Military Review

The Murder of Paul I: The English Trail

25
The nineteenth century in Russia began with regicide. On the night of March 12, in St. Petersburg in his own Mikhailovsky Castle, Russian emperor Pavel I was beaten to death. At half past night, a group of 1801 officers broke into the emperor's chambers, as a result of the conflict between them, the emperor was hit in the head with a heavy golden snuffbox and was strangled with a scarf. The instigators of this conspiracy were Peter Palen and Nikita Panin, and the group of direct performers of the palace coup (“drunken guardsmen) was headed by Leonty Benningsen and Nikolai Zubov. They called the cause of the conspiracy discontent unpredictable policy, which led Paul I. They were irritated by the disgrace and insults to which many of them have already been subjected, and others may have been subjected in the future. In fact, the conspirators wanted to change the emperor to a more "docile."


Later, other versions became widespread, among which an English mark can be singled out. Perhaps Great Britain, which was unhappy with the break in relations between the countries and the union of Russia with Napoleon, provided direct financing for the conspiracy and led them through the English ambassador Whitworth. Anyway, until 1905, information about the events of the night of March 12, 1801, was under censorship. For more than 100 years in Russia, the official version of the death of the emperor was called the natural cause: “death from apoplexy” (stroke). In connection with this, there was even a joke in society that Emperor Paul I died from an apoplex stroke by a snuff box in his temple.

It is worth noting that many Russian rulers were blackened before their contemporaries for trying to realize what exactly the interests of Russia are, and then try to follow these interests. Emperor Paul I is suitable for the role of such an undeservedly slandered man. His murder by some is considered as one of the first attempts to organize "external control" by Russia with the help of the so-called "fifth column", which solved its task without restricting itself in the choice of means. At the same time, the regicide received such a “mass-media” design, which even after more than 200 years, the legend, which the members of the conspiracy furnished their intent, has a steady circulation.

The Murder of Paul I: The English Trail

This legend is that Emperor Paul I was distinguished by “tyranny” and “tyranny”, and almost the half-empire of the emperor was also declared. According to available evidence, the character of the emperor was really savory. But hardly for the Russian nobility, Paul I was worse than the governors, the majority of officials and other administrative officials of the empire for his subordinates or the majority of landowners for his serfs. In confirmation of his "tyranny" often give an example with a link to Suvorov. But at the same time, for some reason they forget that the emperor himself soon admitted his mistake, which was the result of temper temper. How many even of the modern middle managers are able to admit that they are wrong?

However, it is clearly not hot-tempered character and “tyranny” that caused the conspiracy against the emperor, this conspiracy seemed to have political overtones. Russia since the time of Peter the Great, who actively invaded the politics of Europe, and during the reign of Catherine II, who had very great weight in European politics, did not receive any special dividends from this. Moreover, numerous British companies practically blocked Russian international trade, while small European electors and princes, mostly from German lands, sought to get new possessions on the blood of a simple Russian soldier.

That is exactly what happened during the 2-th anti-French coalition, which was created at the initiative of the UK. Participation in it did not bring Russia any benefit. The troops of Alexander Suvorov, active in Italy, crossed the Alps and took part in a large number of battles. As a result, Napoleon lost all his Italian acquisitions, but all the benefits from this were Austria, which among other things did not fulfill its allied obligations.

Mikhailovsky Castle

The Russian-British expedition organized in Holland led to numerous casualties among General Herman's expeditionary corps. Only during the first attack on Bergen did Russian troops lose about 3 thousands of people killed, about 1 thousands of Englishmen were also killed. At the same time, the British troops did not support the Russian units that had already taken the city, and they had to retreat. Subsequently, this led to the catastrophe and the evacuation of the expeditionary force to the UK. There, the Russian allies were treated badly enough, resulting in an increase in the number of victims.

As a result of this campaign, England was able to get the entire Dutch fleet, and Russia did not receive anything of value. In addition, Great Britain captured Malta, which the Russian emperor, who became the Grand Master of the Order of Malta, was going to use for his own purposes. Malta could become the Russian province, and in the future one of the bases of the Russian fleet in the Mediterranean Sea. A series of these events forced Paul I to leave the number of participants in the second coalition, pushing Russia to establish an alliance with Napoleon. Under these conditions, according to some researchers, who include Rambo, Hoffmann, Lavis, the formation of joint plans of Bonaparte and Paul on a military campaign in India begins.

