In August, 1944 was captured on the right bank of the Vistula by new Red Tiger V tanks, manufactured by MAN.
According to the testimony of prisoners, the new German heavy tank "Tiger V" in the German army is called the "Royal Tiger". However, in the instructions for tank maintenance manuals found in captured tanks, the name “Royal Tiger” is not confirmed.
Tiger V tanks are available in two versions: commander and linear. The main difference between a commander tank and a line one is the installation of two radio stations in it, one in the tank control compartment (30WSA transmitter, MwEc receiver), the other in the tank tower (10 Wse transmitter, UkWe receiver) and three separate antennas enabling simultaneous two-way communication to receive and transmit over a distance from 2 to 50 km. The commander’s tank has 50 rounds of ammunition, the linear one has at least 70.
The Tigr-V tanks represent a further modernization of the main German tank TV Panther with the introduction of changes in the direction of increasing the booking and increasing the caliber of the main armament.
For comparison, the new heavy tanks with previously released below are comparative tactical and technical characteristics of heavy German tanks and self-propelled guns (see Table 1).
1 table. TTX heavy German tanks
T-V1 "Tiger N"
"Tiger P" ("Ferdinand")
TV (-Panther ")
1. Tank weight, t
3. Dimensions by body (mm);
6) - // - with a gun, turn. astern
c) - // - with a gun, turn forward
d) max width, according to wheel arches
e) stroke width on tracks:
e) full height of the tank
4. Armor protection (mm / hail):
a) top front sheet
100 / 8 °
150 / 50 °
210 / 32 °
85 / 55 °
6) lower front sheet
100 / 27 °
100 / 55 °
85 / 42 °
65 / 55 °
c) upper side sheet
82 / 0 °
80 / 25 °
85 / 0 °
45 / 30 °
d) bottom side sheet
62 / 0 °
80 / 0 °
85 / 0 °
45 / 0 °
d) feed sheet
82 / 8 °
80 / 30 °
85 / 0 °
45 / 50 °
e) hull roof
g) the forehead of the tower
100 / 0 °
1 IN / 10 °
200 / 20 °
100 / 10 °
h) the side of the tower
82 / 0 °
80 / 20 °
85 / 30 °
45 / 25 °
a) gun caliber
b) type KwK36r.
c) barrel length, cal
d) beg. BB speed, m / s
e) machine guns
e) mortar for LH
g) shot. to gun
i) elevation angle
+ 15 °
+ -15 °
+ 15 °
+ 18 °
k) declination angle
b) compression ratio
c) max, power, hp
d) at rpm
e) explo. power, hp
e) specific. power, ps / t
7. Udl. pressure kg, cm3
8. Support rinks on board
9. Speed data (km / h)
a) max on the highway (rasch)
b) average peres.
10. Capacity of fuel tanks, l
11. Fuel consumption per 1 km of track, l
a) on the highway
b) by the side road
12. Power reserve, km
a) lo highway
b) by the side road
b) type of transmission
will occupy. from T-VIH;
Eight ahead and 4 back
Eight forward and 4 back preselectoron control
Transmission from the engine to the drive wheel mechanical
Seven forward and one backward
d) estimated speeds at 3000 rpm
e) turning mechanism
Planetary type T-VIH. Allows min. turning radius 2,08 m. Double steering control through hydraulic alignment and levers.
The rotation is carried out by creating a difference in torque of the traction motors. With sharp turns mechanically brakes acc. caterpillar
Planetary servohydraulic and mechanical driven control levers.
The device tank "Tiger"
A) General device tank
The overall layout of the tank "Tiger V" is the same as that of the tank "Tiger N" and "Panther". The engine with cooling systems, power and starting means is located aft of the tank.
The engine, cooling system (fans and radiators), air filters and fire-fighting equipment (carbon dioxide automatic fire extinguishers), heating means (thermosyphon heater) and starting means (inertial starter and direct-acting starter) are entirely borrowed from the Panther tank.
The transmission, main clutch, gearbox and control mechanism of the tank are located in front of the tank in the control compartment. Torque from the engine to the transmission is transmitted using a propeller shaft, located under the rotating floor of the tower along the tank.
