From "Mastyazhart" to "Basalt"
FSUE “SNPP“ Bazalt ”- one of the oldest defense enterprises in Russia conducts its own history from the creation of 9 (22) in March of 1916 in the Heavy and Siege Artillery Repair Workshop (“Mastyazhart”). A year later, 3500 people worked here, field howitzers were assembled, guns were repaired at the front guns, and military ammunition was manufactured.
At the end of 1926, the plant was entrusted with the production of air bombs according to the drawings developed even during the First World War. But development is coming soon aviation the country demanded the creation of new ammunition. In early March 1930, with the goal of “organizing an arsenal of bomb weapons,” the Revolutionary Military Council ordered a group of military engineers to develop new bomb designs. By the end of 1930, Mastyazhart was producing over 4500 bombs a year. The plant was renamed Plant N ° 67 and specialized in the production of bomb shells. Despite the absence at that time of the theory of designing such ammunition, the designers of the research department of the plant already by 1932 completed the development and put into service air bombs of 50, 100, 250, 500, 1000 kg calibers, and later, in 1934, FAB-2000. In 1933, the Special Technical Bureau for Air Bombs was created at the plant, transformed a year later into the Design and Technological Bureau No. 27 (KTB-27), which was entrusted with the coordination of all work on the development of air bombs and the organization of their serial production.
In April 1938 was established on the basis of the Research Department of the plant number 67 and KTB-27, the State Union Design Bureau N ° 47 was established (GSKB-47 subsequently renamed FSUE “Bazalt”).
Experimental Workshop No. 67
By the beginning of World War II, GSK-47 had mastered the production of more than 80 samples of air bombs of various calibers and assignments, a wide range of mortar rounds for smooth-bore mortars 50, 82, 107 and 120, with splinter and sneeze masters, which were used for fire blasts of bombas and 47, 616 and XNUMX mm with splinter and fire masks, and for hitting fire masks, XNUMX, XNUMX, XNUMX and XNUMX mm with splinter and fire masters, and for the beginning of the year. mines, as well as educational and practical mines of all four calibers. During the war years, the company also created mines for engineering troops and partisan formations, two samples of flamethrowers, and means for sabotage fighting in the enemy's rear. The ammunition designed in the GSK-XNUMX in the pre-war and war years had high combat characteristics and was characterized by simplicity of designs and manufacturability. During the war years, XNUMX enterprises of the country were engaged in their manufacture.
In the postwar years, the company created and put into mass production at 228 factories over 400 samples of bombs, missile warheads, mines, shells and melee weapons.
To implement a unified technical policy in the country and create highly effective anti-tank weapons by order of the State Committee of the USSR Council of Ministers on defense technology from April 22 of 1958, the company was identified as the lead developer of this type of ammunition. In 1960, ground test troop tests of the new RPG-7 rocket-propelled grenade launcher complex with a PG-7В shot were successfully conducted. A year later, this complex was adopted by the Soviet army.
During its existence, the Basalt team has developed more than 800 samples of various ammunition, which were adopted by the Russian army. For the successful fulfillment of the tasks of the Government, more than 700 employees were awarded orders and medals, 73 became the laureates of the Lenin and State Prizes; some received prizes from the USSR Council of Ministers in the field of science and technology, prizes of the Government of the Russian Federation, prizes of the Leninist Komsomol.
Monoblock, cassette ... fire extinguishing!
FSUE “SNPP“ Bazalt ”is the head enterprise in the Russian Federation, which provides for the creation, introduction and utilization of unguided, planning and self-targeting aircraft bomb destruction weapons (ABSP).
The analysis of military conflicts of the last decade showed that the ABSS is and in the foreseeable future will remain the most significant component in the aircraft weapon system, and their share in solving aviation tasks of military experts according to military specialists reaches 70%.
The advantages of ABPS, first of all, include: ensuring the destruction of a wide range of targets (from manpower to military-industrial facilities), the practical absence of restrictions on the conditions of use, simplicity of design and operation, relatively low cost and, most importantly in wartime the ability to use non-specialized enterprises for the production of many components of such ammunition and its bodies.
Suspension of the incendiary bomb ZAB-10TSK under the plane. 1930-s.
One of the options for planning a bomb. 1933
Everything for the front, everything for the Victory!
Over its long history, the specialists of the company created and put into service several generations of air munitions for various purposes (more than 400 samples). Among them, high-explosive and high-explosive fragmentation bombs, concrete-breaking, space-detonating, incendiary bombs, tanks, means of detection, marking and destruction of submarines, auxiliary, special and practical.
