For a very long time, she searched for the grave of her father, who disappeared on the Karelian Isthmus. Only due to connections in the country's Defense Ministry, Tereshkova found the means to fly around the region, managing to find a fraternal grave overgrown with forests. There, Valentina erected a monument to her father and regularly visits him.

"One should not look at life from the side, but walk with it."
Valentina Tereshkova

30 April 1997 Valentine Valentina Tereshkova retired with the rank of Major General Aviation. She is the only woman in the Russian army in this rank. C 2011 year is a deputy of the Russian State Duma. In the baggage of the candidate of technical sciences and professor Tereshkova there are more than fifty scientific works, as well as a number of unique awards and titles. Valentina Vladimirovna is an honorary citizen of eighteen Russian and foreign cities, and on the Alley of Heroes of Space there is a bronze bust of the first woman cosmonaut.

Today, oddly enough, she still indulges in dreams of space. Mars calls his favorite planet Tereshkova and with a smile confesses to journalists that she is ready to fly there, even without the opportunity to return ...

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  1. Gooch
    Gooch 16 June 2013 07: 22
    These are the faces! You have not seen such people on the street for a long time
    1. experienced
      experienced 16 June 2013 10: 11
      10 th
      It seems to me that now when compiling the article, it is necessary to more fully present the facts, and not to dwell on one pathos, but also to mention the dangers and failures:
      According to the doctor of medical sciences, a specialist in post-flight adaptation of astronauts Vitaly Volovich, the female body was completely unsuitable for flight conditions in airless space.

      The experiment was clearly premature. If in male cosmonauts, calcium in the body was restored in 10-12 days, then Tereshkova could not stand up for about a month. All-pervading cosmic rays acted on a woman differently. The bones became fragile, broke from the slightest stress, bleeding often occurred. The same Volovich claims that "Miss Universe" lives all her life under the threat of breaking her leg out of the blue or bleeding from a tiny wound.

      And a show with an all-Union wedding headed by the "wedding general" N.S. Khrushchev. For all that, they demanded children from them (The show must go on), and they, like no one else, knew that puppies from astronaut dogs were born with anomalies and quickly died.
    2. Geisenberg
      Geisenberg 16 June 2013 13: 48
      Quote: Gooch
      These are the faces! You have not seen such people on the street for a long time

      The scenery is different, so it seems that the faces have changed.
    3. Quiet
      Quiet 16 June 2013 14: 59
      Solovyova Irina Bayanovna (1937)
      Colonel, USSR master of sports in parachuting (1959), astronaut, candidate of psychological sciences.
      She was born on September 6, 1937 at the Kireevsky mine of the Dedilovsky district of the Tula region. She graduated from 10 classes of a secondary school in the city of Serov, Sverdlovsk Region (1954). Received at the Ural Polytechnic Institute (Sverdlovsk). Since 1955, she began to study at the Sverdlovsk Aero Club. A. Serova. In 1959, she was awarded the title of Master of Sports of the USSR. Set a world record in a group jump on landing accuracy (1959). In 1960-1962, she was a member of the country's parachuting team.
      Since August 1959, she worked as an engineer at the Uralenergomontazh design bureau in Sverdlovsk.
      On March 12, 1962, she was enlisted as a student-cosmonaut of the 2nd detachment of the cosmonaut department of the Air Force CPC. Then she passed general cosmic training. In connection with the admission to the cosmonaut corps CPC, she was called up for service in the SA by the Kirov RVC of Sverdlovsk. December 1, 1962 was appointed to the post of astronaut of the 1st cosmonaut corps. From January to May 1963, she underwent preparations for a flight to the Vostok-6 spacecraft together with V. Ponomareva, V. Tereshkova, and J. Erkina. May 10, 1963 was appointed understudy V. Tereshkova.
      During the year (May 1965-May 1966) she was trained as a second pilot (leaving) as part of the main female crew for flying on one of the Voskhod (ZKD) ships, together with V. Ponomareva. Flight canceled due to program closure.
      March 14, 1966 transferred to 1 detachment (since March 1963 was in the second detachment), and since April 30, 1969 he has been the astronaut of 1 detachment 1 control.
      On October 1, 1969, by order of the Commander-in-Chief of the Air Force No. 945, she was expelled from the cosmonaut corps in connection with the reform of the women's group. Then he got a job as a junior researcher in the 2nd department of the scientific research methodical department of astronaut training 1 Research Institute of the CPC. In 1974 she was transferred to 3 laboratories, and in 1978 - to 4 laboratories for the same position.
      From March 27, 1980, he was a senior researcher at 5 laboratories, from June 13, 1 laboratory, from January 29, 1982, 6 laboratories, and from March 30, 1988, 1 laboratory of 2 departments.
      On March 31, 1991, she was dismissed from her active military service by age, then she was removed from the list of units.
      Since 1991, a senior researcher in the 50th department of the RGNII CPK.
      She was awarded the Order "For Service to the Homeland in the USSR Armed Forces" 3 degrees, medals. Gold medal for setting a world record in a group parachute jump for precision landing (1959).
      The total number of jumps is 2300. The last time she made the jump was at the age of 55. She was a member of the Metelitsa women's team, which performed high-latitude ski expeditions.