To the left of the gearbox are the tank control mechanisms, control devices and the driver's seat. To the right of the gearbox there is a MG-42 machine gun with a telescopic sight, a radio station and a seat for the gunner-radio operator. In the center of the tank there is a turret with a rotating floor, on which seats are mounted, a turret hydraulic mechanism and a compressor.
The 88-mm KWK-43 cannon mounted in the turret is paired with an 7,92-mm MG-42 machine gun located on the right side of the cannon. On the left side of the gun along the tank there are fire control mechanisms (steering wheels for lifting and turning mechanisms, electric drive, current pulsator), monocular telescopic sight with varying light intensity, foot pedals to rotate the turret from the hydraulic drive and foot machine gun; behind the shooter is placed in the commander's turret tank commander.
The tank commander has a retractable periscope - reconnaissance (length 1 m) for adjusting the fire and a foot control for turning the turret with the help of a hydraulic mechanism.
To the right of the gun is loader. He is a radio operator in the commander tank.
The chassis of the tank in its scheme is similar to the tanks "Tiger" and "Panther" with some changes in the design and location of the lower support rollers.
BOOKING TANK "TIGR-V"
The angle of inclination to the vertical is hail.
Diam exe on the outside. on top of
Diam excellent inside surface
Roof bash. before.
Roof bash. n
Roof bash. ass
The wall of commands, bash.
Team roof, bash
B) The hull and tower of the tank
The hull is entirely borrowed from the Panther tank and is made of medium-hard steel armor (3,4 - 3,6 Brinell diameter ball print). The joints are made in a spike with austenite electrodes.
The front sheet of the tank is solid and has only a ball mount for a machine gun.
The inspection instruments of the driver and machine-gunner are periscopic and mounted in the roof of the tank. For the convenience of removing the transmission from the tank and the front part of the roof, there is a large secret hatch in which the driver and the radio operator are identical in design. The design of these hatches is the same as that of the Panther tank. The emergency hatch is located on the bottom in front of the shooter-radio operator seat.
The upper branch of the track and the vertical part of the hull are covered with a six-millimeter bulwark that serves as a fender liner at the same time.
The tank tower is welded from rolled armored steel. The diameter of the tower epaulet in the light - 1800 mm. The shape of the turret, unlike the generally accepted in German tank building (unbalanced type), is conical with a stern niche, similar to the turret of the T-34 tank of the 1941 release,
The gun in the tower is mounted through a hatch in the niche of the tower. The mask of the gun, unlike the generally accepted ones in German tank building, is spherical and is booked by a cast armor bell put on the barrel of the gun. The roof of the tower bends forward and backward.
A characteristic feature of the hull and turret is the absence of any kind of hatches and viewing slots in the front and side of the tank.
The commander's turret is similar to the turret of the Panther tank of the 1944 release, with the difference that its dimensions are significantly reduced.
The constructive modification of the commander towers of German tanks attracts attention. Starting with a rather complicated turret on a T-III tank, the Germans in 1944 came to a simplified cast turret with seven prismatic viewing devices. Simplification of the towers did not improve visibility, and is apparently the result of cheaper production. The visibility of the latest issue of German tanks has become worse.
The hull and tower of the tank are coated with special coating (paste) of the following composition:
Mineral part: barium sulphate 75,49%, silicon oxide 7,39%, iron oxide 6,76%, zinc oxide 6,62%, calcium oxide 1,28%,
The organic part: the waste of the pulp industry, the so-called sulfite-cellulose liquor, or the mass obtained when cooking wood with a solution of calcium desulfite. The main mass of the coating is organic matter.
The main purpose of the coating is to protect the body from magnetic ammunition (magnetic anti-tank grenades). The secondary purpose is a thermal insulation coating and a means of masking.
The tank’s armament consists of an 88-mm KWK-43 cannon, two MG-42 machine guns of an 7,92-mm caliber and a mortar mounted on the tank’s roof for throwing flue and fragmentation mines. A special shoulder strap is welded on the commander's turret, on which a special mobile bracket is mounted to install an anti-aircraft machine gun.