An important step in improving the efficiency of ABPS was the idea of creating a cassette weapons. The effectiveness of the defeat of manpower, aircraft, missile and armored vehicles is several times higher compared with the monoblock air bombs of the same purpose. In order to equip the Air Force with this highly efficient weapon in the 70-80. one-time bomb cassettes and blocks were created in equipment with fragmentation, concrete-breaking, cumulative, self-aiming, incendiary cassette combat elements, as well as mines for various purposes.
In order to increase the power and level of combat readiness of the Air Force, the specialists of the enterprise and co-contractors today are working on upgrading the previously created products and designing new ones.
Samples of modern bombs
The accumulated experience of the company allowed to begin the development of special aviation means for the elimination of man-made and environmental disasters. These include aviation fire extinguishing device АСП-500 of caliber 500 kg, equipped with extinguishing agent with a mass of about 400 kg and an explosive dispersion system. It provides suppression of the focus of forest fire in a layer of height 4-6 m and radius 18-20 m.
Many of the products of the enterprise were tested for combat and were highly appreciated by military specialists, including foreign ones. The competitiveness of a number of samples is confirmed by international contracts for their supply and licensed production.
Grenade launchers of melee (SBB) is an effective means of combating tanks, lightly armored and unarmored vehicles, firing points, manpower located in the open, in field fortifications, in buildings and structures. The advantages of this class of weapons are simplicity of design and ease of combat use, high mobility provided by its small weight and dimensions, high reliability and effectiveness, relatively low cost of completing a combat mission, accessibility and the possibility of mass use on the battlefield.
The history of grenade launchers at the enterprise began with the development of the RPG-7В grenade complex with a PG-7В shotgun adopted at 1961. The 1963 completed the development of an EGG-9 grenade launcher with a PG-9B shotgun.
Grenade melee weapons are currently widely used in combat operations not only as anti-tank, but also as an effective assault weapon. Therefore, the RPG-7 grenade launcher was developed shots TBG-7В with thermobaric warhead and OG-7В with fragmentation warhead.
At the beginning of the 80's of the last century, tanks equipped with the so-called “reactive armor” - according to the national terminology of dynamic defense - were put into service with foreign armies. There was a problem of defeating such targets. It was successfully resolved by specialists of the enterprise in a very short time. The 105 mm tandem cumulative warhead was developed for PG-7BP, PG-29B, RPG-27 shots.
RPG-26 and RPG-27 jet fired grenades with disposable grenade launchers developed by the FSUE “Basalt” are individual weapons of a fighter for fighting armored vehicles and can also be used to suppress firing points and manpower. Having dimensions and mass comparable to the mass of small arms, the RPG-26 has firepower, providing penetration of armor with a thickness of up to 500 mm. The RPG-27 grenade with medium armor penetration 750 mm is capable of striking modern tanks, equipped with a combined armor and dynamic protection.
To conduct combat in modern conditions on the basis of the RPG-27 and RPG-26 developed samples of assault ammunition - grenades RSHG-1 and RSHG-2, respectively. The RSHG-1 and RSHG-2 assault grenades, retaining all the advantages of the basic models, are equipped with thermobaric warheads and are capable of effectively striking lightly armored and unarmored vehicles, firing points, equipped in residential and industrial buildings, openly located and sheltered living force.
Excellent performance in combat operations in local combat conflicts RPG-29 grenade launcher with 105-mm PG-29В shot with a tandem warhead. Adopted in 1989, it still remains a formidable weapon capable of effectively striking the most advanced tanks in melee combat. The unexpected use of this weapon in the 2006 Lebanon-Israeli military conflict decided its outcome. The most modern tank units could not overcome the defense. Military operations have stopped.
After these events, the popularity of the Russian RPG-29 grenade launcher in the Middle East has increased dramatically. "Basalt" received a number of proposals for the supply of these weapons abroad. In addition to the grenade launcher, a TBG-29В shot with a thermobaric warhead was developed, which significantly expanded the combat capabilities of the sample. The only army that did not need a unique RPG-29 grenade launcher was the Russian Armed Forces. This sample for more than 15 years is not ordered by the Russian army.
Training RPG shooting
FSUE "GNPP" Basalt "made a significant contribution to the development of light infantry flamethrowers. MRO-A, MRO-D samples allow the fighter to fire from the premises, which is very important when conducting combat operations in urban environments.
In the first decade of the new XXI century. "Basalt" has created new promising models of grenade launchers. Among them, 125-mm reactive anti-tank grenade RPG-28, 105-mm reactive multi-purpose grenade RMG and other products.
Sample RPG-28 is designed to defeat armor targets equipped with combined armor systems and built-in dynamic protection. The RMG multi-purpose reactive grenade is equipped with a tandem warhead of a multifactorial striking action. The grenade fuse has a selective effect. The explosion of a warhead can occur either on the barrier (“hard” barrier - armor, concrete) or behind it (“soft” barrier - sandbags, clay duval, embankment). When acting on the brick and concrete walls, the warhead in them forms breaks of size 0,5x0,5 m.
