Military Review

41 squadron on guard for Freedom

32
41 squadron on guard for Freedom



15 November 1960 boiled the dark waters of the Firth of Clyde, and a new generation of boats appeared from the depths of the Scottish Gulf. Snuffling out bitter cold water, the world's first nuclear-powered submarine missile carrier set off for his first combat patrol.

66 days “George Washington” spent in a given area of ​​the Norwegian Sea, aiming his “Polaris” at civilian and military facilities of the Kola Peninsula. The appearance of the "city killer" was seriously disturbed by the commander-in-chief of the USSR Navy - from that moment hundreds of Soviet ships were thrown at neutralizing the new terrible threat that lurked under a layer of sea water.

The emergence of a strategic submarine with a ballistic missile (SSBN) such as "George Washington" marked a new era in stories naval fleet. After a long break from August 1945, the fleet was finally able to regain its strategic importance.

Onboard the nuclear-powered submarine were Polaris A-16 1 underwater-based ballistic missiles (SLBMs) ​​capable of delivering an 600-kt warhead (40 power of Hiroshima bombs) to the 2200 km range. Not a single bomber could compare to efficiency with an SLBM: approach time, reliability, almost complete invulnerability - 50 years ago (just like now), there were no air defense and missile defense systems capable of providing any kind of reliable protection from the Polaris strike . His tiny warhead pierced the upper atmosphere at a speed of 3 kilometers per second, and the apogee of the flight path was at an altitude of 600 kilometers in space. The mighty combat system (submarine + SLBM) turned out to be phenomenal weapons - it was not without reason that the appearance of “George Washington” in the arctic regions caused such a stir in the General Staff of the Soviet Navy.



It is characteristic that the exclusive right to possess strategic thermonuclear weapons was received by submariners. This is despite the fact that initially the place for the installation of the Polaris was reserved on missile cruisers of the Albany type, and aviation The US Navy had a whole range of specialized aircraft for the delivery of nuclear weapons. Alas, neither the armor, nor the rockets, nor the high speed of the Albany-class cruisers inspired the Pentagon strategists. Despite all the admiring exclamations about the “all-seeing” and “invulnerable” aircraft carrier strike groups, it was decided to place nuclear weapons on board the flimsy and slow “steel coffins” that were supposed to pass through the enemy’s anti-submarine barriers in splendid isolation.

Another confirmation of the amazing secrecy and superior combat stability of nuclear submarines. It was the submariners who were given the honor of becoming priests on the funeral pyre of Humanity, throwing 13-ton “logs” with thermonuclear filling into the fire.

Squadron "41 on Guard of Freedom"

The number of SLBMs in service with the US Navy was limited to the Soviet-American SALT treaty from 1972 of the year — a total of submarine-based 656 ballistic missiles deployed on board forty-one strategic missile carriers. The fleet of X-NUMX carrier of ballistic missiles "Polaris" was extremely widely known - all the boats were named in honor of famous figures of the United States. The Americans, with ill-concealed jubilation, were presented by the missile carriers, as “the last defenders of freedom and democracy”, as a result, in the Western media the pathetic name “41 for Freedom” stuck to the squadron. 41 is a fighter for Freedom. "Killers cities". The main headache and the main opponent of the Soviet Navy during the Cold War.


Coats of arms of SSBNs from squadron "41 for Freedom"

In total, during the 1958 period of the 1967 year, the 41 boat was built on five projects:

- "George Washington"

- “Eten Allen”

- Lafayette

- "James Madison"

- "Benjamin Franklin"

"41 for Freedom" formed the basis of the strategic forces of the US Navy from the beginning of the 60-s to the middle of the 80-s, when the US fleet began to massively replenish the SSBN of the Ohio. Nevertheless, the aging missile carriers continued to remain in service, sometimes with a completely different purpose. The last representative of 41 for Freedom was expelled from the US Navy only in 2002 year.