In those years, England was recognized as the "mistress of the seas", but she had no land connections with her richest colony. At the same time, France and Russia did not have sufficiently strong fleets to conduct active combat operations against England at sea, but they also had the opportunity to create a land route to India that would pass along the coast of the Caspian Sea and further through the territory of modern Afghanistan. The organization of such a path could significantly enrich the Russian empire, simultaneously undermining the economy of England.

The murder of Paul I, engraving

According to the researchers of the "Indian campaign", in this expedition it was planned to use about 70 thousands of soldiers belonging to the 2 expeditionary corps - one Russian and one French. French soldiers were to arrive in Russia through the Black Sea. They had to cross several southern provinces and meet with Russian troops at the mouth of the Volga. Neither the local khans and emirs, nor the British themselves had the strength to resist such a large-scale invasion.

The military campaign of France and Russia on India, which was considered the richest colony of Great Britain and brought tremendous income to the English treasury, could not but be disturbed by London. It is known that the Russian emperor even managed to send to Central Asia, which was also in the sphere of interests of England, the military expeditionary corps commanded by the ataman of the Don Vasily Orlov. The very next day after the death of Paul I, this Cossack detachment was recalled back.

If we talk about the internal policy of Paul I, then it was dictated by a clear understanding of state benefits. In the first place you can put the 2 imperial decree - the decree of a three-day corvee and the law on the imperial surname and the order of succession. They were accepted on the same day - April 5 of the year 1797.

The decree limiting the compulsory work of the serfs to their landlord 3, days a week, was the first, albeit very clumsy, attempt to at least somehow restrict serfdom. It is in this sense that its meaning in stories domestic legislation is quite large. For almost half a century, the Russian government did not make equivalent attempts to limit the power of the landlords over their serfs.


The law on the imperial family name and succession was intended to eliminate all grounds for palace coups that so often shook Russia in the 18th century. Ironically, the man who prepared this law became the victim of the conspirators. This law eliminated any arbitrary interpretation of the rights to the supreme power in the country, suggesting strict order in this matter. Lawyers of the XIX century called this law the germ of the Russian constitution, as this law limited the autocrat's will in such an important matter as the inheritance of the throne.

The law of succession and the decree of the three-day serfdom show the remarkable abilities of the state thinking of Paul I. If we talk about some other orders of the emperor - restricting corporate self-government, restoring corporal punishments for eminent citizens and nobles, it is worthy of some regret that the emperor understood the rights equation own subjects only as bringing the higher to the lower class instead of the lower layers gradually raising to the level of the higher.

Although the assassination of Emperor Paul I did not immediately return Russia to an alliance with England and a convenient policy of enmity with France, but the ground from under the feet of a possible mutually beneficial union of France and Russia was knocked out. The course of the new emperor Alexander I led the country first to the unnecessary for it 1805 and 1807 wars, and then to Napoleon himself to Moscow (although there was still a period after the conclusion of peace between the countries of Tilsit, when it seemed that it was still possible to turn to another) As a result, for the whole half a century Russia was absorbed in the tasks of building its ephemeral external grandeur in Europe instead of dealing with its own problems of internal development. These were the 50 years that Russia lost, as early as the 1850-70-s, this was understood quite clearly.

