The uprising of the Czechoslovak Corps in May-August 1918 of the year in the Volga region, in the Urals, in Siberia and in the Far East created all the conditions for the destruction of the Soviet power in these regions, the emergence of anti-Soviet governments and the beginning of a large-scale Civil War in Russia. Therefore, it is believed that the rebellion of the Czechoslovak Corps was a very well-organized event, in which interested people took part, both abroad and the Soviet government (represented by Leo Trotsky). The Czechoslovak revolt was a well-organized operation of anti-Russian forces.
In the prewar Austro-Hungarian empire there were two state-forming people - the Austrians and Hungarians (the Hungarians received this status in the 1867 year). Under the emperor there were two prime ministers, two cabinet ministers, Austrian and Hungarian. The rest of the people in this “patchwork” empire were “second-rate” - Czechs, Slovaks, Poles, Croats, Serbs, Italians, Rusyns, Little Russians, Hutsuls, etc. In Austria-Hungary, strong separatist, nationalist sentiments were satisfied, especially among the Slavs, who believed that their rights were infringed. The national identity of the Czechs, especially in the 19 century, was aggravated, separatist, nationalist, pan-Slavist and anti-German ideas were popular. Benefit behind the Czech Republic were centuries of its own statehood, and historically it entered the Habsburg Empire, not as one of many areas, but as an equal, self-governing state, later deprived of sovereignty. The Germans were considered enslavers, and the Hungarians, who were lower in cultural level, but had greater rights, did not like it.
When World War I began, many Slavs, including the Czechs, were the most unreliable soldiers of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. At the first opportunity, they threw the masses weapon and surrendered to captivity. In addition, in the Austria-Hungary itself, the Czech and Slovak national movement became active, whose supporters advocated the independence of the Slavic territories that were part of the empire. Numerous Czech immigrants living in Russia held rallies in support of the Russian Empire and Serbia. Already at the very beginning of the war, the “Czech National Committee” (ChNK), which united the Czech colonists in the Russian Empire, appealed to Sovereign Nicholas II, who said that “the Russian Czechs are under the obligation to give their strength to liberate our homeland and to be sideways side by side with the Russian heroic brothers ... ".
At the anti-Austrian demonstration in Kiev, it was decided to form Czech volunteer military units for the war on Russia's side against Austria-Hungary. The Kiev Czech Committee, chaired by Jindřich Jindříš, submitted a draft of Czech military formations to the government in early August. Already 12 August project was approved by the Council of Ministers of the Russian state. By August 20, when an order was issued in the Kiev military district about the formation of the Czech battalion, about 500 people already signed up as volunteers. The Czech Committee set the main task in the war - to create an army and an independent state. The commander of the unit was appointed Lieutenant Colonel Lototsky - this was the first Czech military unit created after the defeat of the army of the Protestant Czechs in the Battle of White Mountain in 1620 year. The battalion was replenished with volunteers from Moscow and St. Petersburg. It will become the core of the future Czechoslovak Corps.
In September 1914, the Czech squad received weapons and uniforms, began training as a Russian military unit. The Czech squad Fund was created to deal with the supply, treatment of the wounded, and the care of the families of the warriors. To replenish it, a “war tax” was introduced, the amount of which was determined by the property qualification or salary. In October, the leadership team took Lieutenant Colonel Joseph Sosentovich. At this point, the Czech battalion consisted of more than 1 thousand people and consisted of 4 rifle and one auxiliary company.
In November, the Czech squad was sent to the front, joining the 3 Army. In March 1915, the Supreme Commander of the Russian Army, Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolayevich ordered to take into the ranks of the battalion of captured Czechs and Slovaks. At the end of 1915, the battalion was deployed to the First Czechoslovak Rifle Regiment named after Jan Hus (about 2 thousand). At the end of 1916, the regiment was reorganized into the Czechoslovak Rifle Brigade consisting of three regiments (about 3,5 thousand people). It should be noted that within the Russian imperial army, Czechoslovak national formations fought exclusively under the command of Russian commanders. The Czech squad, regiment and brigade was successively commanded by Colonel Vyacheslav Platonovich Troyanov.
