Military Review

Battle for Kakhovsky bridgehead

66
Battle for Kakhovsky bridgehead

By the beginning of August 1920, the Russian army of Wrangel achieved a number of obvious successes. She defended the Crimea, escaped from the peninsula, occupied Northern Tavria, repelled the Red Army's attempt to surround and destroy itself, defeated the Redneck group. However, these successes did not have a decisive character and the Wranglew, even despite their breakthrough from the Crimea, remained still locked in Northern Tavria and were doomed to defeat in these conditions. It was necessary to do something to radically change the situation in their favor. White units could hold out against the superior forces of the Red Army only thanks to the "maneuver" of the same units. Infinitely it could not continue.


The White Command understood this well and took steps to change the situation. It was decided to send an airborne detachment to Don so that it would raise an uprising. On July 9 east of Mariupol, a detachment of 800 soldiers was landed under the command of Colonel Nazarov. He occupied the village of Novonikolaevskaya. But the red command took into account the experience of previous white operations fleet and created by this time its Azov flotilla of 13 ships. The Red Azov flotilla went to sea and after the battle, forced to retreat the white ships that brought Nazarov reinforcements. Then the flotilla bombarded Novonikolaevskaya. At the same time, troops were being pulled together. The Red Command overestimated the enemy’s forces, forming an entire strike group — one infantry and two cavalry divisions. On July 15, Nazarov’s detachment was able to break through to the east and launched a raid on the villages, hoping to raise the Don Cossacks. Its number increased to 1,5 thousand people, but there was no uprising on the Don. The Don region was tired of the war and was bloodless. Some Cossacks fell on the fronts of the First World War, fought the most violently for the whites and red, others mobilized by force, the region was devastated by the plague epidemic.

In the area of ​​Konstantinovskaya 25 July Nazarov’s detachment was blocked and pressed against the Don. White defeated. Part of the squad was destroyed, some fled. Nazarov with the group left for Manych, but was overtaken and the detachment was finally defeated. Colonel himself was able to escape. He was later detained, but Nazarov was able to impersonate a simple soldier. In autumn I reached the Crimea.

In the middle of July there was a relative lull at the front. Both sides were actively preparing for a new battle. Due to mobilization in Tavria, rear units and garrisons that healed the injured, the Russian army managed to bring the 35 thousand people with 178 guns and 38 airplanes to the end of the month. Reds at that time had about 45 thousand people with 270 guns and 45 airplanes. True, the red forces were replenished at a faster pace, and new fresh units were thrown to the front. Already in the course of the battle, 4 rifle divisions, one cavalry division, 3 brigades, several armored units were deployed. In addition, the red divisions were more powerful in number than the divisions of the white army. In particular, the 51 th infantry division deployed from Siberia under the command of Blucher was a real “giant” of the 16 regiments, with its cavalry, artillery and armored cars (the personnel of the division numbered up to 33 thousand). Only in service of this division were 499 machine guns, 43 guns, 10 armored vehicles. To reinforce the 13 Army, the 2 Army was formed (2, 16, 20, and 21 Cavalry Divisions), headed by Gorodovik (since September Mironov). And the commander of the 13-th army instead of Eideman (he replaced the Spider) was Uborevich.

The Red Command planned to strike in early August, but the whites delivered a preemptive strike. July 25 Corps Kutepov launched an offensive in the north, on Aleksandrovsk, Yekaterinoslav. White broke through the front, defeating the 3 and 46 divisions. The Kuban cavalry Babiyev was introduced into the breakthrough. White captured the Nuts. For the development of success, Wrangel threw into the battle of Barbovich's cavalry corps. The red pieces fiercely resisted, struck counterattacks, but the whites advanced at great cost. 2 August was captured by Aleksandrovsk. This success is over. White units suffered heavy losses and ran out of steam. The Red Command quickly liquidated the breakthrough, and having received reinforcements, the Red Army launched a counter-offensive. White troops began to roll back to their previous positions. On August 4, the Red forces recaptured Aleksandrovsk, the 6s of the Orekhovs and Bedbills, and the 8s of Berdyansk.

The offensive of the Red Army. Fighting on the Kakhovsky bridgehead

After repelling the attack of the Wrangel, and restoring the former front line, the Red Army launched an offensive. The plan remained the same: a blow from the western direction to Perekop and from the northeast to Melitopol. However, the preparation of the operation was more serious. To force the Dnieper again chose the area Kakhovka. For the strike, the Latvian, 15, and 52 divisions were concentrated; they had to force the river with the support of the Dnieper Flotilla and two heavy weapon divisions.

On the night of August 8, the units of the 15, 52 and Latvian rifle divisions of the Red Army successfully crossed the Dnieper and captured Kakhovka. The total area of ​​the bridgehead was 216 square. km, depth - 12-15 km. A ferry was erected in the rear. On August 10, units of the Blucher 51 Infantry Division began to arrive at the bridgehead. From the white side, this line was defended by the Slaschov corps. This general showed himself well in a maneuverable war, dashing cavalry raids, but in a positional war he was not up to par. Intelligence led poorly, did not show proper attention to the coast defense, considering that he would easily dislodge the enemy with a counterstrike. As a result, although this was already the second attempt of the Red Army to break through in this direction, Slashcheva was taken by surprise. When Slashchev counterattacked, there was already too much strength on the left bank. White could not knock out the enemy to the other side.

The Red Army began to push the troops of Slaschova to Perekop. 12 August red parts reached the line Big Kopani - B. Mayachka - Lyubimovka - Belotserkovka. At the same time, the red command conducted a mobilization of the able-bodied population in Kherson and, under the leadership of D. M. Karbyshev, the construction of fortified lines began on the Kakhovka bridgehead. There were ramparts, trenches rummaged, dugouts, artillery positions, wire barriers were built. Work went day and night. Construction materials were carried along the Dnieper. By October 13, three defense lines were constructed: 1) was on the outskirts of the village of Bolshaya Kakhovka - the bridgehead defense line; 2) passed through the villages of Terna - Box - Lyubimovka and was the main line of defense. Here were the 2-3 line of trenches, company strong points reinforced with wire barriers and connected by lines of messages. Anti-personnel and anti-tank mines were put on the most dangerous areas; 3) along the line of Yekaterinoslavka - Sofievka - Lyubimovka - to the south of the Sukhino farm - the bank of the Dnieper went the front line of defense. She was standing out of separate trenches and platoon strongholds, sometimes covered with wire barriers. In order to cover the Kakhovsky bridgehead, an aviation group of I. U. Pavlov was deployed. Crossings defended anti-aircraft artillery group. The artillery on the bridgehead was reduced to three groups, not counting anti-aircraft artillery: the art group of direct support of the troops, the art group for conducting the counter-battery struggle and the anti-tank artillery reserve.



In the eastern direction, the Red Army did not do so well. The 2th Cavalry Army, reinforced by the 1th Rifle Division, advanced along the Goon group from Tokmak to Melitopol. The Red Army broke through the front, but the cavalrymen of the Gorodovikov failed to go deeper into the white rear. Kutepov's body hit the flank. White split the 2 Conarmy into two parts: the three advanced cavalry divisions were separated from the infantry and the rest of the cavalry. After a fierce battle, the red parts moved away, the blow was reflected. After the elimination of this breakthrough, Wrangel began to transfer the Barbovich cavalcorpus with armored cars to the left flank.

On August 12, the corps Slashchev and Barbovich launched a counter-offensive and rejected the advancing red units to the fortified bridgehead. Fierce fighting continued until 20 in August, but all attacks on Kakhovka were broken on powerful defenses. Slashchev began to accuse the high command of "mistakes", and was removed from his post. True, with honor, he was awarded the title of Slashchev-Crimean for past services and sent on leave. The corps was led by General Vitkovsky. But this did not change the situation. Fierce fighting on the Kakhovsky bridgehead continued until the end of October 1920. The parties exchanged blows. Wrangel's army was unable to eliminate this bridgehead, which led to a noticeable weakening of the position of the white army and the subsequent retreat of Perekop.
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  1. cartridge
    cartridge 11 June 2013 08: 31
    11
    It could not be otherwise because "... from the taiga to the British seas, the Red Army is the strongest."
    1. Arberes
      Arberes 11 June 2013 11: 59
      +8
      Quote: cartridge
      .from the taiga to the British seas, the Red Army is the strongest. "

      What does red or white have to do with it? Now this is history, God forbid someone else to go through it. Brother to brother, son to father! How much they beat each other, the whole country is in ruin, hunger and disease! I give my memory debt both red and white, in the end they all fought for its RUSSIA!
      But you need to remember this, even just so that it would never happen again! hi
      And many thanks to the author for the interesting work! drinks
      1. Avenger711
        Avenger711 11 June 2013 14: 07
        +3
        For which Russia the whites fought to establish problemmno. They also did not want a tsar, and the famous episode of singing "God save the tsar" in "The Elusive Avengers" 2 quite accurately characterizes the political predilections of whites.
  2. wolf1945
    wolf1945 11 June 2013 08: 48
    10
    Eternal memory and in red and white they all fought for their homeland! They are all Russian people! hi
    1. AK44
      AK44 11 June 2013 13: 02
      -2
      And to those who unleashed it (both red and white) - burn in hell!
      1. Avenger711
        Avenger711 11 June 2013 14: 10
        +4
        Actually, it was the whites who unleashed it. For the right to oppress the people, many were ready to drown the country in blood and sell them to the interventionists.
    2. Avenger711
      Avenger711 11 June 2013 14: 08
      0
      For example, Slashchev-hangers? By the way, he returned to the USSR, taught, only drank a lot and dabbled in cocaine, and in the end was cut off by one of his relatives who were hanged.
      1. Denis
        Denis 13 June 2013 03: 37
        +3
        Quote: Avenger711
        was cut by one of his relatives
        Generally not stabbed
        On January 11, 1929, Yakov Slashchev was killed by a shot from a revolver by a certain Lazar Lvovich Kolenberg in his room at school.
        But how did the ancients bring together, to whom is it beneficial?
        At the time the crime was committed, Kolenberg was recognized by psychiatric examination as insane. The case was dismissed and archived, and Lazarus Kolenberg was released [5].
        And the hanger or not ...
        How many sources, so many opinions. There are such
        He suffered many wounds on his feet. To reduce the unbearable pain from a wound in the abdomen in 1919, which did not heal for more than six months, he started injecting himself with an anesthetic - morphine, then became addicted to cocaine, which caused him to gain the “glory” of an addict
        In this fratricidal war there is no need to look for heroes, all the dead
  3. AK44
    AK44 11 June 2013 11: 46
    -3
    At that time, there were no greater casualties than civilian casualties in the history of the country. And for what? The beautiful idea of ​​universal equality and fraternity remained the idea, a bright future never came.
    1. Avenger711
      Avenger711 11 June 2013 14: 08
      +4
      It has arrived. About the 39th year.
      1. AK44
        AK44 11 June 2013 15: 27
        -2
        Clear. You are one of the stubborn Stalinist communists! Whose opinion does not coincide with yours, they automatically become loonies, traitors and enemies of the people! There is nothing to talk about with you at all, only time to waste in vain!
        1. Karlsonn
          Karlsonn 12 June 2013 13: 31
          +1
          Quote: AK44
          Clear. You are one of the stubborn Stalinist communists! Whose opinion does not coincide with yours, they automatically become loonies, traitors and enemies of the people! There is nothing to talk about with you at all, only time to waste in vain!


