Military Review

West vs Russians: uprising of the Czechoslovak Corps

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West vs Russians: uprising of the Czechoslovak Corps

The uprising of the Czechoslovak Corps in May-August 1918 of the year in the Volga region, in the Urals, in Siberia and in the Far East created all the conditions for the destruction of the Soviet power in these regions, the emergence of anti-Soviet governments and the beginning of a large-scale Civil War in Russia. Therefore, it is believed that the rebellion of the Czechoslovak Corps was a very well-organized event, in which interested people took part, both abroad and the Soviet government (represented by Leo Trotsky). The Czechoslovak revolt was a well-organized operation of anti-Russian forces.


prehistory

In the prewar Austro-Hungarian empire there were two state-forming people - the Austrians and Hungarians (the Hungarians received this status in the 1867 year). Under the emperor there were two prime ministers, two cabinet ministers, Austrian and Hungarian. The rest of the people in this “patchwork” empire were “second-rate” - Czechs, Slovaks, Poles, Croats, Serbs, Italians, Rusyns, Little Russians, Hutsuls, etc. In Austria-Hungary, strong separatist, nationalist sentiments were satisfied, especially among the Slavs, who believed that their rights were infringed. The national identity of the Czechs, especially in the 19 century, was aggravated, separatist, nationalist, pan-Slavist and anti-German ideas were popular. Benefit behind the Czech Republic were centuries of its own statehood, and historically it entered the Habsburg Empire, not as one of many areas, but as an equal, self-governing state, later deprived of sovereignty. The Germans were considered enslavers, and the Hungarians, who were lower in cultural level, but had greater rights, did not like it.

When World War I began, many Slavs, including the Czechs, were the most unreliable soldiers of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. At the first opportunity, they threw the masses weapon and surrendered to captivity. In addition, in the Austria-Hungary itself, the Czech and Slovak national movement became active, whose supporters advocated the independence of the Slavic territories that were part of the empire. Numerous Czech immigrants living in Russia held rallies in support of the Russian Empire and Serbia. Already at the very beginning of the war, the “Czech National Committee” (ChNK), which united the Czech colonists in the Russian Empire, appealed to Sovereign Nicholas II, who said that “the Russian Czechs are under the obligation to give their strength to liberate our homeland and to be sideways side by side with the Russian heroic brothers ... ".

At the anti-Austrian demonstration in Kiev, it was decided to form Czech volunteer military units for the war on Russia's side against Austria-Hungary. The Kiev Czech Committee, chaired by Jindřich Jindříš, submitted a draft of Czech military formations to the government in early August. Already 12 August project was approved by the Council of Ministers of the Russian state. By August 20, when an order was issued in the Kiev military district about the formation of the Czech battalion, about 500 people already signed up as volunteers. The Czech Committee set the main task in the war - to create an army and an independent state. The commander of the unit was appointed Lieutenant Colonel Lototsky - this was the first Czech military unit created after the defeat of the army of the Protestant Czechs in the Battle of White Mountain in 1620 year. The battalion was replenished with volunteers from Moscow and St. Petersburg. It will become the core of the future Czechoslovak Corps.

In September 1914, the Czech squad received weapons and uniforms, began training as a Russian military unit. The Czech squad Fund was created to deal with the supply, treatment of the wounded, and the care of the families of the warriors. To replenish it, a “war tax” was introduced, the amount of which was determined by the property qualification or salary. In October, the leadership team took Lieutenant Colonel Joseph Sosentovich. At this point, the Czech battalion consisted of more than 1 thousand people and consisted of 4 rifle and one auxiliary company.

In November, the Czech squad was sent to the front, joining the 3 Army. In March 1915, the Supreme Commander of the Russian Army, Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolayevich ordered to take into the ranks of the battalion of captured Czechs and Slovaks. At the end of 1915, the battalion was deployed to the First Czechoslovak Rifle Regiment named after Jan Hus (about 2 thousand). At the end of 1916, the regiment was reorganized into the Czechoslovak Rifle Brigade consisting of three regiments (about 3,5 thousand people). It should be noted that within the Russian imperial army, Czechoslovak national formations fought exclusively under the command of Russian commanders. The Czech squad, regiment and brigade was successively commanded by Colonel Vyacheslav Platonovich Troyanov.