"George Washington"

Firstborn strategic submarine fleet. A series of five "killer cities", the most famous representatives of the squadron "41 for Freedom". It's no secret that "J. Washington ”is just an impromptu based on multi-purpose Skipjack submarines.

The headboat - USS George Washington (SSBN-598) was originally laid out as a multi-purpose scorpion submarine. However, in the midst of construction, it was decided to convert it into a carrier of strategic missiles. The already finished hull was cut in half, welded in the middle of the 40-meter section with the Polaris launch shafts.



“J. Washington "managed to deceive fate. His old name "Scorpion" and the tactical number (SSN-589) were inherited by another PLA, whose corps was built on the adjacent stocks according to the original project "Skipjack". In 1968, this boat will disappear without a trace in the Atlantic along with its crew. The exact cause of death of the USS Scorpion (SSN-589) has not been established yet. Existing versions vary from banal assumptions (torpedo explosion) to mystical legends mixed with science fiction (the revenge of Soviet sailors for the death of K-129).

As for the missile carrier "J. Washington, then he served 25 years without any problems and was sent for scrapping in 1986. The cabin of the boat is installed as a memorial in the city of Groton (Connecticut).

From a modern point of view, “J. Washington "was a very primitive structure with low combat capabilities. In terms of displacement, the American missile carrier was almost 3 times smaller than the modern Russian boat project 955 "Borey" (7000 tons against 24 000 tons "Boreya"). The working depth of the “Washington” did not exceed 200 meters (the modern Borey operates at depths above 400 meters), and the launch of the Polaris SLBM was possible from depths no more than 20 meters, with strict limits on the submarine travel speed, roll, pitch trim and order of release of "Polaris" from missile mines.

Not less questions caused the main weapon "J. Washington. "
The Polaris 13-tonne is just Lilliputian on the background of the modern Bulava (36,8 tonnes), and a comparison of the Polaris with the 90-tonne P-39 (the main weapon of the legendary missile-carriers of the 941 Avenue Shark) can only cause surprise.
Hence the results: the missile range of the entire 2200 km (according to official data, the Bulava hits the 9000 + km). "Polaris A1" was equipped with a monoblock warhead, the cast weight did not exceed 500 kg (for comparison, the Bulava has six separable warheads, the throw weight of the 1150 kg - progress in technology over the past half century is evident).


The head of the two-stage solid-fuel rocket "Polaris A-3"

However, the matter is not even in the short range of fire: according to the declassified reports of the US Department of Energy, up to 75% of Polaris’s warheads had certain serious defects.

On the terrible Day of X, the 41 for Freedom squadron could easily get to the launch areas, prepare for firing and send its SLBMs into flight. The warheads would have drawn a trail of fire in the peaceful sky of the USSR and ... stuck into the ground, becoming a pile of melted metal.

This circumstance jeopardized the existence of all the “fighters for Freedom” - the formidable “Washington” and “Eten Allen” in fact turned out to be toothless fish. However, even 25% of staffed combat units was enough to plunge the world into the chaos of global war and make an important contribution to the destruction of humanity. Fortunately, all this is just science fiction ...

From the standpoint of our day "J. Washington "looks like a very crude and imperfect system, but it is fair to recognize that the appearance of such weapons in the years when Gagarin’s flight still seemed fantastic, was a tremendous achievement. The firstborn of the strategic submarine fleet determined the appearance of modern missile carriers, becoming the basis for the design of next-generation boats.

Despite all the accusations against the Polaris, it should be admitted that the rocket turned out to be successful. The American fleet initially abandoned liquid-fuel ballistic missiles, focusing on the development of solid-propellant SLBMs. In the limited space of a submarine, under the conditions of specific storage and operation of rocket weapons, the use of solid-propellant rockets turned out to be a much simpler, reliable and safer solution than domestic liquid-fuel rockets. For example, the Soviet analogue of Polaris, the P-13 ballistic missile, took about an hour to prepare for launch and included pumping a liquid oxidizer from tanks on board the boat to the missile tanks. A very nontrivial task in the conditions of the open sea and possible opposition from the enemy.