          just people like you are not capable of dialogue.
          Sincerely, the Communist-Stalinist.
  4. omsbon
    omsbon 11 June 2013 11: 48
    +6
    Civil war is terrible for its fratricidal essence!
    But when I impose juvine justice, gay liberal values ​​and other crap, I personally am ready to defend myself by any means, not counting on mercy.
    1. AK44
      AK44 11 June 2013 13: 13
      -4
      The values ​​imposed by the Bolsheviks after coming to power were super liberal - the abolition of the institution of the family, freedom of sexual orientation, the destruction of the church, the liquidation of private property, the Red Terror, the destruction of entire classes that do not fit into the new ideology (clergy, nobles, bourgeoisie, intelligentsia, and simply disagree) and much more. There was no such mockery of people and the state anywhere. The living liberals are far from those freaks.
      1. omsbon
        omsbon 11 June 2013 13: 52
        0
        Quote: AK44
        The living liberals are far from those freaks.

        "Cut without waiting for peritonitis!" phrase from the film "Pokrovskie gates"
        1. AK44
          AK44 11 June 2013 14: 10
          0
          Totally agree!
      2. The comment was deleted.
        1. AK44
          AK44 11 June 2013 15: 04
          -2
          You know the story even less than I do!
          From now on I would ask without insults. You don’t know me, I don’t want to know you either! It seems like you are suffering from a breakdown. For no reason to take and ... st stranger!
          1. Yazov
            Yazov 12 June 2013 22: 18
            +3
            He is not just about ..... al, he has communicated you in a communist way. They know how. The empire collapsed, but the USSR prs .... whether there is experience. And they don’t even want to understand what they’ve done. And they dream of coming to power again. And again, on a new one.
      3. Karlsonn
        Karlsonn 12 June 2013 13: 42
        0
        Quote: AK44
        freedom of sexual orientation
        - lying.

        Quote: AK44
        abolition of the institution of the family
        - "off-scale" in the event of global social upheavals, alas, cannot be avoided, the theory of a "glass of water" is not an indicator.


        Quote: AK44
        destruction of the church, liquidation of private property


        yeah, the NEP, temples and monasteries in which you can go today it is excellent proof.


        Quote: AK44
        red terror
        - the first concentration camp in Russia was built by the British for the Reds, the first hostages began to be taken and shot by whites, the Red Terror was a necessary and ANSWERED measure.


        Quote: AK44
        the destruction of entire classes that do not fit into the new ideology (clergy, nobles, the bourgeoisie, the intelligentsia, and simply disagree) and much more.
        - maybe for what?


        Quote: AK44
        There was no such mockery of people and the state anywhere.


        Yes sir! Let’s fuss about the French bun and its crunch! while some traveled to Nice and Paris, about 85% of the country ate bread with impurities, about once every five years it died of hunger, walked in bast shoes, was illiterate, did not have access to medicine, and so on.


        Quote: AK44
        The living liberals are far from those freaks.


        Compare mortality in the USSR and now?
        1. AK44
          AK44 13 June 2013 11: 58
          +1
          [quote = Karlsonn] freedom of sexual orientation
          - lying. [/ quote]
          I'm not lying! In 1925, the Society Down with Shame appeared. Members of this society appeared in public places (even on Red Square) naked, preached free love (complete freedom for pederasts as well).
          - "off-scale" during global social upheavals, alas, cannot be avoided, the theory of a "glass of water" is not an indicator. [/ quote]
          You're lying! This one could have been easily avoided!
          [quote = Karlsonn] yeah, the NEP, temples and monasteries that you can go to today are a great proof of this. [/ quote]
          Yeah, that's just the NEP introduced because military communism brought the country to a hilt. The peasants rebelled against the Soviet regime not because of a good life (but the valiant Tukhachevsky used chemical weapons and mass executions to pacify them).
          In my city after the revolution, a glass container warehouse was built in one church, and a car garage in another; The third - the townspeople upheld, did not give a fuck. Two monasteries suffered the same fate.
          [quote = Karlsonn] - maybe it was for what? [/ quote]
          Or maybe it wasn’t worth it all the same? After all, people.

          At the expense of hunger: have you heard anything about the mass famine of 1921-1922, 1932-33? French rolls, by the way, didn’t disappear, just others began to eat them, in closed special distributors for party nomenclature.

          So, there is something to ponder, dear Leninist-Stalinist!
  5. Gato
    Gato 11 June 2013 12: 19
    +5
    The worst thing is that there are no winners in civil wars. For a country, a civil war is worse than a few foreign invasions.
  6. knn54
    knn54 11 June 2013 14: 42
    +4
    “It was not the Bolsheviks or Germans who decomposed the unfortunate troops, but the internal enemy — bribery, drunkenness, theft, and, most importantly, the loss of pride in the rank of Russian officer.”
    “Not being myself not only a communist, but even a socialist - I treat the Soviet government as a government representing my homeland and the interests of my people. She defeats all the movements that arise against her, therefore, satisfies the requirements of the majority. As a military man, I am not a member of any party, but I want to serve my people, with a pure heart I obey the government put forward by him. ”
    General Slashchev agreed to serve as a red, but he did not DISAPPOINT the honor of a white officer!
  7. lexe
    lexe 11 June 2013 16: 35
    +1
    It’s interesting, but there are figures how many officers of the Russian army died from the red terror in the initial period of the Civil War even before active hostilities?
    After all, for the most part, they served Russia for generations and made it an empire. And does such a foundation of the state inspire anyone today? They cut the best front-line soldiers as on Bartholomew’s night ... So we honor the traditions of Russian weapons and scoops? but with the bearers of these traditions, it’s not so? Trotsky won the civil one. So I can understand the Stalinists, but it turns out that the site is full of liberal Trotskyists who see the USSR’s roots in the civilian one. And the USSR’s roots are different, old or Stalin chopped up.
    1. Karlsonn
      Karlsonn 12 June 2013 13: 45
      -1
      Quote: Lexi
      It’s interesting, but there are figures how many officers of the Russian army died from the red terror in the initial period of the Civil War even before active hostilities?


      Interestingly, but there are numbers of mortality among officers of the Soviet army, after the collapse of the USSR?
      1. Igarr
        Igarr 12 June 2013 21: 20
        0
        The numbers of terror are unlikely to hit you.
        And do not think that there are some outrageous numbers.
        The overwhelming majority, front-level officers — these were members of the same ranks — according to the concepts of that time — from peasants, from merchants, from workers and office workers, undereducated students.
        The nobleman Tukhachevsky - who you yourself know.
        Nobleman Karbyshev - you know.
        The nobles of the Triandafillas and Shaposhnikov are the giants theorists of the Red Army.
        Noble Blucher - commander of the Far Eastern Front.
        The nobleman Kolchak - if you hadn’t put him in the "coke" brains to play the rulers of Russia and rush to fulfill the plans of the amerikosov - he would have lived in the States. Or in France. Or in England.
        so ... obviously less died from the red terror ... than you want to be horrified.
        Monarchists and "blue blood" were knocked out in the First World War. The remnants were screwed together away from February and October.
        Remained - adventurers.
        And they are not sorry.
        .
        .
        It was not possible to verify this information, but those who graduated from the university (military schools) under the tsar received personal nobility. It was not inherited.
        So .... hereditary nobles sat out in Baden-Baden and Nice.
        And - they fought and died - the same as we are - officers from the workers. Or lavoshnikov.
        Assess who was on which side.
  8. Gato
    Gato 11 June 2013 17: 53
    +3
    After all, these were for the most part generations serving Russia and making it an empire.

    As far as I know, this is not quite so. Those whom you have in mind were very few and for the most part they were knocked out as early as the First World War. By 1917 the vast majority of officers came from raznochintsy and even peasants who received ranks during the war. So the White movement is not at all Golitsyna’s guarantors and Obolensky’s cornet.
    By the way, there were almost more former tsarist officers in the Red Army than in the White. And one should not forget about the green movement, in terms of the number of such "against all" there were more than red and white combined.
    1. lexe
      lexe 11 June 2013 18: 40
      +1
      Was there an terror of the officer corps? Yes. Most of the junior-middle ranks were members of different ranks. Under the tsar, many generals were even descendants of peasants and Cossacks. But they absorbed the best of the castes. ..who, for the most part, rebuffed the revolutionaries? The officer corps. Well, it’s clear that they didn’t do it alone, but on the support of the people who wore the greatcoat then. The officer corps is a conservative part of any society, even the most liberal. .And what? Shows an example of how we need to tear down these basics and it created a new basis? Red to support solely because of the fear of interventsii.Sami ideologues recognized whether White has the slogan of the peasant king they would be Khan.
      They lied to everyone skillfully (like today's propaganda) and the peasants, among others, flirted with outright gangs. The Reds propaganda was the most advanced in the world. They fooled everyone and defeated. Well, the West was still not on the side of Russia.
  9. tuts
    tuts 11 June 2013 18: 09
    -1
    I didn’t understand the phrase:
    Russian army by the end of the month it was possible to bring up to 35 thousand people with 178 guns and 38 aircraft. The reds at that time there were about 45 thousand people with 270 guns and 45 aircraft.


    What does the author want to say?

    Comrades, let me raise another last toast.
    As a representative of our Soviet Government, I would like to raise a toast to the health of our Soviet people and, above all, the Russian people.

