Military Review

"For Faith, Tsar and Fatherland": to the history of the famous military motto

11
Cross "For Faith, Tsar and Fatherland"The pre-revolutionary military motto “For Faith, Tsar and Fatherland!”, Although it finally took shape in the 19th century, has a glorious background. In pre-Petrine times, warriors went into battle for the “land of Ruska” (Lay of Igor), “for the land for Ruska and for the Christian faith” (Zadonshchina), “for the House of the Most Holy Theotokos and the Orthodox Christian faith” (sentence of the First Militia 1611 g . [1]), for “state honor” (sentence of the Zemsky Sobor of 1653, [2]). Thus, by the 18th century, all three components of the future motto became an integral part of Russian self-consciousness — all that was needed was to unite them into one capacious formula.


The word "Fatherland", of course, was also known in Ancient Rus, but it had various meanings. It was understood not only as “homeland” (“the prophecy of the lack of chastity, as it is in the quality of its own (Matt. 13: 57)), but also“ paternity ”(one of the iconographic images of the New Testament Trinity, including the image of God Savaof as an old man, "Fatherland"). However, since the time of Peter the Great, the concept of "Fatherland" has acquired an important ideological sound. The order of Peter, voiced by the troops before the battle of Poltava, was known, which said: “Warriors! Here came the hour that should decide the fate of the Fatherland. And so you should not think that you are fighting for Peter, but for the State, handed to Peter, for your kind, for the Fatherland, for our Orthodox faith and the Church ”[3]. Peter's famous toast is also known: “Hello, he who loves God, me and the fatherland!” [4]. The first orders established in Russia, as stated by their slogans, were awarded “For Faith and Loyalty” (Order of St. Ap. Andrew the First-Called, established in 1699), “For Love and Fatherland” (Order of St. Catherine, Catherine, 1714 g .), "For the Works and Fatherland" (Order of the Holy Blvd. Alexander Nevsky, 1725).

On the day of the coronation of Empress Elizabeth Petrovna 25 on April 1742, the Novgorod Archbishop Amvrosy (Yushkevich) justified the palace coup that she had performed “for the integrity of Faith and Fatherland ... against the enemy and sitting in the nest of an eagle of the Russian night owls and a snuffy person and a drawing and a drawing and a drawing and a drawing and a drawing of the Russian night owls and a snuff. [5]. The medal in honor of the coronation of Catherine II was also knocked out: "For the salvation of the Faith and Fatherland." In its manifesto of accession to the throne in 1762, the Russian army [6], who fought "for Faith and Fatherland", was celebrated. In the manifesto on the military discipline of September 22 1762, the “diligence towards us and the Fatherland” [7] was noted. 18 Decree of July 1762 of the year referred to “the service offered to God, to Us and the Fatherland” [8]. Finally, the Charter and the 1785 nobility of the year was praised by the nobility, who fought "against the internal and external enemies of faith, the monarch and the fatherland" [9].

In 1797, Emperor Paul I, who fought against free-thought freestyle, ordered the removal of the word “Fatherland” from use (together with the words “citizen”, “society”, etc.) and replaced with the word “State”. However, this ban did not last long - the new emperor Alexander I in 1801 canceled it. And on the medal, which was awarded to the 1806-1807 militia, again it appeared: “For Faith and Fatherland”. However, at this time the concept of “Patronymic” was filled with new content: if earlier it, like Peter, was more associated with “his family”, now with new romantic tendencies its value increased - now it rather meant involvement in a unique national culture. In 1811 year S.N. Glinka, in his journal Russky Vestnik, formulated the patriotic ideal in the following way: “God, Faith, Fatherland” [10]. As historians rightly point out, he contrasted the slogan of the French Revolution “Freedom. Equality. Brotherhood ”[11].