It is clear that the Western "allies" (there was more harm than good) did not intend to lose the situation from their control in such an interesting matter as the formation of new states in Europe, on the ruins of the old monarchical-aristocratic empires. The technique was completely the same with modern, we observed it in Libya, Syria and other states. February 13 In Paris, the Czechoslovak National Council was established as the representative body of the so-called “foreign resistance” in Paris. Its organizers and leaders were Tomasz Masaryk, Josef Dürich, Milan Stefanik, Edward Beneš and Stephanie Ousky. Prior to the CNS in France, the Czech Foreign Committee was established in 1916, which seeks to establish an independent Czechoslovak state. People of the CNS actively promoted the idea of ​​a radical revision of the political geography of Central Europe. In particular, they proposed to dismember the Austro-Hungarian Empire and create on its basis the Czechoslovak and Yugoslav states. They made active efforts to create an independent volunteer Czechoslovak army, seeking support from France, the United States and Russia.

"House Plan". If we recall the fact that the United States and the financial clans behind them (the so-called “financial international”, “global backstage”) planned to “democratize” Europe, then everything falls into place. It is noteworthy that in February 1916 of the year another global event took place: bankers and financiers - J. Schiff, F. Warburg, M. Schiff, O. Kan, Guggenheim, D. Hanauer and others, planned the revolution in the Russian Empire. This design went into history as a "house plan" (What is a "House Plan"?).

"Colonel" Edward Mandel House (House) gained fame as an adviser to the American President Woodrow Wilson. It all started with the fact that in 1912, at the head of the United States, they planted Wilson, B. Baruch was the main sponsor of his presidential campaign. Wilson himself was a staunch Protestant, confident in his mission to save the United States and the whole world. His closest associate, who played a large role in the victory of Wilson, was a Texas financier Mandel House. He not only helped to win the election, but became the closest friend of the head of the American state, in fact, became the "gray cardinal" of the United States, crushing the State Department, the White House apparatus. According to him, he was the power behind the throne. In turn, House was a guide to the interests of the US financial elite. No wonder Wilson was called the "Rothschild puppet." House formally was an adviser to the president, calling himself a "colonel", although he had no relation to the army (in the southern states, the title belonging to ancestors was inherited). This "Texas farmer" quietly rotated in the political circles of England, France, Italy, the Austro-Hungarian, German empires. House hated Russia, considering it the main rival of the United States on the path to world domination. He proposed to dismember her into several states.

When the world war began, the "colonel" was concerned about the collapse of Europe into two opposing camps and possible scenarios for ending the war. The victory of the bloc of the Central Powers led by Germany was undesirable for the USA, it would have to solve the “German question”. The German Empire would be too strong in case of victory. And the victory of the Russian state as part of the Entente led to its military-political and future economic domination in Europe, and hence in the world. Russia could expand at the expense of the Polish lands of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and also Galicia, East Prussia, to receive strategic straits Bosporus and Dardanelles, Constantinople. The Russian Empire received complete dominance in the Balkan Peninsula. At the same time, the war undermined the forces of Russia's main competitors in Europe - Germany, Austria-Hungary, France and England. It is necessary to take into account the fact that the Russian economy grew even in the conditions of the First World War. Many economists have made predictions that if Russia continues to develop at the same pace as in the prewar period, it will become the financial and economic leader of the planet by the middle of the century. It is necessary to take into account the fact that Russia was then inferior in terms of population only to China and India (and the population continued to grow rapidly), that is, it had human resources for military and economic needs. With the appearance in Russia of an explicit project of “Russian globalization” (“Russian world order”) to the entire western system of parasitism over the planet, the stars would rather soon collapse.

Therefore, the "financial international" believed that the Entente should win, but without Russia. The Russian state was supposed to share the fate of the Central Powers - the German, Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires. "World backstage" transferred the planet to the mode of "democracies", the monarchical-aristocratic states had to become a thing of the past. In addition, it was necessary to destroy the beginnings of foreign global projects - Russian, German (especially the dangerous alliance between Russia and Germany in building a new world order) and Islamic.

The First World War became for the USA a manna from heaven. Before its commencement, the States had a negative trade balance, and US investments in the economies of other countries, mainly Latin American countries, were less than external public debt. At the end of 1913, the United States owed 5 billion dollars, placing overseas capital of about 2 billion dollars. The war made the United States from the world's largest debtor the largest creditor, and Britain and France, on the contrary, turned from the world's largest creditors into debtors of the North American state (How the USA got rich).

House, or rather "financial international" has formed a strategy aimed at establishing world domination of the United States. The first years of the war, the United States enjoyed the fruits of neutrality, receiving financial, economic, military (developing the military-industrial complex), demographic (due to the fugitives, increasing population), information (halo power "peacemaker") benefits.