    I drink, above all, for the health of the Russian people because it is the most prominent nation of all the nations that make up the Soviet Union.
    I raise a toast to the health of the Russian people because they have earned in this war and earlier earned the title, if you like, of the leading force of our Soviet Union among all the peoples of our country.
    I raise a toast to the health of the Russian people, not only because they are the leading people, but also because they have common sense, general political common sense and patience.
    Our government had many mistakes, we had moments of desperate situation in the 1941-42 years, when our army retreated, left our native villages and cities of Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova, the Leningrad Region, the Karelian-Finnish Republic, left because it didn’t there was another way. Some other people could say: you did not live up to our hopes, we will set up another government that will conclude peace with Germany and provide us with peace. This could happen, keep in mind.
    But the Russian people did not agree to this, the Russian people did not compromise, they showed unlimited trust in our government. I repeat, we had mistakes, the first two years our army was forced to retreat, it turned out that they did not master the events, did not cope with the situation. However, the Russian people believed, endured, waited and hoped that we would cope with events.
    It is for this trust in our government that the Russian people have shown us, thank you very much!
    For the health of the Russian people!
    - a toast delivered by I.V. Stalin at the Kremlin reception on May 24, 1945.
  10. Sour
    Sour 11 June 2013 19: 59
    +2
    Familiar with statistics on officers. If necessary, I’ll find a link.
    Only 2% (one in fifty) of the officer corps with which Russia entered the World War subsequently became White Guard officers. The rest either died during the war, or fought in the Civil on the side of the Reds, or avoided participating in the Civil War.
    That is, the continuity of the white officers with the old cadre Russian officers is much less than many people think.
    The vast majority of White Guard officers either became officers during World War II, or already during the Civil War. There were very few graduates of pre-war cadet schools, especially in the infantry.
    If we talk about officers and generals of the General Staff (i.e., graduates of the academy), then the Reds turned out to be even more than the whites.
    Generally recommend reading this book
    http://militera.lib.ru/research/abinyakin_rm01/index.html
    Very objective research. There are others.
    It is curious that among the white volunteer officers was a fairly small percentage of nobles. More than among the population of Russia as a whole, but still much less than half the personnel. Geographical statistics are also interesting. Among the white officers was a low percentage of natives of the central and northern provinces of European Russia. Natives of the North Caucasus, the Black Earth Provinces, New Russia and Ukraine prevailed. And there were very few among the white officers who came from villages and large cities. Natives of small and medium cities prevailed.
    A large percentage of suicides among volunteer officers is striking.
    And one moment. Often they like to savor non-Russian surnames among the commanders and commissars of the Red Army. This is because few people know what surnames were in the White Army. There, the percentage of non-Russian surnames was also larger. And the approach should be the same. Everyone calls Wrangel and Kappel "Russian generals", and Trotsky and Dzerzhinsky "foreigners". But Wrangel is no more Russian than Trotsky. And no less. And they treated Russians in about the same way.
    Regiments and divisions formed from national minorities and foreigners were enough on both sides of the front. Yes, there were Magyars (mostly red), but there were Czechs (mostly white). The Chinese were enough for both those and others. Yes, there was a Latvian division with the Reds, but there was a Chechen division with the Whites. Etc.
    1. Karlsonn
      Karlsonn 12 June 2013 12: 47
      0
      Quote: Sour
      Familiar with statistics on officers. If necessary, I’ll find a link.
      Only 2% (one in fifty) of the officer corps with which Russia entered the World War subsequently became White Guard officers. The rest either died during the war, or fought in the Civil on the side of the Reds, or avoided participating in the Civil War.
      yes

      HUNDRED AND EIGHTY FIVE GENERALS OF THE GENERAL STAFF OF THE IMPERIAL ARMY HAVE BEEN IN THE HOUSING OF THE GENERAL STAFF OF THE WORKING-PEASANT RED ARMY (RKKA) in the years from 1918 to 1920.
      This number does not include generals who held other posts in the Red Army. Most of the 185 were voluntarily serving in the Red Army, and only six were mobilized.

      The lists are taken from the book of A.G. Kavtoradze "Military specialists in the service of the Republic of Soviets 1917-1920." USSR Academy of Sciences, 1988
      The same list of generals of the General Staff of the Imperial Army who served in the General Staff of the Red Army, includes officers with the rank of colonel, lieutenant colonel and captain. The entire list (including generals) is 485 people.

      In order to estimate the deafening figure of 185 generals in the service of the Red Army, it is interesting to compare it with the number of generals of the General Staff on the eve of the Great War. On July 18, 1914, 425 generals were in the corps of officers of the General Staff (General Staff). At the end of the war there were undoubtedly more of them. A significant figure will still be the ratio of 185 to 425, which is 44%. Forty-four percent of tsarist generals of their total number on the eve of the war went to the service of the Red Army, i.e. served on the red side; Of these, six generals served to mobilize, the rest voluntarily.
      1. Karlsonn
        Karlsonn 12 June 2013 12: 51
        0
        Quote: Sour
        Often they like to savor non-Russian surnames among the commanders and commissars of the Red Army. This is because few people know what surnames were in the White Army. There, the percentage of non-Russian surnames was even larger. And the approach should be the same.
        yes