Information sources:
-http://www.dal.by/news/174/04-02-13-15
-http: //www.repin.info/mystery/Indian_campaign_Paul_I-a_myth_invented_by_his_enemies
-http://xn--b1afsmhfh9a9bg.xn--p1ai/index.php/blog/87-about-pavel-1
-http: //ru.wikipedia.org
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  1. cartridge
    cartridge 11 June 2013 08: 29 New
    +5
    Unfortunately or fortunately, history cannot be rewritten. Therefore, how could it be this is all hypothesis. Everything happened as it happened.
    1. Nevsky
      Nevsky 11 June 2013 14: 16 New
      +3
      People, do you think this is true? Russian-Horde Empire? Recently I looked, at first I thought the author had grassy grass, but then:



      1. Horde
        Horde 11 June 2013 15: 45 New
        +3
        People, do you think this is true? Russian-Horde Empire? Recently I looked, at first I thought the author had grassy grass, but then:


        Did you first encounter the facts of large-scale falsification of history? liked? see further.
        1. family tree
          family tree 11 June 2013 15: 53 New
          +1
          Timur Shaov has a very funny song on this subject
      2. Gato
        Gato 11 June 2013 17: 16 New
        +4
        Bushkov has two books from the series "Russia, which did not exist", in one of which he pushes the version that there were no Mongols, and in the other he takes his words back.

        I read, neighing, Bushkov, of course, the historian is the same, but a lot of pleasure.
        1. Alex
          Alex 14 September 2013 15: 58 New
          +2
          Quote: Gato
          I read, neighing, Bushkov, of course, the historian is the same, but a lot of pleasure.


          Fomenko with Nosovsky there too.
      3. alexkross83
        alexkross83 12 June 2013 12: 29 New
        +2
        Thank you for the video. I looked with pleasure, especially since this is true and archaeological excavations prove this every day. It is good that all these ancient settlements and artifacts did not succumb to destruction ... but only books that Western religious leaders considered heresy, but only to write their own heresy. Having traveled to Europe and the USA, as well as to the countries of the Middle East I always asked myself a question ... how could people with such an intellect have an ancient history? In communication with them it is clearly visible. And the fear they have for us at the genetic level ..... they remember with their subconscious .....
  2. Kovrovsky
    Kovrovsky 11 June 2013 09: 34 New
    11
    Probably, in any dirty trick against Russia, you can find the English trace!
    1. Kolya
      Kolya 11 June 2013 10: 10 New
      +5
      Russia has always been a competitor for England, which is why England has always harmed Russia. But most of our compatriots who did not have experience in communicating with the British are not hearing not about what kind of people they are. For an Englishman, the word honor is when you win. It is interesting that in the slang of Europeans the word English has a second meaning - a liar.
      1. Gato
        Gato 11 June 2013 14: 13 New
        +1
        To the credit of our ancestors, it can be noted that Russia did not remain in debt either:
        Catherine introduced the principle of armed neutrality against the English privateers.
        Some Russians informally participated in the war for the independence of the North American colonies.
        Somewhere I met data on the Russian trace in the sepoy uprising in India.
        Przewalski (and many others) did not travel at all in order to discover a new species of wild horse.
        Comrade Stalin supplied Hitler during the naval blockade of Germany.
        He, in spite of the British, contributed to the creation of Israel.
        1. Kostya pedestrian
          Kostya pedestrian 11 June 2013 15: 45 New
          +2
          I heard that England, the colonizer of Palestine, opposed the creation of Israel, but it’s just interesting if anyone knows why not our 34s or ISS were adopted by Israel, but the English centurions?

          Something is not sticking here.
          1. Gato
            Gato 11 June 2013 17: 08 New
            +3
            What centurions?
            This is how the armored forces of Israel began:
            "During the first ceasefire (which began on June 11, 1948 - this is during the" War of Independence "(for Israel) or the" Catastrophe "(for Arabs)), 10 Hotchkiss N-39 tanks purchased in France arrived in Israel. Together with the Sherman tank purchased from the British in Israel and two Cromwell tanks, stolen among the British, before they left their bases in Israel, they made up the 82nd battalion, which became the first and only Israeli tank battalion. The crews were made up of volunteers from other countries and soldiers - veterans of the Second World War, who fought in the tank troops.

            Tanks "Hotchkiss" proved to be a serious disappointment from a technical point of view, and even during the War of Independence, in October 1948, it was decided to withdraw them from the active forces. Instead, 30 Sherman tanks with damaged guns were purchased at a junkyard in Italy. Most of the attempts to get them back into operation failed, and only 2 of them took part in the last battles of the War of Independence "
            1. Kostya pedestrian
              Kostya pedestrian 12 June 2013 04: 35 New
              +2
              Thanks for this information, your remark made me myself to approach this issue more seriously. It turns out Britain, or rather its Irish division, was the first to use the Centurions for the Korean War in 1951.