It is surprising that the Ministry of Defense of Russia for several years has not been rushing to accept these new models for service, although they work flawlessly.
On the instructions of the foreign customer (Jordan), the FSUE “SNPP“ Basalt ”developed a RPG-32 grenade launcher complex with an optical-electronic sight and ammunition - the anti-tank PG-32B and thermobaric shot TBG-32В.
Currently, together with the Defense Ministry of the Russian Federation, the company is working to create a promising image of a grenade launcher melee complex integrated into the equipment of a fighter. The theoretical and experimental studies carried out by FSUE “Bazalt” show the possibility of creating such samples with a high level of unification, ensuring the solution of virtually all tasks arising in the conduct of hostilities in modern conditions and in the foreseeable future.
Basalt is also the lead developer of stationary small-sized and manual anti-sabotage grenade launchers. Anti-sabotage grenade armament is an important element of the defense system of the naval bases, as well as individual ships from submarine sabotage forces.
To protect the near zone of protected objects at ranges up to 500 m in 1971, the multi-barrel rocket launcher MRG-1 was adopted by the Navy. Shooting from it is carried out remotely from an autonomous power source from the deck of a ship or from the shore.
Complex RPG-32 in position for shooting
In 1991, the Navy developed and adopted an automated small-sized remote-controlled DP-65 grenade launcher complex, the reactive launcher of which, unlike the MRG-1, is equipped with electric drives of vertical and horizontal guidance mechanisms, controlled remotely, the control panel allows you to serve up to four grenade launchers in turn. The DP-65 complex is installed on large surface ships and ships, as well as on various coastal facilities and can be effectively used against all types of modern submarine sabotage forces.
IGG-1 and DP-65 are fired with reactive 55-mm high-explosive grenades РГ-55М - miniature depth charges, exploding at a certain, predetermined depth and effectively striking an underwater saboteur within a radius of up to 16. For marking the found lines. Grenade launchers MRG-1 and DP-65 included a GDS-55 reactive signal grenade, the burning torch of which serves as a guide on the water surface for aiming firing of high-explosive grenades.
Widespread use in the system of anti-sabotage defense received hand grenade launchers that do not require, in contrast to stationary complexes, specially equipped positions. One of them is a hand-held grenade launcher DP-64. Its design uses an active launching scheme for grenades, so that the grenade launcher has a closed breech, which greatly expands the range of its application. Thanks to its original design, the DP-64 is a virtually silent weapon. Its ammunition includes two types of grenades: signal SG-45, intended to indicate the location of underwater saboteurs, and high-explosive FG-45 - for their destruction.
FSUE GNPP Basalt, in addition, is the lead developer of hand grenades. In 1981, hand grenades were adopted: the offensive RGN and the defensive RGO with shock-distant fuses, which by their combat characteristics are superior to their foreign counterparts.
Along with the promotion on the world market of new products, FSUE “SNPP“ Basalt ”offers training ammunition, the main feature of which is a complete imitation of regular ammunition. The cost of one training shot is 4-5 times lower than the cost of a combat one. To support combat readiness, each army shooter must at least 15 shots per year, so the savings from using training shots are obvious.
High Power Shots
Mortar weapons are one of the most important types of fire equipment of ground forces and are designed to destroy open and sheltered manpower, unarmored and lightly armored equipment, the destruction of field-type fortifications.
The main advantage of such weapons is the ability to conduct mounted shooting at different ranges, which is extremely important when conducting battles in rugged terrain.
Development of mortar shots with mines of various purposes began at the enterprise in 1940. High-explosive, high-explosive, lighting, incendiary, smoke and practical (training) shots were created on the Basalt in mortar shells of 50, 82, 107, 120 and 160 mm calibers. The pinnacle in this area should be considered as an adopted heavy-duty 240-mm mortar M-240 with a steel high-explosive mine weighing about 140 kg, capable of striking heavy type bunkers, brick and concrete buildings and structures. By the power of this system there is no equal in the world to the present.
Smoothbore mortars with improved ballistics: 120-mm Ammunition mortar 2B11, 82-mm mortar 2B14 and 82-mm automatic mortar 2B9 still has no analogues in the world, taken into service at the end of 70-s - early 80-ies. For these instruments, specialists of the FSUE “SNPP“ Basalt ”in a short period of time developed two qualitatively new ammunition sets of increased efficiency and increased range, including those with proximity fuses.