        Top tsarist officers in the service of the Red Army:
        Full generals
        Generals from Infantry
        1. Balanin, Dmitry Vasilievich (graduated from the Nikolaev Academy of the General Staff);
        2. Baluev, Pyotr Semenovich (graduated from the Nikolaev Academy of the General Staff);
        3. Belkovich, Leonid Nikolaevich, (graduated from the Nikolaev Academy of the General Staff), voluntarily joined the Red Army;
        4. Vasiliev, Fedor Nikolaevich (graduated from the Nikolaev Academy of the General Staff);
        5. Voishin-Murdas-Zhilinsky, Ippolit Paulinovich, (graduated from the Nikolaev Academy of the General Staff), voluntarily joined the Red Army;
        6. Voronov, Nikolai Mikhailovich, (graduated from the Nikolaev Academy of the General Staff), voluntarily joined the Red Army;
        7. Danilov, Nikolai Alexandrovich (graduated from the Nikolaev Academy of the General Staff), voluntarily joined the Red Army;
        8. Dolgov, Dmitry Alexandrovich (graduated from the Nikolaev Academy of the General Staff), voluntarily joined the Red Army;
        9. Zayonchkovsky, Andrei Medardovich, (graduated from the Nikolaev Academy of the General Staff), voluntarily joined the Red Army;
        10. Klembovsky, Vladislav Napoleonovich, (graduated from the Nikolaev Academy of the General Staff), voluntarily joined the Red Army;
        11. Mikhnevich, Nikolai Petrovich (graduated from the Nikolaev Academy of the General Staff), voluntarily joined the Red Army;
        12. Olokhov, Vladimir Apollonovich (graduated from the Nikolaev Academy of the General Staff);
        13. Polivanov, Alexey Andreevich (graduated from the Nikolaev Academy of the General Staff);
        14. Usakovsky, Evgeny Evgenievich (graduated from the Nikolaev Academy of the General Staff);
        15. Shuvaev, Dmitry Savelyevich, (graduated from the Nikolaev Academy of the General Staff), voluntarily joined the Red Army;
        16. Lechitsky, Platon Alekseevich;
        Cavalry Generals
        17. Litvinov, Alexander Ivanovich (graduated from the Nikolaev Academy of the General Staff);
        18. Tsurikov, Afanasy Andreyevich (graduated from the Nikolaev Academy of the General Staff);
        19. Brusilov, Alexey Alekseevich;
        Artillery Generals
        20. Manikovsky, Alexey Alekseevich (graduated from the Mikhailovsky Artillery Academy);
        21. Kuzmin-Karavaev, Dmitry Dmitrievich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
        22. Mehmandarov, Samed-bey Sadikh-bey oglu, served in the white and national armies;
        General Engineer
        23. Velichko, Konstantin Ivanovich (graduated from Nikolaev Engineering Academy);
        Lieutenant general
        General Staff Lieutenant General
        24. Apukhtin, Alexander Nikolaevich;
        25. Baiov, Konstantin Konstantinovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
        26. Baltic, Alexander Alekseevich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
        27. Bratanov, Vasily Nikolaevich;
        28. Butovich, Vasily Vasilievich;
        29. Vitkovsky, Vasily Vasilyevich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
        30. Genishta, Nikolai Ivanovich;
        31. Glinsky, Nikolai Sergeevich;
        32. Gutor, Alexei Evgenievich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
        33. Disterlo, Nikolai Alexandrovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
        34. Dobryshin, Alexander Fedorovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
        35. Dobryshin, Philip Nikolaevich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
        36. Egoriev, Vladimir Nikolaevich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
        37. Zakharov, Pyotr Matveevich;
        38. Iskritsky, Evgeny Andreyevich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
        39. Istomin, Nikolai Mikhailovich;
        40. Kanshin, Peter Pavlovich;
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          41. Karpov, Vladimir Kirillovich;
          42. Kozlovsky, Stepan Stanislavovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
          43. Korolkov, Georgy Karpovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
          44. Korulsky, Alexander Nikolaevich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
          45. Leo, Nikolai Nikolaevich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
          46. ​​Lyubomirov, Pavel Petrovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
          47. Maksimov, Nikolai Sergeevich;
          48. Reliable, Dmitry Nikolaevich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
          49. Nesterovsky, Alexander Ivanovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
          50. Novikov Alexander Vasilievich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
          51. Novitsky, Vasily Fedorovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
          52. Ogorodnikov, Fedor Yevlampievich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
          53. Parsky, Dmitry Pavlovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
          54. Petrovich, Sergey Georgievich;
          55. Podgursky, Fedor Alexandrovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
          56. Potapov, Nikolai Mikhailovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
          57. Rodkevich, Nikolai Alexandrovich;
          58. Svyatsky, Vladimir Nikolaevich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
          59. Selivyachev, Vladimir Ivanovich;
          60. Sivers, Nikolai Nikolaevich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
          61. Snesarev, Andrei Evgenievich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
          62. Sukhomlin, Semyon Andreevich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
          63. Taube, Alexander Alexandrovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
          64. Teleshov, Mikhail Nikolaevich;
          65. Tyulin, Mikhail Stepanovich;
          66. Freiman, Alexander Konstantinovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
          67. Khamin, Nikolai Alexandrovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
          68. Tsikhovich, Yanuari Kazimirovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
          69. Cherkasov, Pyotr Vladimirovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
          70. Scheideman, Georgy Mikhailovich (Yuri);
          71. Scheideman, Sergei Mikhailovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
          72. Schulze, Nikolai Karlovich;
          73. Schetkin, Nikolai Osipovich;
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            0
            Lieutenant Generals who graduated from the Mikhailovsky Artillery Academy
            74. Vakharlovsky, Vsevolod Nikolaevich;
            75. Zabudsky, Grigory Alexandrovich;
            76. Ipatiev, Vladimir Nikolaevich;
            77. Pozoyev, Leon Avetikovich (Pozoyan);
            78. Tikhonravov, Konstantin Ivanovich;
            79. Shulga, Nikolai Vasilievich;
            80. Yakubinsky, Peter Vasilievich;
            Lieutenant-generals who graduated from the Nikolaev Engineering Academy
            81. Zubarev, Fedor Ivanovich;
            82. Kirpichov, Neil Lvovich;
            Lieutenant General, graduated from the Alexander Military Law Academy
            83. Koreyvo, Vitold-Cheslav Simforianovich;
            Lieutenant General of the Old Army
            84. Bagration, Dmitry Petrovich;
            85. Vatatsi, Vladimir Alexandrovich;
            86. Vostrosablin, Alexander Pavlovich;
            87. Mokasey-Shibinsky, Grigory Grigoryevich;
            88. Himets, Vasily Alexandrovich;
            89. Chelyustkin, Nikolai Mikhailovich;
            90. Chernavin, Vsevolod Vladimirovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
            91. Shikhlinsky, Ali-Aga Ismail-Aga oglu, served in the white and national armies;
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              0
              Major General
              General Staff Major General
              92. Adabash, Mikhail Alekseevich;
              93. Akimov, Mikhail Vasilievich;
              94. Aleksandrov A.K .;
              95. Aleksandrov, Leonid Kapitonovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
              96. Alekseev, Mikhail Pavlovich;
              97. Alekseev, Yakov Ivanovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
              98. Andronnikov, Alexander Semenovich;
              99. Anisimov Alexander Ivanovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
              100. Artamonov, Nikolai Nikolaevich, served in the white and national armies;
              101. Auzan, Andrei Ivanovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
              102. Afanasyev, Vladimir Alexandrovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
              103. Akhverdov, Ivan Vasilievich (Akhverdyan), served in the white and national armies;
              104. Baranovsky, Vladimir Lvovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
              105. Barmin, Ivan Alexandrovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
              106. Barsukov, Evgeny Zakharovich;
              107. Bezrukov, Alexei Gerasimovich;
              108. Belolipetskiy, Valerian Erofeevich;
              109. Belyaev, Alexander Ivanovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
              110. Belyaev, Nikolai Semenovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
              111. Boyin, Matvey Illarionovich;
              112. Bonch-Bruevich, Mikhail Dmitrievich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
              113. Borodin, Matvey Illarionovich;
              114. Buymistrov, Vladimir Ivanovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
              115. Bursky, Pavel Dmitrievich;
              116. Vasiliev Mikhail Nikolaevich;
              117. Vasiliev, Nikolai Petrovich;
              118. Verkhovsky, Alexander Ivanovich;
              119. Verkhovsky, Sergei Ivanovich;
              120. Vikhirev, Alexander Alexandrovich, served in the white and national armies;
              121. Volkov, Sergei Matveevich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
              122. Gabaev, Alexander Georgievich (Gabashvili);
              123. Gamchenko, Evgeny Spiridonovich, served in the white and national armies;
              124. Gatovsky Vladimir Nikolaevich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
              125. Geghstrom, Eugene-Alexander Elisovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
              126. Gerardi, Andrey Andreevich;
              127. Golovinsky, Alexey Vasilievich;
              128. Grishinsky, Alexei Samoilovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
              129. Grudzinsky, Mikhail Caesarevich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
              130. Gutor, Alexander Evgenievich;
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                0
                131. Davydov, Anthony Dmitrievich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                132. Dubinin, Roman Ivanovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                133. Diaghilev, Valentin Pavlovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                134. Evreinov, Konstantin Leonidovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                135. Elizarov, Nikolai Stepanovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                136. Zhdanko, Nikodim Nikodimovich;
                137. Zhdanov, Nikolai Alexandrovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                138. Zhdanov, Nikolai Nikolaevich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                139. Zhelenin, Makarii Alexandrovich;
                140. Zabolotny, Arkady Moiseevich;
                141. Zagyu, Mikhail Mikhailovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                142. Zaichenko, Zakhary Ivanovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                143. Ivanov, Vladimir Stepanovich;
                144. Ignatiev, Alexei Alekseevich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                145. Izmestyev, Pyotr Ivanovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                146. Iozefovich, Felix Dominicovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                147. Isaev, Ivan Konstantinovich;
                148. Kabalov, Alexander Ivanovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                149. Kadomsky, Dmitry Petrovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                150. Kadoshnikov, Andrei Fedorovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                151. Kamensky, Mikhail Pavlovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                152. Kamensky, Sergei Nikolaevich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                153. Karatov-Karaulov, Nikolai Alexandrovich;
                154. Karlikov, Vyacheslav Aleksandrovich, served in the white and national armies;
                155. Kedrin, Vladimir Ivanovich, served in the white and national armies;
                156. Klimovich, Anton Karlovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                157. Kolshmidt, Viktor Brunovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                158. Korsun, Nikolai Georgievich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                159. Kostyaev, Fedor Vasilyevich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                160. Kosyakov, Viktor Antonovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                161. Kralotknn, Dmitry Alekseevich;
                162. Kruger, Alexander Ivanovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                163. Kusonsky, Pavel Mikhailovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                164. Ladyzhensky, Gavriil Mikhailovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                165. Lazarev, Boris Petrovich, served in the white and national armies;
                166. Lebedev, Dmitry Kapitonovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                167. Lebedev, Mikhail Vasilievich;
                168. Lebedev, Pavel Pavlovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                169. Levitsky, Vyacheslav Ivanovich;
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                  +1
                  170. Livadin, George Vladimirovich;
                  171. Liventsev, Nikolai Denisovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                  172. Lignau, Alexander Georgievich, served in the white and national armies;
                  173. Lukirsky, Sergei Georgievich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                  174. Maidel, Vladimir Nikolaevich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                  175. Maidel, Ignatius Nikolaevich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                  176. Maksimovsky, Nikolai Nikolaevich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                  177. Martynov, Evgeny Ivanovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                  178. Martynov, Konstantin Akimovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                  179. Matyanov, Mikhail Ivanovich;
                  180. Makhrov, Nikolai Semenovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                  181. Meder, Alexander Arnoldovich;
                  182. Melnikov, Dmitry Antonovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                  183. Menitsky, Joseph Boleslavovich-Ivanovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                  184. Menchukov, Evgeny Alexandrovich;
                  185. Mikhailov, Viktor Ivanovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                  186. Mikheev, Viktor Stepanovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                  187. Mikheev, Sergey Petrovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                  188. 192. Montfort, Eugene Orestovich (de Montfort), voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                  189. Mochulsky, Alexander Mikhailovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                  190. Muratov, Vladimir Pavlovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                  191. Mukhanov, Alexander Vladimirovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                  192. Myslitsky, Nikolai Grigoryevich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                  193. Myasnikov, Vasily Emelyanovich, served in the white and national armies;
                  194. Neznamov, Alexander Alexandrovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                  195. Nikulin, Ivan Andreevich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                  196. Novakov, Evgeny Ivanovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                  197. Novitsky, Fedor Fedorovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                  198. Oboleshev, Nikolai Nikolaevich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                  199. Odintsov, Sergei Ivanovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                  200. Olderogge, Vladimir Alexandrovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                  201. Pavlov, Nikifor Damianovich, served in the white and national armies;
                  202. Panfilov, Peter Petrovich;
                  203. Pevnev, Alexander Leontyevich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                  204. Pestrikov, Nikolai Sergeevich;
                  205. Peters, Vladimir Nikolaevich (Kamnev), voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                  206. Peterson, Voldemar-Alexander Karlovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                  207. Plyushchevsky-Plyushchik, Grigory Alexandrovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                  208. Pnevsky, Nikolay Vyacheslavovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                  209. Popov, Vasily Fedorovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
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                    0
                    210. Popov, Victor Lukich, served in the white and national armies;
                    211. Popov, Nikolai Ivanovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                    212. Putyata, Grigory Vasilievich;
                    213. Radus Zenkovich, Lev Apollonovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                    214. Rattel, Nikolai Iosifovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                    215. Remezov, Alexander Kondratievich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                    216. Rybakov, Ivan Ivanovich;
                    217. Rylsky, Konstantin Iosifovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                    218. Savchenko, Sergey Nikolaevich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                    219. Savchenko-Matsenko, Lev Ivanovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                    220. Samoilo, Alexander Alexandrovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                    221. Sapozhnikov, Nikolai Pavlovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                    222. Satterup, Dmitry Vadimovich (Vladimirovich), voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                    223. Svalov, Pavel Nikolaevich;
                    224. Svechin, Alexander Andreevich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                    225. Segerkrantz, Sergey Karlovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                    226. Sedachev, Vladimir Konstantinovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                    227. Seliverstov, Ivan Ivanovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                    228. Rural, Vyacheslav Alexandrovich;
                    229. Semenov, Nikolai Grigoryevich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                    230. Sergievsky, Dmitry Dmitrievich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                    231. Serebrennikov, Ivan Konstantinovich;
                    232. Serebryannikov, Vladimir Grigoryevich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                    233. Sivers, Yakov Yakovlevich;
                    234. Sokiro-Yakhontov, Victor Nikolaevich (Dmitry), served in the white and national armies;
                    235. Sokovnin, Vsevolod Alekseevich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                    236. Sokovnin, Mikhail Alekseevich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                    237. Solnyshkin, Mikhail Efimovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                    238. Staal, German Ferdinandovich, served in the white and national armies;
                    239. Staev, Pavel Stepanovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                    240. Stoyky, Vladimir Iosafovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                    241. Suvorov, Andrei Nikolaevich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                    242. Suleiman, Nikolai Alexandrovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                    243. Sushkov, Vladimir Nikolaevich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                    244. Sytin, Pavel Pavlovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                    245. Taube, Sergei Ferdinandovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                    246. Tigranov, Leonid Faddeevich (Levon Tetavosovich Tigranyan);
                    247. Tikhmenev, Yuri Mikhailovich (George), voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                    248. Tomilin, Sergei Valerianovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                    249. Ushakov, Konstantin Mikhailovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
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                      Karlsonn 12 June 2013 13: 00
                      0
                      250. Fastikovsky, Mikhail Vladislavovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                      251. Fedotov, Alexander Ippolitovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                      252. Filatov, Nikolai Mikhailovich;
                      253. Fisenko, Mikhail Sergeevich;
                      254. Khvoshchinsky, Georgy Nikolaevich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                      255. Henrikson, Nikolai Vladimirovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                      256. Tsygalsky, Mikhail Viktorovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                      257. Chausov, Nikolai Dmitrievich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                      258. Cheremisinov, Vladimir Mikhailovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                      259. Cherepennikov, Alexei Ivanovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                      260. Shelekhov, Dmitry Alexandrovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                      261. Shemansky, Anatoly Dmitrievich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                      262. Shemyakin, Konstantin Yakovlevich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                      263. Eising, Karl Ivanovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                      264. Eigel, Nikolai Matveevich;
                      265. Envald, Mikhail Vasilievich;
                      266. Engel, Victor Nikolaevich;
                      267. Yagodkin, Pavel Yakovlevich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                      268. Yakimovich, Alexander Alexandrovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                      269. Yakovlev, Alexander Alekseevich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                      Major Generals who graduated from the Mikhailovsky Artillery Academy
                      270. Grodsky, Georgy Dmitrievich;
                      271. Dekhanov, Vladimir Nikolaevich;
                      272. Durlyakhov, Rostislav Augustovich (Durlyacher Robert Augustovich);
                      273. Kozlovsky, David Evstafievich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                      274. Mikhailov, Vadim Sergeevich;
                      275. Sapozhnikov, Alexey Vasilievich;
                      276. Svidersky, Grigory Alekseevich;
                      277. Smyslovsky, Eugene Kostantinovich;
                      278. Stolbin, Boris Ivanovich;
                      279. Fedorov, Vladimir Grigorievich;
                      280. Tsytovich, Nikolai Platonovich;
                      Major Generals, graduated from Nikolaev Engineering Academy
                      281. Golenkin, Fedor Ilyich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                      282. Ovchinnikov, Alexey Konstantinovich;
                      283. Shoshin, Alexei Petrovich;
                      284. Yakovlev, Victor Vasilievich;
                      Navy Major Generals
                      285. Matveevich, Nikolai Nikolaevich;
                      286. Shershov, Alexander Pavlovich;
                      287. Stahl, Alexander Viktorovich;
                      1. Karlsonn
                        Karlsonn 12 June 2013 13: 03
                        0
                        Major Generals of the Old Army
                        288. Apyshkov, Vladimir Petrovich;
                        289. Argamakov, Nikolai Nikolaevich, served in the white and national armies;
                        290. Baranov, Mikhail Valeryanovich;
                        291. Belyaev, Sergey Timofeevich;
                        292. Berkalov, Evgeny Alexandrovich;
                        293. Blavdzevich, Nikolai Pavlovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                        294. Boyno-Rodzevich, Vitaliy Pavlovich;
                        295. Brilkin, Alexander Dmitrievich, served in the white and national armies;
                        296. Burman, George Vladimirovich;
                        297. Vladislavsky-Krekshin, Nikolai Leonidovich;
                        298. Vysochansky, Nikolai Grigoryevich;
                        299. Gantimurov, Alexey Gavrilovich;
                        300. Golitsinsky, Alexander Nikolaevich;
                        301. Goretsky, Konstantin Efimovich;
                        302. Gun, Vasily Vasilievich;
                        303. Dedintsev, Nikolai Georgievich;
                        304. Dmitrievsky, Evgeny Nikolaevich, served in the white and national armies;
                        305. Drozdov, Nikolai Fedorovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                        306. Zholtikov, Alexander Semenovich, served in the white and national armies;
                        307. Zundblad, Alexander Oskarovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                        308. Ivanov, Alexander Mikhailovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                        309. Kiselev, Leonid Petrovich;
                        310. Kornilovich, Boris Konstantinovich;
                        311. Kostin, Vyacheslav Danilovich;
                        312. Kryzhanovsky, Nikolai Nikolaevich;
                        313. Lepik, Ivan Fomich;
                        314. Logofet, Dmitry Nikolaevich;
                        315. Mikeladze, Vyacheslav Artemievich;
                        316. Mikhailovsky, Ivan Petrovich;
                        317. Nikitin, Alexander Vladimirovich;
                        318. Nikolaev, Alexander Panfomirovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                        319. Nikolaev, Vladimir Ivanovich;
                        320. Petrovsky, Kozma Timofeevich;
                        321. Pozoyev, George Avetikovich (Pozoyan);
                        322. Secrets, Alexander Stepanovich, served in the White Army;
                        323. Sivers, Alexander Mikhailovich;
                        324. Sobolev, Alexander Vasilievich;
                        325. Solonina, Andrey Andreevich;
                        326. Stankevich, Anton Vladimirovich, voluntarily joined the Red Army;
                        327. Chizhevsky, Leonid Vasilievich;
                        328. Shepelev, Pavel Vasilievich;
                        329. Hawks, Illarion Konstantinovich;
                        330. Yakhontov, Rostislav Nikolaevich;
                      2. Karlsonn
                        Karlsonn 12 June 2013 13: 05
                        0
                        Generals of the old army without indicating the exact rank
                        331. Abaleshev, Alexander Alexandrovich, lieutenant general;
                        332. Babchenko A.A .;
                        333. Baggovut, Nikolai Nikolaevich, lieutenant general;
                        334. Balashev I.S .;
                        335. Balkanov, Theodosius Petrovich, Major General;
                        336. Banks S.N .;
                        337. Bashinsky, Romil Ivanovich, major general;
                        338. Bogdanovsky, Mikhail Andreevich, major general;
                        339. Boyarsky, Sergey Nikolaevich, Major General;
                        340. Butyrkin, Sergey Nikolaevich, major general;
                        341. Walter, Leonid Vladimirovich, Major General;
                        342. Gabin, Nikolai Ivanovich, Major General;
                        343. Smooth, Stepan Vasilievich, Major General;
                        344. Gladkov, Peter Dmitrievich, major general;
                        345. Dons V.A .;
                        346. Seitz, Karl-Heinrich-Robert Florentinovich, Colonel;
                        347. Ivashkevich, Anatoly Viktorovich, major general;
                        348. Kalinin, Mikhail Evdokimovich, Major General;
                        349. Kalugin, Nikolai Ivanovich, major general;
                        350. Karachan, Ivan Rafailovich, major general;
                        351. Karachun, Grigory Ivanovich, major general;
                        352. Quadri, Vladimir Viktorovich, lieutenant general;
                        353. Korolkov, Alexei Lvovich, lieutenant general;
                        354. Kostitsyn, Tikhon Dmitrievich, Major General;
                        355. Krenke, Alexander Konstantinovich, major general;
                        356. Kushnirov M.A .;
                        357. Lazarevich, Yuri Sergeyevich, Major General;
                        358. Lomikovsky, Konstantin Vladislavovich, major general;
                        359. Lysenko L.S .;
                        360. Mavrin A.M .;
                        361. Mokasey-Shibinsky, Grigory Grigoryevich, Major General;
                        362. Markevich, Anton Ignatievich, major general;
                        363. Mukhin, Fedor Fedorovich, major general;
                        364. Nikolsky, Vyacheslav Nikolaevich, Major General;
                        365. Nosov, Alexander Dmitrievich, Major General;
                        366. Orlov, Mikhail Nikolaevich, Major General;
                        367. Panpushko, Vladimir Vasilievich, Major General;
                        368. Pykhachev, Victor Apollonovich, major general;
                        369. Radkevich, Mikhail Mikhailovich, Major General;
                        370. Rafalovich, Nikolai Ferdinandovich, Major General;
                        371. Rukteshel, Alexander Konstantinovich, Major General;
                        372. Satkevich, Alexander Alexandrovich, Major General;
                        373. Serebrennikov, Nikolai Pavlovich, major general;
                        374. Simanovsky, Ivan Dmitrievich, major general;
                        375. Stavitsky, Ivan Pavlovich, major general;
                        376. Starov V.P .;
                        377. Trankvilevsky, Mikhail Petrovich, major general;
                        378. Trofimov, Vasily Mikhailovich, major general;
                        379. Fedorov, Ivan Ignatievich;
                        380. Zabel, Sergey Alexandrovich, major general;
                        381. Shashkovsky E.E .;
                        382. Schwartz, Alexey Vladimirovich, lieutenant general;
                        383. Schmidt, Arthur Adolfovich, Major General;
                        384. Elsner, Nikolai Evgenievich, major general;
                        Rear admirals
                        385. Altfater, Vasily Mikhailovich;
                        386. Nemitz, Alexander Vasilievich. hi
  • Bobrovsky
    Bobrovsky 11 June 2013 20: 12
    +2
    General Slashchev, forgiven by the Soviet authorities and teaching in the courses "Shot", was killed by the Red Army soldier Kolenberg. He allegedly avenged his brother, who had been hanged on the orders of Slashchev. Slashchev opened the door to the bell and Kolenberg shot him several times. He was tried, but acquitted, and found insane.
    In the film "Running" he served as a prototype for General Khludov.
  • Sour
    Sour 11 June 2013 20: 29
    +1
    I read excerpts from the diary of Y. A. Slashkov (his last name was spelled correctly), as well as his testimonies during interrogations in the Cheka and the reviews of white memoirists about him. In my opinion, he is completely unlike Khludov. Khludov is some kind of gloomy maniac obsessed with his nightmares. But Slashkov was a fairly educated officer, with a coherent speech, quite talkative. Great tactician and good strategist. The bitter drunkard. Yes, he hung captive commissars and identified saboteurs. But he did not treat the marauders from among his subordinates better. He also hung a lot of them. His greatest merits were the defeat of Makhno's numerically superior forces (a very late defeat and no longer important due to the advance of the Reds), as well as the retention of Crimea, without which the civil war in the South would have ended in early 1920.
  • Sour
    Sour 11 June 2013 21: 03
    0
    Quote: Lexi
    Well, the West still was not on the side of Russia.