              And the Israelis, respect, for disarming the archistrategs of foggy Albion, they already drank so much blood from our peoples, pushing us with their foreheads, not to mention their Hitler cousin, a follower of the British idea of ​​concentration camps and the extermination of indigenous peoples.
        2. The comment was deleted.
  3. omsbon
    omsbon 11 June 2013 09: 47 New
    +5
    Killed, not understood, slandered in history - Russian Hamlet, Paul-I.
  4. creak
    creak 11 June 2013 10: 04 New
    +2
    One of the emperor's contemporaries describes the inheritance inherited by Paul as: "It is impossible to depict in what strange and amazing position the guard was up to this point and how many abuses in everything prevailed to the highest degree in it. If you wanted to portray all this, then an interesting picture would be formed for posterity, and our descendants ... would hardly have been able to believe that there really existed and would rather have thought that a fable and a complete fiction. "
    "It is impossible to depict what a great multitude of mots, ignoramuses and sheer suckers were released annually into the army."
    The English trail or not, but Paul’s attempts to restore order, even if sometimes by excessively harsh measures, came up above all with the resistance of the guard, which enthroned Elizabeth and Catherine and who henceforth wanted to play the role of the Praetorians at the court of the emperor. Paul believed that the guard and in general the nobility should serve the fatherland, and not deal with the device of their personal affairs. And to justify his actions, his enemies subsequently surrounded his name with a wall of lies and slander.
    1. avt
      avt 11 June 2013 14: 54 New
      +3
      Quote: ranger
      The English trail or not, but Paul’s attempts to restore order, even if sometimes by excessively harsh measures, came up above all with the resistance of the guard, which enthroned Elizabeth and Catherine and who henceforth wanted to play the role of the Praetorians at the court of the emperor. Paul believed that the guard and in general the nobility should serve the fatherland, and not deal with the device of their personal affairs. And to justify his actions, his enemies subsequently surrounded his name with a wall of lies and slander.

      Quite right, it was the “janissaries” - the guards officers on the Aglitsk money transferred through the mistress of the Aglitsk ambassador and left with an apoplectic blow to the head with a snuffbox and strangling the tsar - the ampirator, the knight of Maltese with an officer's scarf. laughing
      1. Gato
        Gato 11 June 2013 16: 38 New
        +1
        Come on. The Guard is not the whole army. So to say, a sedimentation tank for the aristocracy, which at least something had to be occupied. Well, Paul banged - so he is not the first and he is not the last, it’s quite an everyday matter.
        But he was replaced by not the worst Tsar Alexander I. At least he left Russia at the peak of power. Without Russia's permission, no one dared to fart in Europe.
        And here about the crisis of 1850-70gg - here the author distorts. This is not Alexander’s fault, but a consequence of the pathological love of Nicholas I for the Holy Union of Monarchs. Well, why was it necessary to crush the uprising of the Hungarians, thereby saving the Austrian empire. Would fall apart - yes x .. with her. But then, during the Crimean War (and the Balkan too), it would not be necessary to keep the best troops on the western border.
        1. avt
          avt 11 June 2013 16: 53 New
          +2
          Quote: Gato
          But he was replaced by not the worst Tsar Alexander I. At least he left Russia at the peak of power.

          request Is it after the Patriotic War of 1812? You’ll be curious about the unrest in the military settlements, and indeed what the ruin of the most populated part of the country cost the economy.
          Quote: Gato
          Without Russia's permission, no one dared to fart in Europe.

          Even Radzinsky, this statement in which you replaced the shot of a cannon with air damage, cited the words of Yekaterininsky nobleman about the times of Catherine in reproach to the times of Shurik. laughing
          1. Gato
            Gato 11 June 2013 17: 32 New
            +1
            how did the ruin of the most populated part of the country cost the economy

            So war after all! And the consequence of the strategy adopted by Kutuzov.