      I personally know this woman !!! Beautiful strong-willed man !!! hi Unlucky for her. For women, this happens once a month. Therefore, they sent Tereshkova. Which behaved in flight like "autolady" at the wheel. The flight had to be interrupted. At the landing site, I began to distribute tubes from a board ration to the surrounding residents. Korolev personally arranged a raskardash for her and promised that she would not fly again. Savitskaya is also not a gift, although she was babbling that papa (Air Marshal !!) knew nothing about the flight. (wanting to believe it ???) ... THIS IS !!!!
  2. omsbon
    omsbon 16 June 2013 07: 36
    In golden letters, the name Tereshkova is inscribed in world history!
    Great woman, and at the same time modest and charming!
    1. aksakal
      aksakal 16 June 2013 21: 46
      Quote: omsbon
      In golden letters, the name Tereshkova is inscribed in world history!
      Great woman, and at the same time modest and charming!

      - honor and glory to the Great Woman. After all, she was not only the first - a woman-cosmonaut, then, being the Chairperson of the Union of Women of the USSR, she DID for the country and people almost more than flew into space. It’s just that it’s quiet and quiet, but ask women who were in a difficult financial situation at the time when she held this post. How little can a woman with children get into a difficult situation? A bunch, most often - the death of her husband. Now there is no Tereshkova at that post, and women, fearing difficulties, throw out children from the 15th floor. Or forced to go to the panel and die under the wheels of a car, dooming children left at home to a terrible death !!!!! But Tereshkova is grateful to thousands and thousands of women, including my mother. I consider her activity in this post more fruitful than a flight into space. And what about the flight? Well flight and flight. Just the world's first female astronaut. Savitskaya flew in the States a bunch of female astronauts.
  3. CCA
    CCA 16 June 2013 08: 00
    An excellently illustrated article ... You need to know and read your story and your heroes ... And the more information colorful and explanatory, in different sources - the better ...
  4. sapsan14
    sapsan14 16 June 2013 08: 08
    How could they live! Great, modest Russian people! Glory to them and their exploits!
  5. shamil
    shamil 16 June 2013 09: 17
    The current young generation forgets these names. Nobody wants to become Gagarin and Tereshkova
    1. APASUS
      APASUS 16 June 2013 09: 52
      Quote: shamil
      Current young generation

      They have other heroes now!
      What is on the same TV?
      Prokhorov cannot get rid of foreign assets for the election .......
      Roman Abramovich buys a new player at Chelsea ....
      Yacht Serene Russian oligarch Yuri Shefler moored ....
      Where are they up to Tereshkova ?!
  6. pensioner
    pensioner 16 June 2013 09: 57
    Awesome woman. Beautiful, modest. But majestic. Health, happiness - all-over !.
  7. DAGESTAN333
    DAGESTAN333 16 June 2013 10: 21
    I wish all the best to the great woman heroine!
  8. FunkschNNX
    FunkschNNX 16 June 2013 10: 57
    Quote: seasoned
    the female body was completely unsuitable for flight conditions in airless space.