    It depends on which Russia to keep in mind. The West has actively supported some Russia.
    Here are the data only for Kolchak.
    Received from the allies 600 thousand rifles, 50 thousand revolvers, 2 thousand machine guns, 200 thousand sets of uniforms, 30 aircraft, more than 200 cars (for which 3200 pounds of gold were paid). Ammunition and food data not available.
    Further data on the army of Yudenich in the fall of 1919.
    From the British received 20 thousand rifles, 15 million rounds of ammunition, 30 cars, 2 armored cars, 40 thousand sets of uniforms, 57 guns, over 500 machine guns, 6 tanks, 6 aircraft, 4 armored trains. Kolchak gave a gold loan for these deliveries (he had a gold reserve).This is only the data of the autumn of 1919, excluding previous deliveries.
    There is no data on Denikin, Wrangel, Miller at hand. But I think that they also got oh.
    And what did the Reds get from the West? And how could they get something if they had no seaports before 1920?
  • Sour
    Sour 11 June 2013 21: 25
    +2
    I'll add more. Everyone knows about the most popular types of weapons of the Civil War (which supposedly were used equally by both sides). This is a three-line Mosin, a Maxim machine gun, a Nagan revolver, and a 3-inch cannon of the 1902 model.
    But not everyone knows that things were different in Kolchak's army. The main weapon of the infantry was the Japanese Arisaka carbine, and the officers' personal weapon was the American Smith & Wesson Military and Police revolver. The main cannon of Kolchak's army was the French 75-millimeter cannon, which the Kolchak gunners affectionately called "Frenchwoman."
    In Wrangel's army, the three-line were mainly supplied from France (weapons of the former Russian expeditionary corps), and some of the regiments were armed with Lebel rifles. The British tanks were replaced by the French Saint-Chamond. Revolvers "Nagant" at the Wrangel officers were mostly Belgian assembly.
    It's about being on the side what Russia was then the West. And here, too, there is something to think about.
    1. Valery-SPB
      Valery-SPB 11 June 2013 23: 43
      0
      But I looked at the statistics on the release of weapons for the Russian army, right up to both revolutions, and it turns out that more mortars and bomb mortars were released than the more popular 76-millimeter! I only read about the latter with Furmanov (the arrival of replenishment from Ivanovo-Voznesensky workers to Chapaev’s division). And where did they all go?
  • tanker75
    tanker75 11 June 2013 21: 34
    0
    I do not understand one thing, why in the article the White Guards, the author calls the "Russian Army", and the Bolsheviks "Red" ?! Or are the Reds not Russians, or what?
    1. Sour
      Sour 11 June 2013 21: 45
      +2
      Not Russians were in those and others.
      To say that whites fought for "national Russia" is just as untrue as that the reds fought for "social justice".
      Baron Ungern von Sternberg was a purebred German, and his Asian Cavalry Division consisted of Mongol mercenaries who fought for Japanese money. When they try to prove to me that these people fought "for Russia and the Orthodox faith," I get a little funny.
      The same can be said of the reds. The system they created had no more social justice than any other.
      1. Gato
        Gato 12 June 2013 10: 19
        0
        Which is not surprising. As practice shows, in a civil war, the most reliable parts are foreign mercenaries.
        Latvian arrows, Trotsky Chinese, Magyars, Mongols, Wild Division, etc., etc.
      2. Karlsonn
        Karlsonn 12 June 2013 13: 08
        -1
        Quote: Sour
        Baron Ungern von Sternberg was a purebred German, and his Asian Cavalry Division consisted of Mongol mercenaries who fought for Japanese money. When they try to prove to me that these people fought "for Russia and the Orthodox faith," I get a little funny.
        1. lexe
          lexe 12 June 2013 14: 36
          0
          thanks for the lists of generals. But still the question is open. Why did they fight on the side of the Red Army? Entente intervention was a strong argument.
          The White’s supporters didn’t fight for the bourgeoisie at all. In the Russian Empire, the structure was the most social of all the capitalist countries. The sector of consumer lending, small partnerships, AO grew wildly. They fought for state socialism!
          1. Karlsonn
            Karlsonn 12 June 2013 14: 54
            0
            Quote: Lexi
            thanks for the lists of generals.