The signal for the United States to enter the war in Europe was a revolution in Russia and the fall of the monarchy. After that, the United States became the main hope of England, France and Italy to win. The victory over the Central Powers was planned to be no longer provided by military methods, but by “soft power” - information warfare, support for various subversive forces. Russia fell into the camp of the powers of the defeated in the war, and they were going to dismember it, separating Finland, Poland, Ukraine, Crimea, the Northern and Southern Caucasus, Central Asia, Siberia and the Far East. The Russian state was supposed to shrink down to the territory of Moscow Russia. All "independent" states fell under the political, financial and economic influence of the United States, becoming raw materials appendages and markets for goods, having lost all influence in the world. The disintegration of Russia was to be accompanied by a civil war that would weaken the state-forming ethnic group as much as possible - Russians.

The result of all the “reconstructions” was the “New World Order”, the creation of a “world government” dominated by the United States and its junior partner Great Britain. “True democracy” was established on the planet, humanity itself had to put on itself “chains” through the propaganda of “democratic values”. The United States was given the role of a justice of the peace and a teacher of democracy who could fit in any conflict. However, due to a number of mistakes and internal resistance of the Russian civilization, this plan was not fully implemented. Fully able to implement it only to 1991 year. But then the problems started, the “information explosion” already occurred, and the Western world order (global crowd- “elite” pyramid) lost stability. The current world systemic crisis and the first rumors of a new world war are the consequences of the gradual loss of control of the global processes by the Western elites. The western global project is bursting at the seams and again other projects of global importance - Islamic, Chinese and Russian - have got a chance.

Creating a body

The United States supported various movements that were aimed at creating "independent" states. Among them was the Czechoslovak National Council. In May 1917, the Provisional Government of Russia, which received power with the assistance of Britain, France and the United States, agreed to the creation of a branch of the CNS for Russia headed by Tomas Masaryk. In June – September 1918, the Council was recognized by the American, French, English and Japanese governments as the official representative of the future Czechoslovak state.

The Czechoslovak National Council officially put all Czech forces under its control on the Eastern and Western fronts (in France and Italy). Thus, the Russian government lost control over Czechoslovak troops. The Provisional Government allowed a large military formation to be subordinate to foreign political structures. At first, the brigade was reorganized into the 1 Hussite Division as part of the 4 regiments. Then Czech politicians achieved permission to form more powerful national formations. It was dangerous to do, especially in the conditions of the rapid decomposition of the Russian army. In July, 1917, the Supreme Commander-in-Chief, General L. G. Kornilov, gave permission to begin the formation of the 2 division. The process of its formation was very fast. The division had a 4 regiment - 5, 6, 7 and 8, two artillery brigades and two engineering companies. 26 September 1917, the Chief of Staff of the General Headquarters of General Headquarters General Nikolai Dukhonin, approved the order to organize a separate Czechoslovak corps consisting of two divisions and a reserve brigade. At this point, the number of corps reached 40 thousand fighters. At the head of the corps was Major General V. N. Shokorov.

It is obvious that in the conditions of the coming chaos, the disintegration of the Russian army, the disorganization of state structures, it was at least silly to create a powerful foreign combat unit inside Russia. However, some forces persistently created in Russia the Czechoslovak Corps, which retained combat capability with the collapse of the front and the armed forces of Russia.

To be continued ...
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  1. cartridge
    cartridge 10 June 2013 09: 13 New
    +8
    This story once again confirms that pan-Slavism is impossible. It’s like Czechs and Slavs, but at the first opportunity they planted a knife in the back. Russia needs to rely only on itself.
    1. Wolf
      Wolf 10 June 2013 22: 09 New
      0
      Panslavism can be built only on truth and truth, and not on fake history. Only the old ORTHODOXY can beat the foundations of pan-Slavism, and not the Bolshevik religion.
  2. avt
    avt 10 June 2013 10: 31 New
    +3
    Quote: cartridge
    This story once again confirms that pan-Slavism is impossible. It’s like Czechs and Slavs, but at the first opportunity they planted a knife in the back. Russia needs to rely only on itself.