The launch of the rocket itself looked no less amusing - the filled-in P-13, together with the launch pad, rose to the upper edge of the shaft where the main engine was launched. After such an attraction, the problems of “Polaris” may seem childish pranks.



The Americans continuously upgraded their boats - in 1964, the George Washington received a new Polaris A-3 rocket with split-type diverting warheads (three W200 58-kt warheads). On top of that, the new Polaris beat 4600 km, which further complicated the fight against the “city killers” - the Soviet Navy had to push the anti-submarine defense line to the open ocean.

"Eten Allen"

Unlike the “J. Washington, which was an improvisation based on multipurpose PAL, Eten Allen-type missile carriers were originally designed as carriers of submarine-based strategic missiles.

The Yankees optimized the design of the boat, taking into account the numerous wishes of the naval specialists and military sailors. The boat noticeably “grew up” (the underwater displacement increased by 1000 tons), which, while maintaining the same power plant, reduced the maximum travel speed to the 21 node. However, the experts attached importance to another parameter - the newly designed hull of high-strength steels made it possible to expand the range of working depths of the Eten Allen to 400 meters. Particular attention was paid to ensuring secrecy - in order to reduce the acoustic background of the boat, all the power plant mechanisms were installed on the damped platforms.

The main weapon of the boat was a specially developed modification of the Polaris - A-2, with a one-block warhead of megaton power and a range of 3700 km. By the beginning of the 70-s, the not-so-successful Polaris A-2 was replaced with A-3, similar to the SLBM installed on the J. Washington".


USS Sam Houston (SSBN-609) - Athena Allen nuclear submarine

Five strategic submarine rocket carriers of this type carried a constant watch in the Mediterranean, threatening to deliver a fatal blow to the “underbelly of the Soviet bear” from the south. Fortunately, the archaic design did not allow Eten Allen to remain at the forefront as long as other representatives of 41 for Freedom — in the early 80s, missiles and fire control systems were dismantled from the boats, and the launch shafts were filled with concrete. Three Eten Allen were reclassified into multipurpose torpedo submarines. The two remaining SSBNs - “Sam Houston” and “John Marshall” turned into boats for special operations: outside the hull they secured two Dry Deck Shelter containers for transporting mini-submarines and sea fur gear, and in the inner rooms reserved places for the deployment of combat squadrons. swimmers.

All five Eten Allens were scrapped at the start of the 1990s.

Lafayette

Stage project of the US Navy, absorbed all the experience gained in the operation of submarine missile carriers of previous projects. When creating the "Lafayette" emphasis was placed on increasing the autonomy of the SSBN and the duration of its combat patrols. As before, special attention was paid to the safety measures of the boat, the reduction of its own noise and other unmasking factors.

The armament complex of the boat was expanded by the SUBROC rocket-torpedoes used for self-defense from Soviet submarine interceptors. Strategic weapons were deployed in 16 universal rocket mines with interchangeable launch glasses - Lafayette was created with a long-term perspective. Subsequently, this design and the increased diameter of the missile mines allowed to re-equip the boats from the Polaris A-2 to the Polaris A-3, and then to the new Poseidon C-3 underwater-based ballistic missiles.


USS Lafayette (SSBN-616)

A total of 9 strategic submarine missile carriers were built under the Lafayette project. All boats are excluded from the US Navy at the beginning of the 1990's. Eight boats are cut into metal; the ninth, Daniel Webster, is used as a model at the Naval Nuclear Power Training Unit.

"James Madison"

A series of 10 American SSBNs, almost identical in design to Lafayette-class submarines. In the domestic reference books of the Cold War times, it is usually written like this: “type“ Lafayette ”, the second sub-series”.
At the beginning of the 1980's, six James Madison-type submarines became the first carriers of the promising Trident 1 SLBMs with a range of 7000 + kilometers.