    Well, strictly speaking, no organism is adapted for such flights. And the astronauts are Heroes!
  9. B_KypTke
    B_KypTke 16 June 2013 11: 08
    I have nothing against lovely women - I love them .., but after the flight and the unjustified experiences at the MCC related to this flight, Korolev said his famous phrase: Remember, space is not for women ...
  10. cartridge
    cartridge 16 June 2013 11: 40
    There is no doubt that Tereshkova accomplished a feat. I agree with that.
    But even more I agree with the opinion that women do not belong to women in space, aviation and in the army.
    The problems that arise due to the presence in these areas of even the most advanced aunts with their characteristics of female physiology, psychology, thinking and logic more than outweigh the more than modest achievements that women manage to achieve.
  11. fisherman
    fisherman 16 June 2013 12: 36
    A strong woman. So much fell to her lot, but her well-deserved fame, the first in space !!!
  12. DmitriRazumov
    DmitriRazumov 16 June 2013 14: 40
    Despite the successful completion of the flight, after decades it became known that Tereshkova could well not return from her space trip. To hide the truth that a mistake was made in the piloting program, Korolev himself asked her after landing. And the truth was told by one of the designers E.V. Shabarov. On the very first day of the flight, Valentina accidentally discovered that instead of data to reduce the orbit of the spacecraft, coordinates were entered to increase it. If the astronaut had not noticed the inaccuracy in time and had not corrected the data, having entered new values ​​obtained from the MCC, then her first flight might well have ended tragically.

    Of course, the feat of Tereshkova, as the first woman-astronaut to start with great risk in incredibly difficult conditions, will forever remain in the memory of mankind.
    However, the spacecraft is controlled not only with the help of the on-board manual mode (or rather, in most cases, not with the help of this mode), but also with the help of one-time commands (RC) and temporary programs (VP), which are put on board from NIPs (scientific measurement points ) located throughout the country. Information from these NPCs. including they also carry out radio control of the orbit to the control center, almost in real time, in addition, in the USSR there was a scientific and space fleet, i.e. NPCs based on ships plowing the vast oceans. Therefore, control over the orbit and other parameters was conducted even from the shadow zone of the orbit. T.O. Errors in the execution of VP. were laid on board, could be repeatedly opened, discovered and corrected from the Earth ...
    1. Mikhail3
      Mikhail3 16 June 2013 19: 57
      But they were not opened and adjusted. In general, the history of our cosmonautics causes great pride ... and black rage. Because it was not possible to build an effective failure search system in this way. And okay, if it were failures of high technology, untried solutions, new ways ... a squib tightened by a transport bracket. Incorrectly entered program. Bolts, damn it, loose!
      This suggests, first of all, that science and technology should go hand in hand ... but scientists can not be trusted with anything important! Multiple checks by different people do not eliminate completely blatant blunders. Someone had to develop effective control procedures. But our cosmonautics has not yet waited for this, despite all the achievements ...
      1. DmitriRazumov
        DmitriRazumov 17 June 2013 19: 11
        Quote: Mikhail3
        But they were not opened and adjusted. In general, the history of our cosmonautics causes great pride ... and black rage. Because it was not possible to build an effective failure search system in this way.