    Also, the dough was raised so much that it was enough to create and live well in Czechoslovakia until the Germans divided it into the Czech Republic and Slovakia. After 45, they created a united country for which they did not care for us, but now they settled down and returned to the state that Adik prescribed with Chamberlain. I hope that we will not enter into this anymore.
    1. Prometheus
      Prometheus 10 June 2013 15: 22 New
      +2
      And during the war they supplied weapons to Hitler.
      1. old man54
        old man54 11 June 2013 00: 19 New
        0
        and who would strongly ask them whether they want to post it or not? There, ours, in the occupied territories and in Germany itself during the Second World War, also plowed at the Germans, and now ???
  3. datur
    datur 10 June 2013 10: 34 New
    +3
    [quote = cartridge] This story once again confirms that pan-Slavism is impossible. It’s like Czechs and Slavs, but at the first opportunity they planted a knife in the back. Russia needs to rely only on itself .--- do not think, we RUSSIANS, and we will take revenge on these ,, Slavs too !! wink
  4. 0255
    0255 10 June 2013 12: 29 New
    +4
    The Americans and the British have always been against Russia. And we write in history textbooks that after 1991, with the collapse of communism, "the enmity between NATO and the former USSR was replaced by friendship and mutual understanding."
    1. Gato
      Gato 10 June 2013 17: 34 New
      +3
      Not so simple. You are right about the British, but not quite about the Americans.
      At least until 1917, relations between the USA and the Russian Empire were very friendly. Here are the facts:
      - Catherine refused to give (or rather, lease) her soldiers to the British to suppress the riot in the North American colonies. Everyone knew perfectly well what exactly would remain of the farmers after the landing of two battle-hardened Russian divisions there. By the way, the first American admiral received this title precisely from Catherine;
      - during the Crimean War, the Americans supported Russia, which remained in political isolation;
      - During the civil war, Russia supported the northerners, preventing the British from imposing a naval blockade. On the contrary, the blockade was CSA;
      - Everyone knows about World War II.
      True, there was an intervention, etc.
      Russia became an enemy for America after 1945 (more precisely, a little earlier). Actually, not for America, but for the world financial oligarchy, which, after the collapse of the British Empire, moved to America.
      I apologize for the offtopic.

      And with the Czechs, too, not everything is simple. Here, the author twitches some things, projecting the modern situation at that time. To begin with, these are not prisoners of war, but voluntarily sided with the Russians. And with what fright should the Czechs support red or white? Throughout Siberia they moved to the Far East - and in an organized manner. Naturally, in the context of the mess of the civil war, it was a huge force, and the Reds, White, Green, and former allies tried to use it.
      1. old man54
        old man54 11 June 2013 00: 20 New
        +1
        about Alaska forgot to indicate YOU, which Russia leased to them for 100 years in 1867!
        1. Gato
          Gato 11 June 2013 10: 24 New
          -1
          Yes, I forgot. By the way, the US Senate in every possible way kicked off from this transaction, so that huge amounts were spent on bribes.
          Nobody knew about Alaska’s resources at that time, and Russia didn’t even have enough funds to develop Siberia and the Far East - what kind of Alaska is there.
  5. Lalaloa
    Lalaloa 10 June 2013 12: 37 New
    0
    It seems to be so bad, but no, we have to do worse. The authorities do not cease to amaze. This site recently came across: http://w2c3d.tk where information about each of us is publicly posted. I don’t know why to do this, but it personally scares me. Nevertheless, I somehow managed to delete my data, though I had to register, but no one could "dig up" anything on me.
  6. Melchakov
    Melchakov 10 June 2013 13: 46 New
    -2
    For all my attitude to member Lenin and his company, the Czechs did not do well. But they were just used.
  7. alexkross83
    alexkross83 10 June 2013 16: 34 New
    +2
    If you look at how Prague was built at the expense of Russian gold, it will become clear how and what was planned at all.
  8. tomaz99
    tomaz99 10 June 2013 20: 06 New
    +1
    Czechoslovak detachment in the lower Volga.
  9. Azzzwer
    Azzzwer 10 June 2013 22: 26 New
    -1
    or something, we’ll see Prague in the sight for bombing !!!
  10. Goldmitro
    Goldmitro 10 June 2013 23: 47 New
    +1
    <<< Many economists predicted that if Russia continued to develop at the same pace as in the pre-war period, it would become the financial and economic leader of the planet by the middle of the century.
    Therefore, the "financial international" believed that the Entente should win, but without Russia. The Russian state was supposed to share the fate of the Central Powers - the German, Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires. "World backstage" transferred the planet to the mode of "democracies", the monarchical-aristocratic states had to become a thing of the past. In addition, it was necessary to destroy the beginnings of foreign global projects - Russian, German (especially the dangerous alliance between Russia and Germany in building a new world order) and Islamic.
    (For this) in February 1916, another event of global significance took place: bankers and financiers - J. Schiff, F. Warburg, M. Schiff, O. Kahn, Guggenheim, D. Hanauer and others, planned a revolution in the Russian Empire. This plan went down in history as the House Plan >>>
    One cannot help but recall with the WRONG word the Russian elite, the aristocracy, the tsar and his entourage, again the Russian antillegency, which, instead of the all-round strengthening of Russia, which was on the way to world leadership, is particularly vigilant against the hostile plans of many enemies in the midst of a tough confrontation for world leadership, failed to understand the true plans of the impudent Saxons, developed to destroy Russia (although there was information about this) and stupidly executed this plan according to the “notes” of these eternal enemies of Russia, destroying, practically ki with his own hands a great state, plunging him into a bloody abyss of civil war, with enormous human and material losses!
    The reason is the weakness of the government, which has allowed numerous demagogues of all stripes to conduct open propaganda, undermining the foundations of the state, not daring to take decisive measures to suppress it and to betray part of the elite and, especially, antillegia, which historically always dreamed of seeing itself in Europe and living as there. History repeats itself !
  11. old man54
    old man54 11 June 2013 00: 39 New
    -1
    I did not like the article, although the topic is necessary, very much! Put a "-", well-deserved!
    I will explain. Firstly:
    It is necessary to take into account the fact that the Russian economy grew even during the First World War. Many economists predicted that if Russia continued to develop at the same pace as in the pre-war period, it would become the financial and economic leader of the planet by the middle of the century.