            I didn’t dare to fart

            Yes, here I got excited repeat

            after the Patriotic 1812th? Are you talking about the unrest in military settlements

            Also quite natural. Too much of what the people expected from the king after such a victory. Even the abolition of serfdom. Someone wanted a constitution. Yes, and seen enough of Europe.

            And what kind of policy did Paul have? That he fights against the British against the French. Then the British offended him (they took away their beloved Malta) - he begins to be friends with Napoleon and is going to drive with him to India, to realize the age-old dream so to speak - to wash the boots in the Indian Ocean. Not at the right time the snuffbox turned up.
            1. avt
              avt 11 June 2013 19: 05 New
              +3
              Quote: Gato
              And what kind of policy did Paul have? That he fights against the British against the French. Then the British offended him (they took away their beloved Malta) - he begins to be friends with Napoleon and is going to drive with him to India, to realize the age-old dream so to speak - to wash the boots in the Indian Ocean. Not at the right time the snuffbox turned up.

              Well, son did exactly the same thing request either he fought with Buonapartii, or else he supported the continental blockade, though the Angles threw Pavlik, and Shurik Bonya "convinced" at Austerlitz, but all this was the politician of the time, but Pavlusha really pinched the noblemen both for stupid little things with suits and hats, and with quite their own slovenliness in relation to the service, and indeed he moved the Cossacks to the south for a joint campaign with Bonya to India through the Hindu Kush. But this, well, could not let him down in any way, and the nobles wanted, as with their grandmother, that they Shurik did. And at the expense of the plan allegedly made by Kutuzov, it was in vain, he did exactly what Barclay, with the permission of Shurik, developed, talented Mikhailo Illarionovich did, like a student of Suvorov and a fair courtier, but clearly according to the plan and will of the emperor.
  5. My address
    My address 11 June 2013 13: 45 New
    +4
    For representatives of the aglitsky top, apply anecdote:
    -Mr. John, the fly has settled on you.
    -Mr. Ivan, would you like to say that I am awesome ?!
    - Of course not, John. But flies rarely make mistakes!
  6. Jurkovs
    Jurkovs 11 June 2013 15: 43 New
    +4
    Before Catherine 2, the Russian nobility was a servant, that is, they were obliged to serve, and for this they received inheritances and estates. Catherine 2 signed the Liberty Charter of the Russian nobility and many nobles left the service, leaving with them all the estates. This situation greatly weakened Russia, Paul 1 wanted to deprive the nobility of a number of privileges, but did not think about their own security. England could well beat the discontent of the nobility. The story of the murder of Rasputin also showed an English trace.
    1. avt
      avt 11 June 2013 16: 36 New
      +2
      Quote: Jurkovs
      England could well beat the discontent of the nobility. The story of the murder of Rasputin also showed an English trace.

      I could not, but played, the murder of Grishka was generally organized by an English resident, which was carried out by a group of pederasts under the control of a regular agent of the Aglitsk intelligence service with whom Yusupov studied, or maybe that one ... in England, about which an Air Force documentary was made showing archival documents and memories of the granddaughter resident, which in the film shows a letter from the father of those times where he brags about the murder of "black power" A quite good adequate film was also filmed by St. they leaned back and finished off, traces of blood remained, and dragged on. ”A completely solved murder, and no one hid the traces.
    2. Uzoliv
      Uzoliv 11 June 2013 23: 08 New
      0
      Quote: Jurkovs
      Before Catherine 2, the Russian nobility was a servant, that is, they were obliged to serve, and for this they received inheritances and estates.

      To be precise, before Peter 3, for it was he who signed the decree on the liberties of the nobility in 1762. Catherine was dissatisfied with this decree, because she believed that he would encourage parasitism and therefore in 1763 created a commission to review this decree. But the nobility really liked the decree and the empress could not go against the elite - she reconciled, made a compromise. The Liberty Charter is already 1785.
      But Paul did not want to compromise. The result is tragic for him.
  7. Horde
    Horde 11 June 2013 15: 57 New
    +1
    it is not clear how the Russian Tsar allowed people with his person to be hostile, untested? why could such a situation even develop? where were Paul's Supporters? For example, now Putin has placed his people in all posts, collects 64% each and is not afraid of anything, and this is in his power. But what happened then? It cannot be that Pavel does not understand that one cannot rely on enemies. A strange situation. negative stop request
  8. avt
    avt 11 June 2013 16: 23 New
    +4
    Quote: Horde
    it is not clear how the Russian Tsar allowed people with his person to be hostile, untested?