        Flight into space is a component of a large complex system in which. tens of thousands of people, hundreds of organizations and enterprises, difficult decisions at the engineering, scientific and administrative-state level are involved. According to the theory of complex perturbation systems caused by human errors. may lead to improper functioning of the system cannot be avoided. Therefore, repeatedly duplicated organizational and technical mechanisms for leveling these disturbances are provided. If Tereshkova had not noticed an error in the airspace, then this error would have been spotted from Earth and sent to the board the correct program without her participation.
        Unfortunately, no serious representative of the space industry on Earth can avoid such things. For some reason, it has been customary for our journalists, especially recently, to constantly scold and identify the shortcomings of our space industry, and no one notices success. It seems that everything is bad everywhere. But this is far from the case. Cosmos is one of the most promising and knowledge-intensive areas. thanks to the work of thousands of engineers and scientists, it was possible to save for the country and now it is developing dynamically.
  13. 128mgb
    128mgb 16 June 2013 15: 30
    Russian men and what are so few advantages? And how to call our outstanding woman-lady not according to ours, madam, well, something is wrong, your suggestions. (Drunk)
  14. Constantine
    Constantine 16 June 2013 16: 06
    Such information should be replicated and set as an example to younger generations. We should be equal and proud of such people, and not praise the different Armstrongs, Von Browns and others like them. It is necessary to give such articles a wider course, which, unfortunately, is greatly inhibited by the service of most of the media not of our interests: /
  15. 128mgb
    128mgb 16 June 2013 16: 24
    And they say, advertising is the engine of progress, Walked around the site. Like. Except the devil worshipers of anyone. (Drunk)
  16. Ivanovich47
    Ivanovich47 16 June 2013 16: 25
    Since olden times, Russia has always been admired by foreigners. They did not trust Russian designers and engineers. And in the 60s, the great Korolev began to break this stereotype. Space flights by Gagarin, Tereshkova. The country was booming. Unconditional leadership of Soviet science, including space science! The West saw a threat to itself and took action. A marked "perestroika" appeared. "Buran" to the landfill, the MIR station to the ocean. Cosmic achievements - to oblivion. So what is needed for our people to always remember the great deeds of our heroes !? Very little: admire our people, not overseas ...
  17. crasever
    crasever 16 June 2013 17: 23
    Our "Gull" was again the first !!! And our cosmonauts from the first squad were not heroes who fell asleep on their laurels - everyone was preparing for the next launches, only someone once again saw the round Earth from the window, it was no longer possible ...
  18. RoTTor
    RoTTor 16 June 2013 17: 47
    The celebration of the 50th anniversary of the GREAT flight of the GREAT Daughter of the GREAT SOVIET PEOPLE was organized stupidly to horror on 16.6.2013/XNUMX/XNUMX: an open "Seagull" rode around Moscow, in which our Seagull sat alone. Did someone pay attention besides TV? And Valentina Vladimirovna laid flowers at the monument to Yuri Gagarin alone.
    But this is an event not only for Russia, which declared itself the successor of the USSR, but also for all the former Soviet republics that participated in the conquest of space.
    I am sure that in the homeland of our heroine everything went much better.
    Valentina Tereshkova is the most worthy person who lived a worthy life after the flight.
    Health, happiness, joy from the life of our seagull and her family
  19. RoTTor
    RoTTor 16 June 2013 18: 02
    People like our first astronauts should be cherished and cherished! Still, how cool they were selected, really the best people of the great country of the USSR.
  20. gladysheff2010
    gladysheff2010 16 June 2013 19: 23
    Female heroism of a special kind and special courage (I almost said femininity) .Long years and new achievements to the First Woman-Cosmonaut!
  21. KononAV
    KononAV 16 June 2013 20: 13
    Oh, it’s not a woman’s business, at any rate at this stage in the development of cosmonautics.
  22. cobalt
    cobalt 16 June 2013 20: 42
    Brave woman, her health and longevity. Hooray.
  23. individual
    individual 16 June 2013 22: 35
    USSR is a country of equal opportunity.
    From a peasant family, without a father, after seven years of work and in absentia graduating from a technical school, he attends DOSAAF free parachuting courses. Flew into space aboard the Vostok-6 spacecraft first female astronaut V.V. Tereshkova.
    If you rise from 1963 to 2013, then all this is like in a fairy tale about Cinderella, but there was fiction, but here the real Soviet man achieved everything himself. Is this possible in modern Russia? What have we lost?
    Is there such a thing as making life with anyone?
    So Valentina Vladimirovna made herself in the conditions of a socialist lifestyle.
    USSR is a country of equal opportunities!
  24. George
    George 16 June 2013 23: 57
    Valentina Tereshkova was born in a family of collective farmers on 6 on March 1937 in the village of Maslennikovo in the Yaroslavl Region.

    Nekrasov wrote about her:
  25. general.bnw
    general.bnw 17 June 2013 07: 16
    Lord! It is wonderful that Valentina Vladimirovna celebrated the anniversary of the historic flight in her homeland, in Yaroslavl. But it was necessary to make a grand celebration in Moscow, where many different shows take place, but there were no bright celebrations of real Heroes for a long time! And yet: the Order of St. A.Ya. Nevsky is a glorious award, but it seems to me that Major General of the Air Force V.V. Tereshkova deserves the highest award of the country - the Order of St. Andrew the Primeval, because her feat is of planetary significance, this is a recognition of primacy of our country in space ... But then the main * perestroika * has such an Order, to our shame! ..