According to its ballistic properties, a gun is equivalent to a gun of a self-propelled gun - the “Ferdinand”.
The use of a unitary projectile increases the rate of fire and is a positive quality tank.
Unlike the Tigr and Panther tanks, the Tigr B tank is equipped with a monocular breaking sight with a variable aperture and field of view depending on the firing distance.
The sight has the following characteristics:
magnification - 2,5 and 5;
field of view - 25gr and 12,5gr;
exit pupil diameter - 6 mm and 3 mm;
removal of the exit pupil - 23 mm and 23 m.
The shot from the cannon is made with the help of an electric igniter, which receives energy from the battery, or an electric impulse device mounted on the tower chase in front of the shooter. To adjust the fire, the tank commander has a special retractable periscope reconnaissance with which you can monitor the tracer of the projectile, or its rupture, despite the dust cloud raised by the muzzle brake air when fired from a KWK-43 cannon.
The gun is balanced by a special balancing mechanism located in the turret on the right side of the gun. The bore after the shot is blown with compressed air, for which a special compressor is installed in the tower.
The disadvantage of the installation of weapons are great efforts on the handles of the lifting mechanism.
The tower is rotated by manual (mechanical) and special hydraulic drives. Rotation of the tower from the hydraulic drive is possible only with the engine running, the speed of rotation depends on the speed of the engine crankshaft.
Hydraulic drive control is not convenient enough, and its design is complicated and cumbersome.
In the stowed position, the gun is locked from the inside of the tank at the maximum elevation angle.
The layout of the mechanisms of the tank "Tigr-V": 1 - engine "Maybach"; 2 - cooling fan; 3 - CAT; 4 - rotation mechanism; 5 - side clutches; 7 - the mechanism of rotation of the tower; 8 - shock absorbers for road wheels.
D) Transmission gearbox
The gearbox of the Tigr V tank is manufactured under the license of Maybach and is the same in design as on the Tigr N tank.
The box has 8 gears forward and one back, Transmission gearbox control is preselector. To shift the gears, it is enough to translate the preselector lever without turning off the main clutch. In the event of a hydraulic servo failure, the gearbox shift control, the main clutch disengagement and the gear shift can be mechanical.
The gearbox of the Tigr V tank is different in appearance and dimensions from the gearbox of the Tigr N tank. A feature of this box is the presence of a radiator that cools the oil. The radiator is placed in a special tank with water that does not have circulation. As a result, the gearbox overheats quickly, making it difficult to control the tank.
D) The rotation mechanism
The Tigr V tank has the same turning mechanism as the Tigr N tank.
The turning mechanism is planetary and provides the tank with good steering over almost any turning radius, but it has the disadvantage of all mechanisms with two degrees of freedom.
The rotation mechanism allows as many turning radii as there are gears in the gearbox.
With roll and various resistances on the tracks, the tank leads away.
The mechanism for design and production technology is complex. The steering mechanism control is servo-hydraulic, with redundant mechanical. Side disc brakes, the same as on Tiger N and Panther tanks.
Driving a Tiger B tank is possible both with the driver’s hatch closed and open. In the latter case, the driver’s seat rises, the servo steering wheel and the accelerator pedal also have a second upper position.
E) Chassis Tank
Suspension sneaker "Tiger B" - torsion bar, individual, on 9 rollers on the side, arranged in a checkerboard pattern (4 inside and 5 outside).
Torsions, in contrast to those previously used on German slippers, are single-type KV tanks. The front and rear rollers on each side have hydraulic shock absorbers located inside the tank. Large diameter track rollers, metal with internal damping, located directly at the wheel brace
The inner row of the roller has additional hubs, on which, apparently, it was supposed to mount the third row of rollers. The caterpillar is small-scale and consists of flat and ridge tracks, with holes for hooking.
Thus, the engagement pitch is equal to the pitch of two tracks of 150 mm each. Such a construction of the track led to a sharp reduction in the number of teeth on the drive wheel and, as a result, to their rapid failure.
Track width - 300 mm. For transportation by train. An additional track is used - 660 mm. The suspension of the tank relative to the track is located one-sidedly (pressed to the sides), as a result of which the tracks work as a console.