The development of ammunition for artillery guns of ground forces at the FSUE “GNPP“ Basalt ”begins with the creation in the 60-ies. of an LNG-9 mounted anti-tank grenade launcher with a PG-9В shot, which had high tactical and technical characteristics and aroused interest among the creators of the BMP-1 infantry fighting vehicle. The anti-tank shots PG-15В, PG-15ВС and OG-15ВМ shot with a fragmentation grenade to the 2А28 BMP-1 gun provided the vehicle with an opportunity to fight the tanks, artillery, enemy manpower.
The self-propelled mortar and artillery system 2C9, in which the barrel and shells have ready-made rifling, was created in the 80-s. For this system, fundamentally new 120-mm detachable unitary shots have been developed and put into service: with a high-explosive fragmentation projectile made of steel equipped with a powerful explosive, with a high-explosive fragmentation projectile and with a cumulative anti-tank projectile. The effectiveness of 120-mm high-explosive fragmentation projectiles to this system is much higher than foreign counterparts and is almost as good as shells.
Classic artillery caliber 152 mm. Currently, on the basis of the CAO 2С9 design concept, a new CAO 2C31 is being developed, equipped with all modern systems of topographical reference, fire control guidance, countermeasures for detection, etc. Furthermore, CAO 2S31 can fire not only all 120-mm round with feathered mines and rifled projectiles domestic and foreign production, but also specially developed by FSUE "SSPE" Basalt "shots of high power with high-explosive shells and cluster bombs, stocked cumulative fragmentation combat elements.
Without endangering life
The specialists of FSUE “GNPP“ Basalt ”developed non-lethal ammunition for barreled artillery and mortars, hand grenade launchers and hand grenades.
Non-lethal means can be used in antiterrorist and peacekeeping operations, hostage-free operations, while providing humanitarian missions, while suppressing insurrections in prisons, and protecting and protecting critical objects. The use of non-lethal means allows violators to be put out of action for a certain time, without putting their lives in danger, to force them to abandon active actions, to prevent them from conducting aimed fire, to disrupt or impede the control or interaction between them.
120-mm mortar shot ZVOF69 with high-explosive fragmentation mine
More powerful, sighting, more efficient!
The main task to be addressed by the enterprise’s team in the near future is the task of substantially increasing the effectiveness of conventional ammunition. In the area of improving melee weapons, this is, first of all, the provision of higher armor penetration capacity of cumulative ammunition combat units. Another important area of work is the introduction of the achievements of modern computer and laser technologies for the creation of modern aiming equipment. It is also necessary to comprehensively investigate the use of promising composite materials in the design of body parts and ammunition assemblies. There is no unambiguous understanding here yet. The question requires discussion and careful analysis from the standpoint of strength, reliability, manufacturability and performance. But it is not always, as it turned out, such decisions produce the desired effect. There are cases when, for example, in multiple launch rocket systems, an attempt to use composites and polymers to provide the necessary strength characteristics led to a decrease in the amount of explosives or rocket fuel. As for the mortar and artillery weapons, we are faced with the task of increasing the effectiveness of the action and the firing range by introducing scientific advances in the field of explosion physics and high-energy chemistry.
At various times, the Basalt specialists have created truly unique models of weapons, which often remain unsurpassed to this day. For example, RPG-7B or RPG-29 grenade launchers with a family of
ammunition to them. The RPG-7 grenade launcher this year marks 50 years. Since the adoption of the RPG-29 passed 20 years. But they are still in demand in the global arms market, and we are working to make new types of grenades for them.
Much of the new developments can not write for obvious reasons. But you can report this fact - in 2011, the FSUE “SNPP“ Basalt ”will begin to create a new rocket-propelled grenade-and-flame-throwing complex with characteristics that meet all (very demanding) requirements of our customer.
Work on aerial bomb weapons will be associated, in particular, with the use of new composite materials in the manufacture of buildings and elements of the airframe products. This is intended to ensure the power of the action of aerial bombs and cassettes, the accuracy of their application, to reduce the effective dispersion area. To increase the power of the ammunition, the target will use new highly effective explosive compositions, ready-made striking elements of optimal mass. Work is planned on the creation of cluster elements and combat units of a new generation, including non-lethal action. Another promising direction is the use of a cumulative effect in a controlled group use of products. The task is to impart to such aerial bomb weapons such properties that, when applied from the carrier, will provide a significant expansion of its tactical capabilities, including flight re-targeting. One of the ways is to equip highly efficient regular and prospective unguided aerial bombs with a planning and correction module to give them the qualities of high-precision weapons, as well as to ensure the possibility of using them without entering the enemy’s air defense zone.
Work will continue on the creation of planning bomb cassettes of a new generation with an increased range and accuracy of destruction. The task of ensuring the possibility of their use from helicopters due to the optimization of the aerodynamic configuration, the use of booster engines and the finishing channel on the final trajectory is being solved.
To realize all this, the company has developed a comprehensive target program for the development of aerial bomb weapons for the period up to 2020.