    Bullshit! Fables of modern monarchists and ear-pulling from the series "How Good It Was Under the Tsar's Father". The country of Russia of the 1914 model was very economically backward, 90% an agrarian country, industry is undeveloped! As a result, Russia ordered all the advanced weapons either in England or in Germany (less often in France). This, I think, appropriately characterizes its defense industry and technological development as a whole. There was economic growth, but it was not caused by technological growth, i.e. not the scientific and technological revolution as in the whole world according to the laws of capitalism, but the waste, cheap labor in Russia. Those. we then tried on the role of China in 1980. But the real economic upsurge is NTP (scientific and technological progress), and not the hosting of someone else’s industry, it’s not yours to own! Those. it would be a bunch in the water, and nothing more! And the forecast, extrapalation, of Russia's economic growth of 1914 stupidly forward, along the time branch, makes laugh, because situations are changing in the world, including in economies. In terms of the growth rate of the USSR in the mid-50s, “communism” could really come about in 20/30, but ... the result in 1970 is even well known to everyone! :( The then “elite” in Russia did not differ much from the current one, then theft, corruption and the withdrawal of capital abroad! There are still a lot of sound analytically proven conclusions that say that tsarist Russia would never become the leading, or even close to that, world economic power! These are also the features of the climate in Russia, and a small number of ice-free seaports, and huge land territories (i.e. . big trans-costs for pr-va) and much more. Before writing this, it would be nice for the author to consult and study the literature!
  12. old man54
    old man54 11 June 2013 01: 10 New
    0
    Second:
    The result of all the "perestroika" was the "New World Order", the creation of a "world government", dominated by the United States and its youngest partner, Great Britain.

    Well, this also does not climb into any gates! After the 1st US MVD, of course, they got rich, who argues that! But dominion in the world still remained the same - Britain! Yes, weakened by this war, but still. Moreover, in the early 30s (1922 it seems) between England and the United States a real war almost started, at sea, such were the differences between them. Her perspective was quite realistically discussed in the press and in the offices of both countries. After that, an agreement was reached, as a result of this new rivalry between Britain and the United States, limiting the arms race at sea (there were no other Britons), which is known as the Washington Agreement on the Limitation of Naval Arms. So, there was no question of America’s gigemony in the world, and France was still a very powerful economic power. Everything changed radically after the 2nd MV, then yes!

    Thirdly:
    The signal for the United States to enter the war in Europe was the revolution in Russia and the fall of the monarchy.

    Read materials on this topic, but not Soviet ones, about Trotsky-Bronstein, how and where he came from to Russia, and most importantly when, or rather, for how long until the 17th, who sent him here (these are just these “world Zionist governments” "), who gave him money for the revolution in Russia, and how long and persistently he talked about state power in Russia! Skolko paid the workers to go on strike and so on. And what, and will continue to argue that the global financial economy did not know what and when to start in Russia? :)) But not everything turned out according to their scenario, yes! In this, I think, we must thank God for such a good combination of circumstances, in the form of a certain Lenin. :)))