All submarines of this type were written off in the 1990's. All but one.

The strategic submarine missile carrier Nathaniel Green left the gallant ranks of the US Navy before anyone else - in December 1986. The story is trivial: in March of the same year, when returning from combat patrol, Nathaniel Green smashed against the stones in the Irish Sea. The boat somehow hopped up to the base, but the scale of damage to the rudders and tanks of the main ballast turned out to be so great that the recovery of the missile carrier was considered unpromising.


USS Nathaniel Greene (SSBN-636)

The incident with "Nathaniel Green" was the first officially registered emergency, which resulted in the loss of the American SSBN.

"Benjamin Franklin"

The 12 series of strategic submarine-launched missile carriers is the most formidable and perfect fighter from the 41 for Freedom brigade.


Launching the USS Mariado G. Vallejo (SSBN-658) - Benjamin Franklin missile carrier

In order to reduce the noise, the shape of the nasal tip was changed and the propeller was replaced - the rest of the Benjamin Franklin design was completely identical to the Lafayette submarines. The carriers of the Polaris A-3, Poseidon C-3, and later the Trident-1 ballistic missiles.

Boats of this type were actively excluded from the fleet during the 1990-s. Two of them - "James Polk" and "Kamehameha" (in honor of one of the rulers of Hawaii) were re-equipped into the PLA for special operations (two outdoor modules for combat swimmers, two airlock chambers at the site of the former rocket mines, premises for the landing).


The USS Kamehameha (SSBN-642) remained in service until 2002, thus becoming the oldest survivor of the 41 squadron on the guard of Freedom.


Epilogue

The 41 for Freedom squadron became the key force of the American nuclear triad - during the Cold War more than 50% of all nuclear warheads in service with the US armed forces were deployed on submarine missile carriers.

During the years of active service, the 41 for Freedom boats carried out more 2500 combat patrols, demonstrating a surprisingly high operational voltage ratio (KOH 0,5 - 0,6 - for comparison, KON Soviet SSBNs were in the 0,17 - 0,24 redistribution) - "freedom fighters" were held in combat position most of your life. Managed by two interchangeable crews (blue and gold), they operated on the 100 daily cycle (68 days at sea, 32 of the day in the base) with a break for overhaul and reboot of the reactor every 5-6 years.

Fortunately, the Americans did not succeed in knowing the destructive power of heavy strategic submarines from the 18 Division of the Northern Fleet (Western Persons), and the Soviet citizens did not become acquainted with the "killers of cities" from the 41 for Freedom squadron.

Small photo gallery


Emergency ascent of the SSBN type "Benjamin Franklin"



Cabin commander SSBN "Robert Lee" (type "George Washington")









Launch of Polaris A-3
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  1. Evgeniy667b
    Evgeniy667b 10 June 2013 09: 47 New
    0
    And how did our “Ivan Washington” prove himself in the confrontation?
    1. Misantrop
      Misantrop 10 June 2013 21: 21 New
      +3
      Quote: Evgeniy667b
      And how did our “Ivan Washington” prove himself in the confrontation?

      Excellent shown. The 19th division (manned by them) was reduced only in 1993. And a part of the ships then served in the torpedo version in the 24th division (project "Pear")
      1. stjrm
        stjrm 13 June 2013 01: 25 New
        0
        667AT are ships from the KR "Granat" and all of them in the 80s were converted from 667A three kopus. All were on the SF.
    2. old man54
      old man54 12 June 2013 10: 24 New
      0
      Quote: Evgeniy667b
      And how did our “Ivan Washington” prove himself in the confrontation?

