Military Review

State Corporation or NCO "Far East"? Why the region is not developing and what the president is arguing with the government

12

The Far East is a strategically important region of Russia, a unique chance for growth, a point of entry into the Pacific region, etc. Such statements invariably accompany any thematic event, be it a regional forum or a government meeting. But despite the universal understanding of the importance of the development of the Far East, the development itself has not yet been observed. Why so - we assort more low.


Ministry fails

Accelerating the socio-economic development of the Far East (DV) was one of the tasks that Vladimir Putin set for the government in May 2012. He also proposed to create a state corporation for the development of Eastern Siberia and the Far East, but instead a new ministry was created, headed by the presidential envoy for the FEFD, Viktor Ishayev.

More than a year has passed since then, but the results of the work of the ministry are not impressive. Many generally question the advisability of maintaining this department.

Ishaev, summing up the first year of the Ministry of Eastern Development, called the development of the state program "Social and Economic Development of the Far East and the Baikal Region up to 2025 of the Year" the main achievement:

“We created a state program in a short time, in three months, although in almost two years other departments could not fulfill this presidential instruction. As a result, a fundamentally new strategic program was obtained both from the point of view of informativeness and from the point of view of the investment volumes embedded in it ”.

However, this program was criticized by Putin. The fact is that the amount of 2025 trillion rubles was laid in it before 3,8, but the Finance Ministry reluctantly approved only 296 billion rubles to 2020 of the year. The reason is not so much in the greed of the department, but in the fact that it can act only within the budget, and we have it planned for no more than 3 years ahead. It turns out that, although the program developed by the Ministry of Far East in the shortest possible time, without having to deal with reality, became a document of unclear purpose. In addition, the president criticized the new ministry for "failures in work" and shifting responsibility to the Ministry of Regional Development.

The program was sent for revision, and Putin once again offered to return to the idea of ​​creating a state corporation, but was again not heard by the government.

Why not work

In fact, the program of the Far Eastern Ministry contains many projects useful for the region. No questions about the need for their implementation, no one arises. Here are some of them:

- construction of a high-voltage trunk line Nizhneangarsk-Chara;

- construction of a high-voltage line from the Irkutsk region through Buryatia to Transbaikalia;

- construction of a double-track railway bridge across the Amur River and reconstruction of the adjacent railway line Birobidzhan - Nizhneleninskoe;

- development of regional air transportation in the Far East on the basis of the airline "Yakutia";

- construction of a railway and infrastructure for Taezhnogo GOK in the south of Yakutia;

- construction of 7,5 km of power lines and a substation at 110 kV for power supply of objects of the Inaglinsky coal complex, etc.

Total proposed 90 projects, 20 of which are called priority. The case rests only in the absence of those trillions on their implementation.

Recall that in parallel with the creation of the Far Eastern Ministry, the Development Fund for the Far East and the Baikal Region was created, 100% owned by VEB and organized in the form of a joint stock company. According to the plan, it was supposed to be a source of funding for the projects of the Ministry.

But over the year of its existence, the Fund never allocated a single penny to the Far East. The fact is that it is based on the principle of high yield. That is, the money is allocated only for projects with high profitability and reliability. There are still no such.

Ishayev himself criticizes the work of the Foundation, pointing out that it is no different from an ordinary commercial bank, while the Far Eastern projects must be financed with a reduced percentage, taking into account the specifics of the region:

“Life here is different - everything is more expensive here. The conditions of the economy are more complex. The cost of production here is significantly higher than in central Russia.

It is difficult for us to compete in the market, as the cost of electricity is higher, transportation costs are more expensive, winter is longer, temperatures are lower in winter. Because of this, for example, the average profitability at the enterprises of the Far East is 12%. At the same time, the value of money in banks is 15%. ”
Indeed, investors are not interested in the Fund. At the moment, its capitalization is only 15 billion rubles. No one wants to invest in unprofitable long-term projects.
The government recognizes this problem. Thus, the head of the Ministry of Economic Development Andrei Belousov said that even if the fund was capitalized by 233 billion rubles, this would not lead to an increase in investment interest. The profitability in this case will be at the level of 7%, and for the interest of private business there should be at least 13%.
It turns out that if there is a state program, the key issue remains to be solved - its financing.

"Public company" or state corporation?

No one has a clear understanding of at whose expense the Far East will be built. The private investor is not in a hurry to invest, the state too. As an exit, Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev yesterday proposed changing the status of the Far East Development Fund:

“Now the main financial instrument is the Fund, which in fact is not a fund, but a joint-stock company. There is an idea to create a so-called public company that would work in a new way, ”the prime minister explained.