G) Additional equipment of the tank
The engine compartment of the tank is equipped with automatic fire extinguishers with a dosing device and thermal closures installed in flammable places. The cylinder with carbon dioxide and clockwork is located in the fighting compartment.
In addition to the carbon dioxide automatic fire extinguisher system, the 3 tetrachloride portable fire extinguisher is installed in the control room.
To facilitate starting in winter conditions, the engine is equipped with a thermostat and a thermosiphon heater, included in the overall engine cooling system. The thermosyphon heater is heated with a blowtorch.
Accumulators of special design are electrically heated for winter conditions; The batteries are heated and recharged on the parking lots of a portable 0,9 HP unit that is in the fighting compartment.
The body of the sneaker has a seal and is adapted to increase the ford overcome.
The device used earlier on the Tigr and Panther tanks for underwater driving on the Tigr I tank is absent.
Vulnerabilities tank "Tiger"
The Tigr V tank, despite the reinforcement of armor and the sharp increase in weight associated with it, was generally as vulnerable as the Tigr and Panther tanks.
Its most vulnerable point is the undercarriage, which is affected by all types of tank and anti-tank artillery from all aimed fire.
The sides of the turret and the hull of the tank are affected by tank and anti-tank artillery of all calibers, a cumulative projectile from all allowable distances and all available calibers; piercing projectile calibers 45-, 57- and 76-mm from a distance 400 - 800 m; 57-75- and 85-mm armor-piercing projectiles from 700 - 1200 distance.
Larger calibers strike the sides and the stern of the tank from all distances of real fire.
The front part of the tank, the bottom sheet of the hull and the mask are hit by an armor-piercing projectile of 122- and 152-mm caliber from a distance of 1000 - 1500 m.
Machine-gun fire and fire PTR is very effective on the viewing devices, as they have large dimensions, are completely unprotected and difficult to replace after the defeat.
On the undercarriage and on the roof of the tank, mines and anti-tank grenades are effective and efficient.
The Tiger V tank appeared on the battlefield in the summer of 1944 at a difficult time for the Nazis, and they probably relied on the moral effect rather than on the outstanding fighting qualities of the tank.
The haste of the release of this tank on the battlefield is confirmed by the incomplete installation of a number of pipelines to increase the overcoming of fords, the presence on the machine of stickers made on ammonia paper, and the instruction found in the captured tank is typed and largely does not correspond to the tank.
The tank, due to the haste of release, has a large number of design flaws, the main ones being:
1. The onboard transmission is destroyed completely through 250-300 km. Mileage due to insufficient mechanical strength of the bearings.
2. The teeth of the rims of the drive wheels, due to the use of a double track with a single bobbin, wear out completely very quickly and are no longer suitable for further use through 250-300 km.
3. The guide ridges are wedged between the wheels of the support rollers, since the profile change between the disks of the rollers caused by the rubber deformation of the internal damping of the rollers is not taken into account.
4. Gearbox and steering mechanism overheat; hastily supplied tank with water to cool the gearbox oil in the absence of water circulation, does not justify its purpose.
5. The engine, due to the large weight of the tank, is overloaded and also has a tendency to overheat and seize the shaft, as a result of which a number of safety devices are inserted on the machine.
The new German tank "Tigr V" is a further development of the tank "Panther" using the transmission of the tank "Tigr N" and weapons "Ferdinand."
The line-up of the tank and its mechanisms do not have anything new in comparison with the previously released tanks.
The general principal disadvantage of the Tigr V tank is its cumbersome size and, as a result, an excessively large weight, which in turn led to low maneuverability, poor tank maneuverability and unreliability in work.
Reservations and weapons of the tank is clearly not consistent with its weight. In the Tigr V tank, the Germans finally switched not only to the T-34 hull form, but also copied its turret, proving once again to the whole world the advantages of the T-34 classic tank hull.
In the tank "Tiger B" noteworthy:
A) carbon dioxide fire fighting automatic fire extinguishing system;
B) monocular breaking prismatic sight with a variable field of view;
B) battery electrical heating and a thermosiphon heater to facilitate engine start in winter conditions.