            You're welcome drinks .


            Quote: Lexi
            But still the question is open. For what did they fight on the side of the Red Army? Entente intervention was a strong argument.


            like that:

            - Alexander Alexandrovich von Taube

            Born in 1864 in an old Ostseen noble family. Baron. Lieutenant General of the Russian Army (Mikhalkov nervously smokes in the corner). Member of the Russian-Japanese and World War I. Since 1915, lieutenant general. Since 1916 - Head of the Omsk Military District.
            After the February Revolution, Taube took a tough-republican stance, saying that "now the law is the will of the people." Contrary to the will of Kerensky, he was appointed by the Omsk Council and the Military District Committee, acting chief of the district troops. The interim government tried to oust Taube by force, but the new commander of the okrug troops sent from Petrograd was sent out of Omsk as a Kornilovets under guard, and an ultimatum was sent from Omsk about Taube returning to the post.
            After the October Revolution, Taube became one of the first military leaders to go over to the side of Soviet power. Since March 1918, Alexander Alexandrovich was appointed chief of the General Staff of the Siberian Military Commissariat at the CEC of the Soviets of Siberia (Centrosibir), led the fight against Ataman G.M. Semenova. White commanders attributed many of the successes of the Reds to “the skillful leadership of the commander-in-chief of the Soviet troops in Siberia to the experienced general staff officer and military general Baron Taube.” On February 26, 1918, at the II Congress of Soviets of Siberia, Taube was elected a candidate for the Central Executive Committee of the Council (Central Siberia), and was appointed chief of staff of all the armed forces of Siberia.
            But on September 2, 1918, Alexander Alexandrovich was captured. Sentenced to death, he refuses to utter a "public rejection of Bolshevism" with the words: "My gray hair and shell-shocked legs do not allow me to go in my declining years to the camp of the invaders and enemies of working Russia." The enraged "Admiral" Kolchak orders to shackle Tauba and throw him into solitary confinement. Death overtakes General Taube when he languished in chains in the Irkutsk prison.
            1. Karlsonn
              Karlsonn 12 June 2013 15: 05
              0
              Anton Vladimirovich Stankevich

              Born in 1862. Hereditary nobleman. In service since 1878. Since 1917, the commander of the brigade, and then the division. The owner of the St. George's weapon. Major General (1917), cavalier of the Order of the Red Banner 1918 voluntarily joined the Red Army. He commanded the 42nd Infantry Division. From the beginning of 10.1919, he temporarily acted as commander of the 55th Infantry Division. As a result of treason, he was captured. He was put on trial at a military court under the chair of Lieutenant Dashkevich, nicknamed “Misha Black” (well, “Stand up when the second lieutenant is talking to you!”) Stankevich was hanged for refusing to go over to the white side. The peasants of the surrounding villages were driven to execution. Before his death, the general pushed the executioner away and threw himself a noose. The white knights abused the corpse and burned a five-pointed star on its chest. Stankevich’s body was later reburied near the Kremlin wall.
              1. Karlsonn
                Karlsonn 12 June 2013 15: 10
                0
                Alexander Panfomirovich Nikolaev

                Major General. He was born in 1860 in the family of the sergeant major. He graduated from the Moscow Junkers College. For bravery in the Russo-Japanese War, he was awarded three orders and golden weapons. By the beginning of World War I, he commanded the 169th Novo-Trok regiment. In the First World War, Nikolaev rapidly advanced through the ranks - he commanded a regiment, brigade, and division.
                After the October Revolution, Nikolaev came to the factory of the Petrograd Locomotive Plant and asked to be taken to the factory as a worker. But Nikolaev did not work on production. He was appointed to the post of head of the Nevsky District Commissariat for Military Affairs, and then the commander of the detachment for the protection of the Neva Communications, then reorganized into the brigade of the 2nd Petrograd Division. Since 1919, Alexander Panfomirovich commanded the brigade of the 19th Infantry Division, which occupied a front section from Gdov to Yamburg.

                Like Stankevich, Nikolayev was captured as a result of treachery. He was captured by a detachment of whites who removed his insignia and advanced forward under the guise of Red Army soldiers. Execution of Nikolaev was arranged in compliance with all the rules of a medieval performance. A checker was broken above his head. The description of the execution of General Nikolaev from eyewitnesses has been preserved:

                "On the Market Square, at the entrance to the Dark Garden, at that time there was an old Fire Station, a gallows was set up. A man in breeches and a protective jacket enters the platform. Something was credited to him, ... he was offered a pardon, and promised glory in the White Guard, he, as now I see his face, his right hand holds the side of the jacket, shook his head. And now we see: a priest with a cross rises to his platform, but Nikolaev refused, shaking his head. A terrible moment came, he was forced to stand on the bottom of the barrel, and someone put a noose around his neck. Something else was told to him, but he again shook his head, and soon the barrel was pushed out from under his feet. His face was contorted with convulsions ... I remember that not far from me stood our Yamburg "aunt Dasha washerwoman": she cried so much and even screamed something that they took her to the old post office building (at that time a prison) and gave her 25 rods. " Before his death, Nikolaev said: "You are taking my life, but you will not take away my faith in the future happiness of people!" According to another version, he said "Long live the rule of workers and peasants!"
                After the Red Army liberated Yamburg from the whites, the body of Nikolaev was transported to Petrograd. "Petrograd truth" in its editorial dated October 5, 1919 wrote: "Today, workers, workers, Red Army men and sailors of the city of Petrograd bury the former major general of the tsarist army of Nikolaev. An extraordinary phenomenon in the history of the workers 'and peasants' revolution. The workers were accustomed to crossing swords with the tsarist generals, the workers had to fight them not for life, but for death.
                Why are the working people of Red Petrograd, the foremost city of the revolution, burying Major General Nikolaev today? Because in him they see their comrade in the struggle against the enemies of the revolution, because Nikolaev died for the cause of the workers and peasants. "
                Under the thunder of fireworks from the bastions of the Peter and Paul Fortress, the body of Major General Nikolaev was buried in the Alexander Nevsky Lavra.

                On February 7, 1920, by order of the Revolutionary Military Council, Nikolaev was posthumously awarded the Order of the Red Banner.
                1. Karlsonn
                  Karlsonn 12 June 2013 15: 17
                  0
                  Sobolev Alexander Vasilievich

                  Sobolev Alexander Vasilievich [15 (27) .10.1868, Vitebsk province - 21.2.1920. Aksayskaya village, now the city of Aksaysk, Rostov Region; buried in the city of Shakhty], Russian and Soviet military leader, major general (1916). Born in the family of the volost clerk. He graduated from the St. Petersburg Infantry School (1889). During the 1st World War 1914-18 commanded a regiment and division. After the October Revolution of 1917, he sided with the Sov. authorities. In the summer of 1918 he assisted in the formation of units of the Red Army in Penza. From April 1919, he commanded the 7th Infantry Division on the Eastern Front, and from November 1919–13 the Infantry Division of the 8th Army on the Southeast Front. During an enemy counterattack near Rostov on the night of February 21, the division headquarters was captured by an erupted white Cossack detachment and S. was captured. He refused the White Guard’s proposal to go over to their side and was shot by them. He was awarded the Order of the Red Banner.

                  photos unfortunately did not find.