At the same time, he stressed that a public company is a structure that is created by the state to solve special tasks, in fact, on the instructions of the state, but at the same time operates on commercial principles. According to him, the analog is largely taken from the practice of the countries of Anglo-Saxon law, and in Russia there are no such companies yet.

Vice Prime Minister Shuvalov promised Medvedev to prepare a corresponding proposal by June 26.

How such a “public company” will be fundamentally different from the existing form of the Fund is not explained. Supposedly, it will have more discretion than OAO, but how this will make work more efficiently is unclear.

A fundamentally different approach is strongly suggested by Putin, but equally aggressively ignored by the government.

“In my opinion, the state corporation is not needed, state corporations unite in themselves both the managerial and commercial principles. And we just need to promote the business, ”said Dmitry Medvedev, who is known for his faith in market self-regulation.

The form of the state corporation, due to its opacity, is a constant object of criticism from the so-called. liberal economists. Indeed, such a form was created specifically to remove the most important industries from the crisis — and therefore was endowed with the broadest powers, often contradicting market principles.

Here it should be noted that in practice we have both successful examples of the operation of state corporations and failures. For example, Rosnano cannot boast of achievements, and Rosatom as a whole copes with its task.

However, the main question remains unanswered - where to get money for the implementation of all the wonderful projects in the Far East. A change in the form of management should give an answer to it. Putin's option involves a tough crisis management with elements of coercion of state-owned companies to co-finance. Medvedevskoe NPO involves attracting private investors through “increased openness and transparency” and, frankly, so far it looks somewhat pointless.

Perhaps a fundamentally different approach to solving the problems of the Far East in Putin and Medvedev is also explained by the fundamentally different visions of their depth. In any case, the Far East will have to wait a little more until it is determined at the top how and at whose expense it should be developed.
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12 comments
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  1. Nevsky
    Nevsky 7 June 2013 15: 15
    +3
    To exempt everyone there from taxes, but with compulsory residence, and business then winked
    1. Melchakov
      Melchakov 7 June 2013 15: 27
      0
      Quote: Nevsky
      To exempt everyone there from taxes

      Not ah. Reduce all taxes (except for indirect ones) by 40-60 percent (depending on the nature of the tax), introduce a higher cost of living, benefits for the purchase / renovation of housing, reduction of interest rates on loans (by the same 40-60 percent) and their "lengthening ". Well, the creation of new industries. BUT ALL THIS IS FOR LOCAL RESIDENTS AND TRAVELERS FROM OVER THE URALS. If you are (not) a citizen of Russia for less than 5 years, then everything is the same for you.
    2. T-100
      T-100 7 June 2013 19: 38
      0
      Ministry fails

      Yeah, but as subsidies pi *** tuck they cope.
  2. Tarpon
    Tarpon 7 June 2013 15: 17
    0
    Here it should be noted that in practice we have both successful examples of the operation of state corporations and failures. For example, Rosnano cannot boast of achievements, and Rosatom as a whole copes with its task.

    Cadres decide everything.
    1. Komodo
      Komodo 7 June 2013 16: 01
      +1
      Quote: Tarpon
      Rosatom as a whole copes with the assigned task.

      But Rosatom is stealing it godlessly. I came across it myself.
      1. Tarpon
        Tarpon 7 June 2013 20: 07
        +1
        They would set Beria to lead with all the necessary powers, then they would try to steal.
  3. MIKHAN
    MIKHAN 7 June 2013 15: 29
    +1
    The problem is serious! I heard that the program at the federal level was like "Go with your family to the Far East, lifting will give good ones." Under the tsarism, it was definitely .. Siberia was inhabited by peasants lifting they gave as much land as you can handle just go and develop .. Now a huge number of Russian families from abroad are waiting for citizenship .. If such a bridge was built, then why not invest money in Russian families on the condition that they go on the development of Siberia in the Far East .. to exempt from taxes give citizenship loans Forest fur fish .. I would go myself (although I understand that it will be hard Siberia is Siberia ..)
  4. Dromac
    Dromac 7 June 2013 15: 30
    0
    A lot of money will have to be invested in the Far East. It infuriates what seems to be a state program, and the interest is predatory. To subsidize their own economy, we milk ourselves. some kind. In the military-industrial complex, too, look at what interest they give a loan. And then we wonder why the prices of weapons are frantic. Anger takes. Everyone thinks about his piece, but the president should think about the whole.
  5. Grishka100watt
    Grishka100watt 7 June 2013 15: 30
    0
    Bankers are blocking some kind of development. In everything.
  6. Komodo
    Komodo 7 June 2013 15: 35
    +1
    Was in Buryatia, build - roads, theaters, stadiums. Resource miners are built from production. The defense seems to come to life. But the region is fully subsidized, hardly earns its money. In this connection, the question is, on x .. to build such a number of non-profitable objects, like stadiums, theaters, which no one goes to anyway, ignoring what would bring income ??? Money stupidly buried in the ground. Billions. In vain.
    Because the region does not develop. At least a trillion, so pour in, there will be no return. People just get used to the freebie.
    1. DPN
      DPN 7 June 2013 16: 36
      0
      Quote: Komodo
      People just get used to the freebie.