    Yes, as well as Peter III, to which Minikh, later honestly, as a true soldier told Katya, he also offered the sea, the fleet supported him, to hide from the guards in the army, the fruits of the victories of which, as subsequent historians explained, he betrayed, but he decided that if he is the anointed of God then Katka horseradish will become the queen request Well, like no dynastic prerequisites laughing , naive for his stupidity got colic from whom he died, drunken guards carriers of the officer's traditions stabbed with a fork, and then, as with Pavlik, they probably added something more significant. But how the Orthodox officers obeyed their mother - they did not save the saying, but the Country was saved from tyrant " , as their followers later from Pasha. Such a tradition of the guards, however laughing
    Quote: Horde
    For example, now Putin has placed his people in all posts

    So always betray their own! But it’s interesting - when Putin restored the imperial guard regiments, did he think about such specific guard traditions? laughing
  9. Horde
    Horde 11 June 2013 18: 36 New
    +2
    as well as Peter III, to which Minich, later honestly, as a true soldier told Katya, he also offered the sea, the fleet supported him, to hide from the guards in the army, the fruits of the victories of which, as subsequent historians explained, he betrayed, but he decided that if he the anointed of God then Katka horseradish will become the queen


    I don’t know about Peter 3, he seemed to be completely German, he didn’t even speak Russian, therefore he was asked to leave, but this is according to TI. In general, this whole era from the strange death of Alexei Mikhailovich to Paul1 causes only a flurry of questions.
    Why did Russia, namely, what our state was called under Alexei Mikhailovich, suddenly change its development vector so sharply ???
    Why did Russia abandon all Russian ???
    -in religion, the transition to the Greek religion (schism)
    - in architecture, the transition to Greek (classicism) and European standards of construction.
    - the transition to European clothing, why?
    - Transition to the European calendar, although astronomers still use the Julian calendar.
    - the seizure by German scientists of Russian science (until the middle of the 19 the number of Germans was absolutely overwhelming)
    - and many, many other questions.
    There is such a writer, the historian of our time, Alexander Kas, and so, examining the time from the Great Troubles of the beginning of the 17th century to the time of the arrival of Peter1, he quite convincingly argues that starting from Alexei Mikhailovich the Germans ROMANOVA came to power in Russia. That the first Romanov Peter1 and further after him was no longer RUSSIAN KINGS, so all this time before Pavel it was mainly SALVED and difficult to understand, almost impossible. However, an analogy with today's events can be traced.
    Jews came to power in Russia and now we have what we have
    1. Alex
      Alex 14 September 2013 16: 46 New
      +2
      Quote: Horde (2)

      Sorry, but I didn’t understand everything.

      - Transition to the European calendar, although astronomers still use the Julian calendar.

      If by "European" you mean Gregorian, then that was just the right thing. The Julian year is more different from the tropical than the Gregorian. The use of the Julian calendar gives a strong lag behind the real course of the Sun and the reluctance to use such a reckoning of time is precisely explained by the strong opposition of the Church: "It is better to disperse with the Sun than to converge with the Pope."
      The use of the Julian calendar (as amended, it is now impossible without it) in astronomy is associated with the traditions of compiling star charts and calculations of celestial mechanics, no more. This is also the standard value of light year.

      - the seizure by German scientists of Russian science (until the middle of the 19 the number of Germans was absolutely overwhelming)

      No more than a consequence of the kings' reluctance to develop serious secular science. How many universities were there in Russia and the Russian Empire before the 18 century? And how much effort did Lomonosov reorganize Moscow University? But the main opposition came from the side of the clergy. Well, the fact that German (and not only these) scientists, who were seated at the Academy, opposed the Russians - so corporate interests did not show up yesterday.