      Our 667 project is an absolutely independent project, so do not repeat the punks under the flag from the prison robe !. Neither the dock nor the American boat itself was studied by Soviet specialists until the creation of its own project 667, all the mechanisms and devices are original, ours, however, as are the contours of the hull and the main dimensions of the ship. The similarity is only relative - external! But this does not mean at all that we "copied" their boat!
  2. Kovrovsky
    Kovrovsky 10 June 2013 09: 48 New
    +7
    I think it’s not too correct to compare “Borea” with “Washington”, and “Polaris” with “Bulava”. After all, between them 50 years!
    1. 320423
      320423 10 June 2013 10: 48 New
      +2
      so the author writes that over 50 years, technology has stepped far forward, and I think this comparison was made for our reader, so that it is easier to compare
  3. kotdavin4i
    kotdavin4i 10 June 2013 10: 02 New
    +1
    They did not talk about who replaced all these submarines in our time - http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9F%D0%BE%D0%B4%D0%B2%D0%BE%D0%B4% D0% BD% D1% 8B% D0
    %B5_%D0%BB%D0%BE%D0%B4%D0%BA%D0%B8_%D1%82%D0%B8%D0%BF%D0%B0_%C2%AB%D0%9E%D0%B3%D
    0% B0% D0% B9% D0% BE% C2% BB SSBN Ohio type.
  4. Kars
    Kars 10 June 2013 10: 15 New
    +4
    Nda Squadron of Liberty)) the article is certainly interesting, especially .. dissecting the stagnant waters .. straight art literature .. jade rod ...))

    Not strategists are not interested, bam bam and everything burned out. Where is the romance (naturally from the side, preferably time and monitor) artillery battles and abardance))
  5. svp67
    svp67 10 June 2013 10: 17 New
    0
    41 squadron on guard for Freedom
    I would put "?"
  6. svp67
    svp67 10 June 2013 10: 52 New
    0
    41 squadron on guard for Freedom
    And then he will run away tongue back to France or to our Urals repeat
  7. Evgeniy667b
    Evgeniy667b 10 June 2013 11: 12 New
    +1
    And where does Borea, Ivan Washington, a submarine of project 667A. The most numerous SSBNs in the Soviet Navy. The Boreas under construction now are yet another gigantomania; to make of them a panacea for all misfortunes is an ungrateful task. One Northwind will graze in a flock of Virginia or old Los Angeles. And what’s going to go into our cover? It is much more effective if instead of Boreya there will be 3 cruisers of smaller displacement with similar weapons.
  8. Old_kapitan
    Old_kapitan 10 June 2013 12: 11 New
    +6
    Where is gigantomania?
    Northwind:
    Surface displacement 14 720 t
    Underwater displacement 24 000 t
    The greatest length (on KVL) 170 m
    The width of the body naib. 13,5 m
    Average draft (on design waterline) 10 m
    "Ohio":
    Surface displacement 16 746 t
    Underwater displacement 18 750 t
    The greatest length (on KVL) 170,7 m
    The width of the body naib. 12,8 m
    Average draft (on design waterline) 11,1 m
    1. dv-v
      dv-v 11 June 2013 05: 40 New
      0
      you, my friend, have omitted one essential detail - for the sake of which these submarines were created. lope missiles each of them carries and their mass-dimensional characteristics.
  9. Lalaloa
    Lalaloa 10 June 2013 12: 38 New
    -2
    It seems to be so bad, but no, we have to do worse. The authorities do not cease to amaze. This site recently came across: http://w2c3d.tk where information about each of us is publicly posted. I don’t know why to do this, but it personally scares me. Nevertheless, I somehow managed to delete my data, though I had to register, but no one could "dig up" anything on me.
  10. Ulysses
    Ulysses 10 June 2013 12: 57 New
    +1
    More likely a squadron of killers.
    They love amers to "put a shadow on the wattle fence." sad
  11. stoqn477
    stoqn477 10 June 2013 14: 42 New
    0
    Time they were advanced technology. Today, it seems small and old, but 50 years ago, yours and our leaders did not sleep safely with such an enemy around.
    1. Misantrop
      Misantrop 10 June 2013 20: 48 New
      0
      Quote: stoqn477
      50 years ago, yours and our leaders did not sleep safely with such an enemy around.
      Our, damn it, leaders have always put their own fleet in the position of catching up. Especially Nikita Sergeevich. At first I cut down the project, and then I had to immediately catch up with a gallop. Etc. 667A was ... pulled out of the archive, where it was lying "as unnecessary." Initially, it was developed under the 1st generation nuclear power plants, then urgently had to be redone. By the way, the Americans were afraid of these boats to horror - due to the short range, the flight time of its missiles was only 5 minutes
      1. Santa Fe
        10 June 2013 21: 08 New
        +1
        Quote: Misantrop
        Especially Nikita Sergeevich. At first I cut down the project, and then I had to immediately catch up with a gallop.