      drove looked and with ******* I didn’t like the conditions, but it would be as if you were looking in Moscow and stayed and would not remember a freebie.
    2. mogus
      mogus 7 June 2013 17: 22
      0
      I will explain what the subsidy of Siberia and the Far East is.
      When the Trans-Baikal Territory paid more than 1 billion to Moscow, ours were asked to leave 800 million for our needs. But, according to the norm, we are supposed to have 300 million. The rest, which is more than these three hundred, is a subsidy! Those. handout to the regions from our own money! http://gazetavremya.ru/latestnews/23888-moskva-hochet-otdat-sibir-goskorporacii.
      html
      http://gnkk.ru/articles/stsenarii-razvitiya-sibiri.html
      http://www.genon.ru/GetAnswer.aspx?qid=5616f959-6f86-4c37-85a6-d9de22ce8dda
      These figures are approximate. I don't remember "kopeck".
  7. polly
    polly 7 June 2013 15: 53
    +1
    It is necessary to be guided by common sense and benefit for the state, and in this sense, a state corporation with its controls is preferable. It’s clear that the liberals in the government do not like this: they need business, the main thing is to decide on the unity of opinions and views, otherwise it will work out, as in the famous grandfather of Krylov about a swan, cancer and pike! And the Far East has long deserved a much better attitude ...
  8. Konstantm
    Konstantm 7 June 2013 16: 19
    0
    The Vanino port has already been sold to Vekselberg’s private corpus callosum. And to whom he resold it, even the FSB does not know.
  9. DPN
    DPN 7 June 2013 16: 29
    +1
    all these programs are garbage, no one will execute them. The romance remained in the Soviet Union, at that time the people were there. Now there is no romance, but money and normal conditions are in Moscow, so why would people go there voluntarily to the link if the earnings are only in Moscow. Political scientists shout from the screen that they used to go to Moscow for sausage, now they are working from all over the European part of Russia.
    For young people, it is necessary to create conditions under which she would like to live there, but this is not in the plans of the government. The capital in the middle of Russia must be moved ....
  10. MIKHAN
    MIKHAN 7 June 2013 16: 36
    +1
    Quote: Komodo
    Was in Buryatia, build - roads, theaters, stadiums. Resource miners are built from production. The defense seems to come to life. But the region is fully subsidized, hardly earns its money. In this connection, the question is, on x .. to build such a number of non-profitable objects, like stadiums, theaters, which no one goes to anyway, ignoring what would bring income ??? Money stupidly buried in the ground. Billions. In vain.
    Because the region does not develop. At least a trillion, so pour in, there will be no return. People just get used to the freebie.

    Aha, it’s for sure that they also build a cool sports complex .. and the Nickel factory is bending people running .. s / x is also on the verge .. officials master damn money ..
    1. Fin
      Fin 7 June 2013 17: 31
      +1
      Again did not please. Rejoice that your children will go to this sports complex, and not rub on the porches.
      And the nickel plant probably belongs to Norilsk Nickel? So where does the state. and private money?
  11. vladsolo56
    vladsolo56 7 June 2013 17: 09
    0
    Proposed projects. it is cut in pure form. Not a single production. Well, they will build super expensive roads, power lines, then what? trillions swell and everything will remain as it was. Without a sharp rise in industrial production, there will be no sense. But for such a development, state corporations cannot be dispensed with, but state corporations should be controlled, which is what officials do not want, there is reporting, accountability. You can certainly invite Chubais and drank, but somehow it’s risky. Someone really wants to take away trillions without problems and rush off over the hill. But there are methods since Soviet times to control new construction and effective methods.
  12. mogus
    mogus 7 June 2013 17: 10
    0
    where to get the money? So do not pick up
    Today, Siberia is the main donor of the entire Russian economy. Despite official statistics, according to which it accounts for less than 10% of Russian exports, almost 75% of the total export income of the Russian Federation (about $ 410 billion) at the end of 2012 were provided with goods mined or produced outside the Urals. Last year, only two items of replenishment of the federal budget - MET and oil and gas export duties - amounted to 6,51 trillion rubles. and provided 50,7% of his income: almost all of this money is Siberian by nature. But the preliminary figures for the total investment in the economy of Siberia and the Far East for 2012 indicate 1,9 trillion rubles, or $ 62 billion. How much will the new state corporation give? $ 10 billion a year? $ 30 billion? These figures are a small fraction of what is annually withdrawn from the Siberian economy. If the federal government intends to raise Siberia, it would be much more correct to leave a part of these revenues in the region, rather than expect Moscow investors to find them the ideal application. significant steps must be taken towards the development of fiscal federalism. At least a quarter provided
    natural resources of taxes should be directed to the development of the region, and decisions on the directions of their use should be made with the broad participation of citizens, and ideally
    even through local referenda or polls. And this will not undermine any position of the federal center; rather its rejection will be caused by further
    neglect of the interests of the region and the growing opacity of spending - the latter is noticeable today even in Vladivostok, the most
    “Favored”
    from the Moscow egg capsule. The situation in which the share of the budgets of Siberian regions in the general budget system of Russia fell to 30,9% from 35,1% in the mid-1990s is intolerable and needs to be changed.