It is clear that the Western "allies" (there was more harm than good) did not intend to lose the situation from their control in such an interesting matter as the formation of new states in Europe, on the ruins of the old monarchical-aristocratic empires. The technique was completely the same with modern, we observed it in Libya, Syria and other states. February 13 In Paris, the Czechoslovak National Council was established as the representative body of the so-called “foreign resistance” in Paris. Its organizers and leaders were Tomasz Masaryk, Josef Dürich, Milan Stefanik, Edward Beneš and Stephanie Ousky. Prior to the CNS in France, the Czech Foreign Committee was established in 1916, which seeks to establish an independent Czechoslovak state. People of the CNS actively promoted the idea of a radical revision of the political geography of Central Europe. In particular, they proposed to dismember the Austro-Hungarian Empire and create on its basis the Czechoslovak and Yugoslav states. They made active efforts to create an independent volunteer Czechoslovak army, seeking support from France, the United States and Russia.
"House Plan". If we recall the fact that the United States and the financial clans behind them (the so-called “financial international”, “global backstage”) planned to “democratize” Europe, then everything falls into place. It is noteworthy that in February 1916 of the year another global event took place: bankers and financiers - J. Schiff, F. Warburg, M. Schiff, O. Kan, Guggenheim, D. Hanauer and others, planned the revolution in the Russian Empire. This design went into history as a "house plan" (What is a "House Plan"?).
"Colonel" Edward Mandel House (House) gained fame as an adviser to the American President Woodrow Wilson. It all started with the fact that in 1912, at the head of the United States, they planted Wilson, B. Baruch was the main sponsor of his presidential campaign. Wilson himself was a staunch Protestant, confident in his mission to save the United States and the whole world. His closest associate, who played a large role in the victory of Wilson, was a Texas financier Mandel House. He not only helped to win the election, but became the closest friend of the head of the American state, in fact, became the "gray cardinal" of the United States, crushing the State Department, the White House apparatus. According to him, he was the power behind the throne. In turn, House was a guide to the interests of the US financial elite. No wonder Wilson was called the "Rothschild puppet." House formally was an adviser to the president, calling himself a "colonel", although he had no relation to the army (in the southern states, the title belonging to ancestors was inherited). This "Texas farmer" quietly rotated in the political circles of England, France, Italy, the Austro-Hungarian, German empires. House hated Russia, considering it the main rival of the United States on the path to world domination. He proposed to dismember her into several states.
When the world war began, the "colonel" was concerned about the collapse of Europe into two opposing camps and possible scenarios for ending the war. The victory of the bloc of the Central Powers led by Germany was undesirable for the USA, it would have to solve the “German question”. The German Empire would be too strong in case of victory. And the victory of the Russian state as part of the Entente led to its military-political and future economic domination in Europe, and hence in the world. Russia could expand at the expense of the Polish lands of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and also Galicia, East Prussia, to receive strategic straits Bosporus and Dardanelles, Constantinople. The Russian Empire received complete dominance in the Balkan Peninsula. At the same time, the war undermined the forces of Russia's main competitors in Europe - Germany, Austria-Hungary, France and England. It is necessary to take into account the fact that the Russian economy grew even in the conditions of the First World War. Many economists have made predictions that if Russia continues to develop at the same pace as in the prewar period, it will become the financial and economic leader of the planet by the middle of the century. It is necessary to take into account the fact that Russia was then inferior in terms of population only to China and India (and the population continued to grow rapidly), that is, it had human resources for military and economic needs. With the appearance in Russia of an explicit project of “Russian globalization” (“Russian world order”) to the entire western system of parasitism over the planet, the stars would rather soon collapse.
Therefore, the "financial international" believed that the Entente should win, but without Russia. The Russian state was supposed to share the fate of the Central Powers - the German, Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires. "World backstage" transferred the planet to the mode of "democracies", the monarchical-aristocratic states had to become a thing of the past. In addition, it was necessary to destroy the beginnings of foreign global projects - Russian, German (especially the dangerous alliance between Russia and Germany in building a new world order) and Islamic.