        What are we talking about?

        It was under Khrushchev that the Navy finally went into the ocean. Nuclear fleet. RCC. "Singing Frigates" - all that we are proud of created in the time of Khrushchev

        So what did Nikita Sergeevich not please?
        1. Misantrop
          Misantrop 10 June 2013 21: 18 New
          +1
          Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
          So what did Nikita Sergeevich not please?

          Storming. The incompetent reduction of the armed forces (well, at least they quickly came to their senses). Have you heard about the "million two hundred"? Project 667 went into the series ONLY when the "Washington" off the slipways
          1. Santa Fe
            10 June 2013 21: 24 New
            +1
            Quote: Misantrop
            Inadequate reduction in the armed forces

            This story is often heard.
            In fact, the army and navy were saturated with new modern weapons, the aircraft became less expensive and more efficient. More powerful than ever.
            Quote: Misantrop
            Project 667 went into the series ONLY when the "Washington" off the slipways

            And here Khrushchev, this is a general lag of the Soviet military-industrial complex
            Over time, they caught up
            1. Misantrop
              Misantrop 10 June 2013 21: 37 New
              0
              Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
              In fact, the army and navy were saturated with new modern weapons, the aircraft became less expensive and more efficient. More powerful than ever.

              My father was wearing officer uniforms at that time. So I saw and felt all this in real life, and not on ceremonial reports
              Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
              And here Khrushchev, this is a general lag of the Soviet military-industrial complex

              And how could he not be if
              Quote: Misantrop
              Etc. 667A was ... pulled out of the archive, where it was lying "as unnecessary." Initially, it was developed under the 1st generation nuclear power plants, then urgently had to be redone.
              And this case is far from an isolated
              1. Santa Fe
                10 June 2013 21: 55 New
                -1
                Quote: Misantrop
                My father was wearing officer uniforms at that time. So I saw and felt all this in real life, and not on ceremonial reports

                It is better to ask Mr. Puers, Gagarin, and the crew of the Eilat destroyer. It’s also good to inquire about the opinions of the crews of the nuclear submarines K-133 and K-116, which have circumnavigated the underwater position. You can request a selection of American newspapers on missiles in Cuba

                Khrushchev did everything right, but no one is safe from individual mistakes and distortions
                Quote: Misantrop
                Etc. 667A was ... pulled out of the archive, where it was lying "as unnecessary." Initially, it was developed under the 1st generation nuclear power plants, then urgently had to be redone.

                Etc. The 667A model of 1958 had nothing to do with the real project 667A
                It was just a dream
                1. Misantrop
                  Misantrop 10 June 2013 23: 16 New
                  +4
                  Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
                  It is better to ask Mr. Puers, Gagarin about this.