                  Quote: Lexi
                  Here, the White supporters did not fight for the bourgeoisie at all.


                  Whites were not at all a single movement, most fought because of completely conflicting beliefs.

                  Quote: Lexi
                  .In the Russian Empire, the way was the most social of all the capitalist countries.


                  it is a myth.

                  Quote: Lexi
                  The sector of consumer lending, small partnerships, AO was booming. They fought for state socialism!


                  it's a delusion.
                  1. Igarr
                    Igarr 12 June 2013 21: 37
                    0
                    Karllson, thanks for the selection.
                    With great pleasure I read about the generals who went over to the side of the Red Army.
                    ..
                    It is much more interesting to read about it than to break spears about HX.
                    Thank you.
  • Ulysses
    Ulysses 12 June 2013 10: 41
    +1
    In civil wars, there are no winners.
    1. Karlsonn
      Karlsonn 12 June 2013 13: 47
      0
      Quote: Ulysses
      In civil wars, there are no winners.


      Yes sir! sad
    2. svp67
      svp67 12 June 2013 15: 10
      +1
      Quote: Ulysses
      In civil wars, there are no winners

      Very beautiful, but not right ... Civil wars do not occur from scratch and if there are losers, then there are winners ...
      1. Karlsonn
        Karlsonn 12 June 2013 15: 20
        -1
        Quote: svp67
        Civil wars do not occur from scratch and if there are losers, then there are winners ...


        here it is understood that when a Russian kills a Russian, the enemies of Russia win.
        And so - yes, no doubt --- ours won.
  • lexe
    lexe 12 June 2013 13: 37
    0
    I liked the arguments of Sour. The question is how to interpret these arguments?
    Well, like this:
    1. All Soviet propaganda about the composition of the white movement is a lie. Instead of stoned nobles, we see an absolutely middle class, and this is even before the mass peasant riots, the peasants saw the light of late. A reasonable question arises: for whom was the revolution created?
    2. The national composition of the defenders of the former government. It turns out that the peoples themselves were not eager to be in the new Soviet family. They were completely satisfied with the previous status in the Russian Empire with the predominant role of the most just people on the Russian land! Miracles and only. Now we would like to.
    3. The main help of the Entente is their deliberately toothless intervention. Yes, by this they helped to rally around the Reds very many. At the headquarters of the Whites there were many `` interesting '' personalities - I do not exclude that the Reds had a complete picture of the state of affairs of the enemy-whites. But the Entente had very strong agents, and if they wanted to, by means of sabotage (in which they are masters), they could just spit on trust in the new government. They didn’t spit. But we remember how the revolution was made - No bread! Was there a diversion?
    Arms, well, this is ridiculous. Without this minimum of blood, there was simply no blood. The entire industry and factories were with the Reds. And the military-industrial complex by 1917. the king developed a powerful.
    4. There shouldn’t be civil at all. And only the most responsible people in the country, in the conditions of total superiority of opponents (Germany, the Entente, the New Red Power) decided to accept an unequal battle, spontaneously and partially with their corrupt leadership. Alekseev himself created the revolution. It’s always an unequal battle in Russian. For that, we know that there were people who spit how many enemies they have. And we proved that the Russian Empire was primarily people and not a huge territory. Yes, they were in other peoples of the Empire.
    1. Karlsonn
      Karlsonn 12 June 2013 14: 49
      0
      Quote: Lexi
      Well, like this:
      1. All Soviet propaganda about the composition of the white movement is a lie.

      propaganda is propaganda, comrade how do you imagine it during the war?
      In a civil war, a split in society often goes through families.

      Quote: Lexi
      Instead of stoned noblemen, we see an absolutely middle class, and even before the mass peasant riots, the peasants saw the light of late. A reasonable question arises: for whom was the revolution created?


      It is enough to look at the percentage of the population of Russia to answer this question.

      Middle class in Russia laughing who is this? how many were there compared to the peasants?


      Quote: Lexi
      2. The national composition of the defenders of the previous regime. It turns out that the peoples themselves were not eager to be in the new Soviet family.


      comrade you cringe, Russia has always been a multinational state, but the "national question" for some reason only sticks out as part of the Red Army.

      Quote: Lexi
      They were completely satisfied with the previous status in the Russian Empire with the predominant role of the most just people on the Russian land! Miracles and only. Now we would.


      Perhaps you are not aware of the fact that in all the "national parts" of Russia there was an armed struggle between nationalists, red and white; the Bolsheviks just turned out to be more literate in this matter.

      Quote: Lexi
      3. The main help of the Entente is their intentionally toothless intervention.


      Toothless? What do you know about the intervention, in particular in the Far East and North?

      Quote: Lexi
      But the Entente had a very strong agent among the Reds and, if they wished, by means of sabotage (what are they masters of), to drop their confidence in the new government, they could just spit.
      1. Karlsonn
        Karlsonn 12 June 2013 14: 50
        0
        Quote: Lexi
        But the Entente had a very strong agent among the Reds and, if they wished, by means of sabotage (what are they masters of), to drop their confidence in the new government, they could just spit.


        Controversial issue.

        Quote: Lexi
        But we remember how the revolution was made-No bread! Was there a diversion? Was ..


        Comrad you are distorting again wink , this was the beginning of the February bourgeois revolution (I think it would be more correct to call it the first stage of the Russian revolution). The October Revolution was "made" with the appeal not "NO BREAD !!!", but --- "ALL POWER TO THE SOVIETS!"

        Quote: Lexi
        And the military-industrial complex by 1917. the king developed a powerful.


        King?! link to the studio bully What was his personal involvement expressed in?

        Quote: Lexi
        4. Civil should not have been.


        Nobody has ever given power to just like that.
        In case of unwillingness or impossibility of carrying out a "revolution from above" (Meiji revolution), a "revolution from below" occurs, but in this case, as history shows, a huge amount of blood is ALWAYS shed (see the revolution in France, England, the Netherlands); there is a third way, when revolutions are neither from above nor not, but this leads to even more blood and, strangely enough, in the end --- revolutions (see the history of China, where this period stretched for decades and led to the death of tens of millions of people ).
        1. Karlsonn
          Karlsonn 12 June 2013 15: 24
          0
          Quote: Karlsonn
          when there is no revolution from above, no, but it leads to even more blood and, as it is not strange, in the end --- revolution


          right like this:
          - when there is no revolution from above or below, but this leads to even more blood and, as it is not strange, in the end, to revolution.
          repeat
  • lexe
    lexe 12 June 2013 16: 13
    0
    1.Error of the February Revolution in time. Hurried and ridiculed
    They would have squeezed Germany by 99,9 and not 90 percent and the flow of demobilization would not have been a threat. I think the demobilization of England / France after such blood needed a stupid wife laughing not a war with a former Russian ally.
    2. The guys came stupidly with the crowbar-Bolsheviks and talked about crowbar in an adult only under the old system and even with flaws. It was face to face that the revolutionaries of February lacked self-defense mechanisms. They didn’t like the Bolsheviks to learn techniques and tricks. And the Bolsheviks were a close-knit terrorist organization. The mechanism of state terror was lost and irreparable happened. There is no need for comrades about Niza .. But there was a terrorist one, I agree with that. Is it a variant of Niza? laughing
    The world behind the scenes put both on Kerensky and Lenin-Trotsky. The bloodiest version worked and that means the best. Kerensky arranged the Entente but partially. He was a transitional figure and could theoretically be replaced by a healthier pro-imperial element. The trick of the West is that they always put on all horses in the race laughing And even on the Oryol trotter when necessary ...
    The Far East and the North were never considered by the interventionists to be Russian, and indeed, they conducted real ethnic cleansing against us there. I know this. Russian island.
    And the military-industrial complex by 1917. the tsar developed a powerful one. Sometimes it’s just not to interfere with a better occupation. There were enough sensible people in Russia even without a tsar. The tsar didn’t work at night like Stalin. Maybe because smart, enterprising people in Russia were not exotic then?
    You are right about the propaganda ... the Reds really fought. And they fought it like on an alien land, without pity. With new political technologies. Who taught them all this? Trotsky’s supporters were dragged seriously. But there was also a local element, the agent of the tsarist secret police, Stalin. He brought these political strategists to the clean water and avenged white people too.)
    Thanks to Comrade Stalin! for revenge that has found its heroes.
    Russia was a peasant country. This was our reserve.) To the peasant, they don’t care about politics. Everyone fought for this reserve with thoughts on how to equip it. Well, what scoops did you arrange for our Russian village reserve? You had time. Now the reserve No! What is the argument then?
    1. Karlsonn
      Karlsonn 12 June 2013 18: 33
      0
      Quote: Lexi
      .Error of the February Revolution in timing


      comrade history does not operate with the subjunctive mood.

      Quote: Lexi
      They would have squeezed Germany by 99,9 and not 90 percent and the flow of demobilization would not be a threat.


      general desertion and avoidance of service began in the autumn-winter of 1915.


      Quote: Lexi
      The guys came stupidly with crowbar-Bolsheviks and talked with crowbar about an adult only under the old system and even with flaws. The February revolutionaries didn’t face self-defense mechanisms. They didn’t train the tsar with the tsar and the Bolsheviks were united terrorist organization


      there were 50 Bolsheviks and sympathizers for the whole country.


      Quote: Lexi
      The world behind the scenes set both on Kerensky and Lenin-Trotsky. The most bloody version worked, which means the best


      these are fairy tales.


      Quote: Lexi
      And the military-industrial complex by 1917. the king developed a powerful.


      a contemporary of the king is written differently.


      Quote: Lexi
      You are right about the propaganda ... the Reds really fought. And they led it like on an alien land, without pity


      comrade, if not opposed, then it’s better to be with me.
      in a civil war everyone fights with extreme cruelty.


      Quote: Lexi
      With new political technologies. Who taught them all this? Trotsky’s supporters were dragged seriously.


      I am skeptical of conspiracy theories.


      Quote: Lexi
      But there was also a local element, the agent of the tsarist secret police, Stalin.