The First World War became for the USA a manna from heaven. Before its commencement, the States had a negative trade balance, and US investments in the economies of other countries, mainly Latin American countries, were less than external public debt. At the end of 1913, the United States owed 5 billion dollars, placing overseas capital of about 2 billion dollars. The war made the United States from the world's largest debtor the largest creditor, and Britain and France, on the contrary, turned from the world's largest creditors into debtors of the North American state (How the USA got rich).
House, or rather "financial international" has formed a strategy aimed at establishing world domination of the United States. The first years of the war, the United States enjoyed the fruits of neutrality, receiving financial, economic, military (developing the military-industrial complex), demographic (due to the fugitives, increasing population), information (halo power "peacemaker") benefits.
The signal for the United States to enter the war in Europe was a revolution in Russia and the fall of the monarchy. After that, the United States became the main hope of England, France and Italy to win. The victory over the Central Powers was planned to be no longer provided by military methods, but by “soft power” - information warfare, support for various subversive forces. Russia fell into the camp of the powers of the defeated in the war, and they were going to dismember it, separating Finland, Poland, Ukraine, Crimea, the Northern and Southern Caucasus, Central Asia, Siberia and the Far East. The Russian state was supposed to shrink down to the territory of Moscow Russia. All "independent" states fell under the political, financial and economic influence of the United States, becoming raw materials appendages and markets for goods, having lost all influence in the world. The disintegration of Russia was to be accompanied by a civil war that would weaken the state-forming ethnic group as much as possible - Russians.
The result of all the “reconstructions” was the “New World Order”, the creation of a “world government” dominated by the United States and its junior partner Great Britain. “True democracy” was established on the planet, humanity itself had to put on itself “chains” through the propaganda of “democratic values”. The United States was given the role of a justice of the peace and a teacher of democracy who could fit in any conflict. However, due to a number of mistakes and internal resistance of the Russian civilization, this plan was not fully implemented. Fully able to implement it only to 1991 year. But then the problems started, the “information explosion” already occurred, and the Western world order (global crowd- “elite” pyramid) lost stability. The current world systemic crisis and the first rumors of a new world war are the consequences of the gradual loss of control of the global processes by the Western elites. The western global project is bursting at the seams and again other projects of global importance - Islamic, Chinese and Russian - have got a chance.
Creating a body
The United States supported various movements that were aimed at creating "independent" states. Among them was the Czechoslovak National Council. In May 1917, the Provisional Government of Russia, which received power with the assistance of Britain, France and the United States, agreed to the creation of a branch of the CNS for Russia headed by Tomas Masaryk. In June – September 1918, the Council was recognized by the American, French, English and Japanese governments as the official representative of the future Czechoslovak state.
The Czechoslovak National Council officially put all Czech forces under its control on the Eastern and Western fronts (in France and Italy). Thus, the Russian government lost control over Czechoslovak troops. The Provisional Government allowed a large military formation to be subordinate to foreign political structures. At first, the brigade was reorganized into the 1 Hussite Division as part of the 4 regiments. Then Czech politicians achieved permission to form more powerful national formations. It was dangerous to do, especially in the conditions of the rapid decomposition of the Russian army. In July, 1917, the Supreme Commander-in-Chief, General L. G. Kornilov, gave permission to begin the formation of the 2 division. The process of its formation was very fast. The division had a 4 regiment - 5, 6, 7 and 8, two artillery brigades and two engineering companies. 26 September 1917, the Chief of Staff of the General Headquarters of General Headquarters General Nikolai Dukhonin, approved the order to organize a separate Czechoslovak corps consisting of two divisions and a reserve brigade. At this point, the number of corps reached 40 thousand fighters. At the head of the corps was Major General V. N. Shokorov.
It is obvious that in the conditions of the coming chaos, the disintegration of the Russian army, the disorganization of state structures, it was at least silly to create a powerful foreign combat unit inside Russia. However, some forces persistently created in Russia the Czechoslovak Corps, which retained combat capability with the collapse of the front and the armed forces of Russia.
To be continued ...