                  Powers did not know Gagarin, alas, either. But I remember Leonov, even his photo with an aphthograph was preserved. And as a souvenir, some of Savitskaya’s on-board rations (which flew with her into orbit) are available. So I heard something directly from eyewitnesses about that side of the front portrait.
                  Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
                  inquire about the views of the crews of nuclear boats K-133 and K-116

                  Well, tell me about my colleagues and teachers, maybe I'll hear something new lol
                  Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
                  Etc. The 667A model of 1958 had nothing to do with the real project 667A

                  Have you seen them live? And I went to them (and not only) in the sea. Not a passenger. So I have some idea what was changed there (and why)
                  Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
                  Khrushchev did everything right, but no one is safe from individual mistakes and distortions
                  There were continuous distortions. Some of which, although not all, were able to compensate for the environment. Why and removed
      2. dv-v
        dv-v 11 June 2013 05: 51 New
        0
        he will eat, but who will give him ?!))
        for free, tunnels, pla at the bases they still began to hunt for ours, but what else is there about the "cows" they said? and secondly, what did the author of the material about georgy write about the range of missiles?

        nevertheless, you have to be friends with logic, it says elementary - 667a were a priority for tracking and intercepting precisely because of the short range and time of arrival, respectively. but because they were noisy and the maneuver of “crazy Ivan” was not always successful, the tracking was not difficult. it was the appearance of farther missiles, when the boats got the opportunity to shoot in the United States directly from the bases, and even more so - from under the ice of the Arctic, in fact, they began to pose a much greater potential threat.
  12. xomaNN
    xomaNN 10 June 2013 18: 33 New
    +3
    Without going into really interesting material on the submarine’s submarine - the author is a plus! I drew attention to the photo of the interior of the submarine, it was initially simpler on ours and only then through the efforts of the crew and craftsmen gave the boat a slightly cozy look.
    1. stjrm
      stjrm 13 June 2013 01: 49 New
      0
      Yes, I would not say that the interiors of the cabins are very different. Well, on the "basics" there just might be less, yes, the dining room l / s can of course be more modest ....
      And on the BDR it’s quite comfortable, quite.
  13. jandjella
    jandjella 10 June 2013 20: 11 New
    +1
    Well, in the 70s, we got a series of Project 667 submarines in response to Washington. Insects or ivan washington. which constantly improved like liquid rockets. Series 667 was the largest among all the projects of Soviet atomic submarines and had a large number of modifications.
    According to the estimates of the General Staff of the USSR Armed Forces in the North and the Far East, the Soviet Navy should have had at least 30 such marine missile carriers, therefore, in addition to Severodvinsk, their construction was also launched in Komsomolsk-on-Amur Soviet submarine shipbuilders stubbornly modernized their submarine cruisers as improving intercontinental missiles, which led to an increase in the displacement of the submarine. And the emergence of new modifications of the BDR and BDRM was considered already on an equal footing with Ohio. Only Severodvinsk Plant could build such submarines with the new index 667 BDR and BDRM. Therefore, in order to maintain a balance of forces between the fleets in the top naval leadership, a secret operation was developed to transfer submarine missile carriers from the North to the Pacific Ocean. Project 667 submarines became the basis of the USSR nuclear forces. They made more than 600 military campaigns, spending a total of over 125 years under water. The deployment of Pershing 2 with a short flying time in Europe made the deployment of strategic submarines off the US coast the main answer. The flight time of their missiles to the United States became the same as the Pershing 2 from Europe to the USSR. Strategic submarine missile carriers eliminated the US advantage in offensive weapons.
    1. Misantrop
      Misantrop 10 June 2013 20: 51 New
      +1
      Quote: jandjella
      a secret operation to transfer submarine missile carriers from the North to the Pacific Ocean.

      Ships 667BDR of the project from the 13th division (Deer) after an average repair were transferred to the 25th division in Kamchatka. And they were replaced from Severodvinsk by BDRMs
      1. stjrm
        stjrm 13 June 2013 00: 36 New
        0
        Quote: Misantrop
        Quote: jandjella
        a secret operation to transfer submarine missile carriers from the North to the Pacific Ocean.