      Stalin was not an agent of secret police.
      1. Karlsonn
        Karlsonn 12 June 2013 18: 34
        +1
        Quote: Lexi
        Russia was a peasant country. It was our reserve.) To the peasant, normal for politics .. All fought for this reserve with thoughts on how to equip it


        in tsarist Russia 93% of the population were peasants, in the conditions of the industrial revolution, such a country was doomed, the very "rifle for three" which is attributed to the Red Army is actually an acute problem of the tsarist army.
        The most ordinary rifles were missing - and they were bought all over the world, down to Mexico and Japan, a variety of samples, each with its own cartridges that did not fit the others ... There was even a proposal, in view of the lack of rifles ... to equip the soldiers with "axes on long poles." Russian soldiers had to go on the attack with medieval halberds - while in other European armies not only light and convenient light machine guns and machine guns appeared in large numbers, but also combat aircraft of all kinds, tanks, armored cars, walkie-talkies, excavators for digging trenches, tractors - and the Germans even carried out an attack on the English port of Newport with the help of radio-controlled (!) boats stuffed with explosives and sent to the target by a radio operator from an airplane ...



        Quote: Lexi
        Well, scoops, how did you arrange our Russian nature reserve-village? You had time.


        Given the two World Wars, the Civil War and the ensuing devastation, given the general backwardness of the country ---- personally, I think that the incredible have achieved success.
        hi
  • tomaz99
    tomaz99 12 June 2013 19: 06
    +1
    In 1920-1921, units of the White Army of General P.N. Wrangel were stationed on the Gallipol Peninsula.
    1. Karlsonn
      Karlsonn 12 June 2013 23: 18
      +1
      Quote: tomaz99
      In 1920-1921, units of the White Army of General P.N. Wrangel were stationed on the Gallipol Peninsula.


      the fate of those evacuated from Crimea was really terrible.
      1. Misantrop
        Misantrop 12 June 2013 23: 21
        0
        Quote: Karlsonn
        the fate of the evacuated from Crimea was really terrible

        And those who failed to evacuate are even worse. Already Bela Kun and Rosa Zemlyachka were drawn to the breadth of their souls ... sad
        1. Karlsonn
          Karlsonn 13 June 2013 00: 08
          +1
          Quote: Misantrop
          And those who failed to evacuate are even worse. Already Bela Kun and Rosa Zemlyachka were drawn to the breadth of their souls ...


          civil wars ALWAYS end with the total destruction of the enemy, it was always and everywhere.

          so as not to write for a long time (and even more thesis and it will not work better) I will make a feint with my ears:

  • tomaz99
    tomaz99 12 June 2013 19: 11
    0
    Crimea 1920. Symbolically named.?
  • lexe
    lexe 12 June 2013 20: 14
    0
    these are fairy tales.

    So all that you say is it or what?
    Given the two World Wars, the Civil War and the ensuing devastation, given the general backwardness of the country ---- personally, I think that the incredible have achieved success.

    And I would not want this accounting. I have achieved incredible success ... have achieved yes ... Goskomstat will confirm this. Do you understand that it was realistic to avoid the Second World War if we had Russia and not the USSR? I did not intend to wait for the West to come and learn a new USSR a layer of engineers and climbed up to us with Hitler. But the old engineers to the wall or to immigration. Again, the deadlines ... to train people instead of the shot. And if Stalin was a genius three times he did not have time to do this.
    I am skeptical of conspiracy theories.

    And where is conspiracy thesis? Only a serious analytical center could conduct propaganda during the Civil War, fighters for truth are not capable of it. In the Western capitals, these centers still exist ...
    general desertion and avoidance of service began in the autumn-winter of 1915.

    The mechanism of creeping demobilization was launched ahead of schedule. It must be admitted that Germany is a worthy adversary. Not only the Bolsheviks spread it out. It’s a pity that there were no trainings with business trips then). They would send all these extortion agents to retirement training with the departure from the front bully
    And why should they do it in the dugouts? So they weaved new tales about a new life.
    Initially, it was clear that Germany would lose the war. Germany, not Russia, was pulled into the war. But Germany, as a serious country, held steady. Then they repeated the experience. Again, a heavyweight boxer with a strong blow but a bad breathing system was needed. Germany was the log that would blow the gate. disciplined is the best option.
    England needed guarantees from Russia in a new world without a strong Germany. The monarchy was in the way. The tsar also understood this and agreed to the transfer of power.They put on Kerenskrgo and a hedgehog with him!The possible background to the future confrontation between Russia and the West was eliminated ... for a while ... once again ... until a new giant rival of Russia, the United States, grows up! But the guys in leather jackets, numbering 50.000, came and derailed everything.) Where did the top guys go? .So option B - matryoshka) Apparently, they calculated and understood that the United States will not pull it against Russia. Here is the USSR and another thing. A new heavyweight boxer, again with a bad breath, is an ideal mirror enemy of the West. No, the breathing apparatus was corrected with the help of the same West-Hammer, Italians. Intelligence also did not "doze". He was leaking the West know-how in the industry. It was not convenient for them that the main enemy was the beacon of the whole world and without toilet paper boots. they just gave up on us and wrote off for professional incompetence.
    1. Karlsonn
      Karlsonn 12 June 2013 23: 46
      0
      Quote: Lexi
      So all that you say is it or what?


      in my personal opinion, yes.
      but I do not insist that my opinion is the only correct one.


      Quote: Lexi
      And I would not want this accounting. I have achieved incredible success ... have achieved yes ... Goskomstat will confirm this


      probably because you can't argue with the facts. wink
      I’m an economist by second education, it’s hard to argue with me here, not being a specialist. ( boastfully strolling around the stage in a white hat )


      Quote: Lexi
      .And do you understand that it was real to avoid the Second World War if we had Russia and not the USSR?


      No, I don’t understand. The Second World War and its beginning are determined by the Versailles Peace and the unfinished world redistribution of the beginning of the 20th century. Russia, the USSR, a war would have begun anyway.


      Quote: Lexi
      The West was not going to wait when a new layer of engineers was born and trained in the USSR and climbed up with Hitler and me. But old engineers to the wall or to immigration.


      At this point, it all comes down to: industrialization, electrification, the total eradication of illiteracy and the opening of a THOUSAND educational institutions - bastard Russia with 93% of the population of peasants would not be able to.


      Quote: Lexi
      only a serious analytical center could conduct propaganda during the civil war; fighters for truth are not capable of this.


      I don’t agree, insider fighters for truth can also carry out effective propaganda, and do not confuse today's information world with the current one.


      Quote: Lexi
      . Not only the Bolsheviks corrupted everything.


      the Bolsheviks are least involved in the decomposition of the army, they simply wouldn’t have the resources to agitate to surrender more than 2 soldiers, this is a tale of German spies - the Bolsheviks were born in the minds of defeated whites, as it can justify how .. They simply needed a country.
      Reasons for desertion:
      - mediocrity of the high command;
      - sabotage in the ruling and business circles;
      - the country's unpreparedness for war;
      - war goals incomprehensible to a soldier .... this is the main thing.
      1. Karlsonn
        Karlsonn 12 June 2013 23: 47
        0
        Quote: Lexi
        Initially, it was clear that Germany would lose in the war.


        initially nobody knew this.


        Quote: Lexi
        .Drew Germany, not Russia, into the war. But Germany, as a serious country, held steady.


        Nobody pulled Germany in, the war began with the presentation of an ultimatum to Serbia by the Austro-Hungarian Empire, with the support of Germany, I remind you that 40 years before, Germany rolled France into chips.

        Quote: Lexi
        ! But the guys came in leather jackets with the number of 50.000 and derailed everything and everyone.) Where did the top of the guys grow brisk? In the West.


        where did they come from Mars? all 50 grunted in the West? distort again, let's go over the biographies. wink


        Quote: Lexi
        Here is the USSR and another delo. The new heavyweight boxer, again with a bad breath, is an ideal mirror enemy of the West. No, the breathing bottle was corrected with the help of the same West-Hammer, Italians. Intelligence also did not "doze". He was pouring the West know-how into the industry.


        lost thread conversation crying who exactly pitted the West with Russia-the USSR? request
        1. lexe
          lexe 13 June 2013 02: 20
          0
          Do you have in your head the entire archive of the USSR-Russia to insist?
          You have problems with logic.
          The Versailles world and the unfinished world redistribution of the beginning of the 20th century. Russia, the USSR, a war would have begun anyway.

          Russia had the highest growth rates of all countries. In 1941. theoretically, we would defeat the Germans without announcing mobilization. And in the remote villages we just would not know about a new fleeting war. Do you think there would be no electrification and industrialization? Yes, Stalin simply copied the plans that were still under the tsar and were offered to him. Stalin was gifted fact, but he was not a genius. The leader should have brilliant subordinates and that’s all. Here Stalin lost his voice (he was really afraid of betrayal, you can understand him for that)
          where did they come from Mars? all 50 grunted in the West? distort again, let's go over the biographies. wink


          You know how to read. I meant the top. To harbor everyone is unprofitable even for the West laughing
          Trotsky didn’t live very well in the United States. Go through his biography - be so kind.
          Nobody pulled Germany in, the war began with the presentation of an ultimatum to Serbia by the Austro-Hungarian Empire, with the support of Germany, I remind you that 40 years before, Germany rolled France into chips.

          You argue as a history teacher at school, convincingly and with a delivered speech. The problem is that history is made for fools to hide the flaws of politicians.
          initially nobody knew this.

          Is it true? The Entente’s combined power exceeded the enemy by an order of magnitude. And the entire German plan in parts was a utopia. The German military genius brings everything to perfection, including and own dumbness.
          Understand that the war was not created for the next redistribution of borders. Revolutions in Europe had already blazed before. The predicted result was already partially run-in.
          And finally, 7% of what the number depends on. And you know that industrialization under the tsar was the most sparing with high efficiency on the way out. Everyone who felled from the village was all settled down. The number of lumpen and drunks who left the village in the USSR was just going through the roof. The USSR to escape to the city was a matter of principle, for hopelessness reigned in the countryside. And what do you call industrialization? A stupid displacement of the people and all with enormous problems for everyone.
          Education, you know, our education was far ahead of time. Too ... it was an experiment, he failed. To train a future janitor to conduct academic conversations is harm and not good. So what do we have now? Who are our wipers? Will we refer to the State Statistics Committee? is it necessary ... and so I see every morning.
          Have you lost the thread of conversation? -Well, it’s normal the Soviet dogma is still with you. Was it good in the USSR? What? The Russian people. And it can ignite in any system.