    http://gazetavremya.ru/latestnews/23888-moskva-hochet-otdat-sibir-goskorporacii.
    html
  13. individual
    individual 7 June 2013 17: 18
    0
    The material interest of the Far East and the transfer of part of the center is needed "gravity" Moscow to this region.
    Local residents consider and rightly their territory "away from the world and sciences."
    All who have money strive to "Europe"as they call Moscow and its environs.
    Moscow officials are good at money "cut" from the budget, they put *** on the territory of Russia.
  14. sergo0000
    sergo0000 7 June 2013 17: 39
    +1
    Everything new is well forgotten old. There was once such a state corporation called "Dalstroy".
    Who in the subject, who worked there for the good of the Motherland, will understand what I mean! Of course! Such an organization will immediately fall under the criticism of the liberals. Well, it's time to decide whether they are with Russia or not! No suitcase, train station, Londonobad. If with Russia - put your tongues in your asses, rolled up your sleeves and go ahead to the construction of the national economy! Do not want to work yourself - pass laws on hard labor for corrupt officials and traitors, swindlers and thieves. We have enough manpower for the development of Far East. We can resettle and provide work for a long time in those parts. The director there can be put Medvedev, let him learn to think big on the expanses of the Ussuri taiga. wink Maybe then an intelligent prime minister will come out of it. And the guys will seek the benefit soon, on such projects it’s ridiculous when there is a question about the preservation and development of such a huge territory of our Motherland.
    1. Igarr
      Igarr 7 June 2013 18: 00
      +2
      Hello, Sergey.
      To be honest, I’m a fool of such a thing - Putin suggests, Medvedev revives.
      They will build comedians there for a long time.
      Vedmedev .. well, give him 233 billion rubles - and let him show how the market can develop the Far East. If he offers this - then KNOWs - how. KNOW-HOW owns.
      And if Hu.- KNOW so let him fall from the place of the Prime Minister. We’ll put Sechin in his place.
      Chatting all the best.
      For example, I will put a belt on the part of the chatter of this DAM.
      But if - to ME - to give 233 "watermelons" and the freedom to make decisions - then at least the transport runs there.
      In any case, the stirring ... will begin. And executions.
      1. sergo0000
        sergo0000 7 June 2013 18: 26
        +1
        Quote: Igarr
        But if - to ME - to give 233 "watermelons" and the freedom to make decisions - then at least the transport runs there.
        In any case, the stirring ... will begin. And executions.

        Greetings Igor! I didn’t doubt you! laughing hi And no matter how much they give to this clown, they will plunder! Okay, if they leave his pants to him. request
  15. MIKHAN
    MIKHAN 7 June 2013 18: 24
    0
    Quote: Fin
    Again did not please. Rejoice that your children will go to this sports complex, and not rub on the porches.
    And the nickel plant probably belongs to Norilsk Nickel? So where does the state. and private money?

    Coaches are needed but they are not, and we already have the Sports Complex .. and the stadium is cool. and the skating rink (I fell there again broke my collarbone) And the plant is no longer clear who owns it to pieces .. you will understand who is the owner .. they are throwing workers .. damn .. That's how we live .. and what to do .. one joy of a rocket " Satan "is ha ha ha ..
  16. cartridge
    cartridge 7 June 2013 19: 20
    +3
    In less than 10 years, Joseph Vissarionych built new cities in the Far East (Komsomolsk alone is worth what), brought civilization to millions of Far Easterners, and the current effective menagers will not be able to repeat even a tenth of Stalin’s achievements in 110.
  17. Avenger711
    Avenger711 7 June 2013 23: 25
    0
    So do we need development or abstract market principles?