      That the first Pyotr Romanov1 and further after it was no longer RUSSIAN KINGS

      I don’t know about Peter I, but after Catherine II - that’s for sure. And she is German, and Peter III is German, where their descendants should be Russian. And the queens of all the rest were mostly Courland princesses.

      Somehow at one of the tournaments we had a question: Why didn’t Napoleon become the Russian Tsar?
      Answer: A Frenchman cannot be a Russian Tsar. Only a German can be a Russian Tsar.
      Sad but true ...
  10. Goldmitro
    Goldmitro 11 June 2013 22: 16 New
    +1
    <<< His assassination is viewed by some as one of the first attempts to organize "external control" of Russia with the help of the so-called "fifth column", which solved its problem without limiting itself in the choice of means. At the same time, regicide received such a "mass-media" design that, more than 200 years later, the legend with which the members of the conspiracy furnished their intent has a steady circulation. >>>
    An absolutely correct conclusion, which has not lost its relevance today! Absolutely the same methods, only on a new, if I may say so, technological and informational basis. The same defamation of the Russian authorities, accusations of totalitarianism, the creation and dissemination of all sorts of legends and myths around the world discrediting Russia, its people - the Russian people and the authorities. By the way, all this filth is insolent, sir ... aks have clogged the entire world information space for several centuries already, and with the active support of a homebrew, corrupt trash, this filth is widespread in Russia and is still used by Russia's enemies! How, however, these "common people" have already got it!
  11. Wolf
    Wolf 12 June 2013 21: 22 New
    0
    The chronicle of the people of Slaven is completely fake! There is so much inconsistency that a modestly intelligent person should put an imperative requirement for the state to unravel and change history in schools. Illogicalities begin 2000 years ago. We are supplied with kings from non-our families somewhere in the 7-10th century. We were ruled all the time. The surname of Kator did not beat our family for about 1-7 centuries. Therefore, the genocide of the full Slovenia has been happening for the last 10-1300 years, and it was seen in the 1500st and 1nd world war when the Orthodox Slovenes almost destroyed, as well as the rest as Poљake, Prussia, etc.
  12. Denis
    Denis 13 June 2013 03: 49 New
    +1
    It’s understandable that an Englishwoman spoils us with gaybritain. But what did Paul not please the Soviet historians? He was shown a tantrum, almost a psycho
  13. Alex
    Alex 14 September 2013 16: 58 New
    +2
    And still, somehow unconvincing. If, until 1917, official history, for obvious reasons, represented Paul in a special light, then why did Soviet science continue the same? What reason is there for her? After all, the reformer Peter was exalted. But with many provisions of the article it is difficult to agree.

    according to some researchers, which include Rambo, Hoffman, Lavis, the formation of joint plans of Bonaparte and Paul on a military campaign in India begins.
    French soldiers were supposed to arrive in Russia through the Black Sea. They had to cross several southern provinces and meet with Russian troops at the mouth of the Volga. Neither the local khans and emirs, nor the British themselves had the strength to withstand such a massive invasion.

    You would think that in the Mediterranean the British did not have a fleet at all, or Ser Horatio Nelson at that time suffered from a complete mental disorder. So the success of the sea transportation of forces to the territory of the Black Sea coast of Russia seems rather dubious. And if we take into account that the notorious straits are in the hands of Turkey, which looked all over England’s mouth, then in general all this seems to be what it is - an adventure.
    So, if Russia was planning to march on India, it could count on itself, as always. And to be ready that later the European uncles will come and they will take everything away, as in the Balkans.

    Legal scholars of the 19th century called this law the rudiment of the Russian constitution, since this law limited the will of the autocrat on such an important issue as inheritance of the throne.

    Is it too loud? The Constitution is somewhat more than the elimination of a mess in the matters of succession to the throne and the strict ranking of blood princes in their flea market.
    And the restriction of corvée, it was said about this under Catherine, and everything remained so with conversations. As with Paul. And the reform of Alexander II, too, was not very successful - everything stretched out for many years.

    mutually beneficial union of France and Russia

    It seems to me that that France loved Russia and cared about its prosperity no more than England. Napoleon, in any case, did not try to hide his claims to world domination (it reminds some of them, isn’t it?).