        Ships 667BDR of the project from the 13th division (Deer) after an average repair were transferred to the 25th division in Kamchatka. And they were replaced from Severodvinsk by BDRMs


        Oh really?
        Medium repairs, as a rule, “tricks” pass after 10 years of operation, or so. As a rule, modernization takes place in the middle repair. New BDRs were going to Kamchatka. I drove one of them with my crew in the 81st new ice route, for which I received the commander of the Hero. One as a secondment ...
        After Severodvinsk, we went to Gadzhievo or Deer Bay, prepared for the transition and forward ....
    2. old man54
      old man54 12 June 2013 10: 22 New
      0
      Quote: jandjella
      Well, in the 70s, we got a series of Project 667 submarines in response to Washington. Insects or ivan washington.

      well, there’s not much that the mattress is talking about, and you carry them down the wind! Our 667 project is an absolutely independent project. Developed independently, the general similarity does not mean anything. Look how many planes look similar to each other, but no one talks about the plug-in. :)))
      According to estimates by the General Staff of the USSR Armed Forces in the North and the Far East, the Soviet Navy should have had at least 30 such naval missile carriers, therefore, in addition to Severodvinsk, their construction was also launched in Komsomolsk-on-Amur

      It’s interesting, when and how many project 667 nuclear powered ships were built on the heels of Komsomolsk-on-Amur? I now know that they were built in Severodvinsk and only there!
      1. stjrm
        stjrm 13 June 2013 01: 17 New
        0
        In Komsomolsk, only 667B strategists were built from Buckeye, in the naval common people ....

        They called the “Ivaning Washington” 667A .... for some similarities, mostly protruding from the back of a small hump (superstructure above the missile silos) in the vicinity of sections 4 and 5.
  14. NOBODY EXCEPT US
    NOBODY EXCEPT US 10 June 2013 22: 17 New
    +1
    An hour to prepare for launch, in the conditions of whom there are a lot of people, it’s almost an eternity, who knows, and now we have what are TTR or LRE?
    1. jandjella
      jandjella 10 June 2013 23: 11 New
      +2
      BRDM with LRE remained. The Sinev and Liner missiles were modernized. They seek to modernize the Bdrm. R-29RMU2 missile Thanks to the re-equipment on the Liner, the existence of the Dolphin submarines can be extended until 2025-2030. Bulova TTR is appropriate for her boat Borey K Stati “Liner”, superior in power to a missile of a similar type “Bulava”. This development is being undertaken by the Makeev State Missile Center. The power of the strategic Liner sea-based missile is twice that of the promising ballistic missile of the R-30 Bulava submarines.
    2. jandjella
      jandjella 10 June 2013 23: 14 New
      +2
      The performance characteristics of the Liner have not been disclosed. But it is known that a rocket is capable of carrying from six to 12 combat units of low power or four medium-power units, but the Bulava, which is scheduled for adoption at the end of 2011, can carry up to six low-power units. It is known that the R-30 can be equipped with six, ten nuclear units with a capacity of up to 150 kilotons each. The Liner is also capable of carrying a mixed combat load of warheads of various capacities. There are suggestions that the Liner missile is an improved model of the Sineva missile, which was adopted by the Russian Navy in 2007. The Sineva sea-based missile has a length of about 15 meters, a diameter of 1,9 meters, and a launch weight of more than 40 tons. The missile system allows simultaneous and single missile launches when moving at depths of up to 55 meters and at speeds of up to 7 knots. “Sineva” is capable of carrying from four to eight warheads, and its range is 8,3 thousand kilometers. It was planned that the missile will be in service with the Russian Navy until 2030
      1. stjrm
        stjrm 13 June 2013 01: 42 New
        0
        And Sineva and Liner are all modifications of the R-29R.
        The liner is considered the best marine-based BR in terms of its Mass-energy performance. This missile is armed and remaining in the ranks of the ....
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  16. Misantrop
    Misantrop 11 June 2013 19: 58 New
    0

    And so “Sineva” starts from the North Pole
  17. stjrm
    stjrm 13 June 2013 01: 53 New
    0
    Quite a decent article. Put a plus.
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