It is also worth noting the almost demonstrative absence in the Glinka formula of the mention of the monarch. The relations of Alexander I with the “Russian party” at that time were not simple: the emperor was suspected of seeking to limit his own autocracy, which was perceived with complete rejection. The Tsar was constantly reminded that his autocratic power does not extend only to one thing: he cannot restrict it - God and the people who handed him the power will not be allowed to do this. N.M. Karamzin, in his Note on Ancient and New Russia (1811), wrote about the beginning of the Romanov dynasty: “The disasters of the rebellious aristocracy enlightened the citizens and the aristocrats themselves; those and others unanimously, unanimously called Michael an autocrat, an unlimited monarch; those and others, inflamed with love for the fatherland, cried only: God and Sovereign! .. ”. Having subjected Alexander I's policy to harsh criticism, Karamzin ended his words as follows: “Loving the Fatherland, loving the monarch, I spoke sincerely. I am returning to the silence of a loyal subject with a pure heart, praying the Almighty, may the Tsar and the Russian Kingdom be observed! ”[12]. Thus, it was the nationwide faith and love for the patronymic that became the guarantors of the preservation of the Kingdom.

The beginning of World War 1812, not only caused a patriotic upsurge, but also rallied society around the government. On the eve of the war, a prominent representative of the “Russian party”, Admiral A.S. Shishkov. In his Discourse on Love for the Fatherland, he wrote about the heroes of the Time of Troubles: "Each of these Christ-loving warriors, crossing himself, became the place of his comrade killed beside him, and all in a row, crowned with blood, not taking a step back conquered How? This is a firm chest, rushing for the Church, for the Tsar, for the Fatherland on a sharp iron; This blood flowed from the wounds of generously poured life; is this great feeling in man born without hope of immortality? Who will believe this? ”[13]. It was Shishkov who was the author of the imperial manifestos and appeals issued during the war, which enjoyed wide popular love. Later A.S. Pushkin wrote about Shishkov: "This old man is dear to us: he shines among the people, // Sacred memory of the twelfth year." In an appeal to Moscow to convene the militia from 6 July 1812, it was said: “For the sake of having the intention, for reliable defense, to gather new internal forces, we first turn to the ancient capital of Our ancestors, Moscow. She was always the head of other Russian cities; she always poured forth the power of her lethal force from her bosom; following her example, from all the other environs flowed to her, like blood to the heart, the sons of the Fatherland, to protect it. I never insisted on that great need, as now. The salvation of the Faith, the Throne, the Kingdom require it. ”[14]. The 1812 militia cap badge of the year (as it was later in 1854-1856) was a cross with the inscription: "For the Faith and the Tsar". Finally, in the “Announcement for reading in churches” written by Shishkov in November 1812 of the year, it was said: “You fulfilled your duty worthily by defending Faith, the Tsar and the Fatherland” [15]. So, the motto was born - and he was born from the fire of the Twelfth year. The effect such words had could be judged at least by the fact that the Prussian militia 1813 of the year (Landwehr), who spoke out against Napoleon in alliance with the Russians, also received a Russian-style cockade - in the form of a brass cross with the motto “Mit Gott für König und Vaterland "(" With God for the king and fatherland ").

Later Shishkov repeatedly mentioned all three concepts together. In the manifesto of 18 of May 1814 of the year, published in conquered Paris, a nationwide feat was again noted: “A meek villager, unfamiliar to the present with the sound weapons, arms defended Faith, Fatherland and Sovereign ”[16]. The principles of the Minister of National Education S.S. Uvarov in 1832-1833 proposed to establish a Russian education: “Orthodoxy. Autocracy. Nationality "[17]. Later in the manifesto of Emperor Nicholas I, published 14 March 1848, in connection with the new revolution in France, it was said: “We are certified that every Russian, every faithful of Ours will respond joyfully to the call of his Sovereign; that our ancient exclamation: for Faith, Tsar and Fatherland, and now will foretell us the path to victory: and then, in feelings of reverent gratitude, as now in the feelings of a saintly hope for him, we all exclaim: God is with us! understand the pagans and submit: like God is with us! ” A memorial sign in the form of a cross with the inscription "For Faith, Tsar, Fatherland" was granted to the militia members of the Crimean War after the conclusion of the Paris Peace 1856 of the year. Since that time, the dictum has acquired its unchanged laconic appearance, which persisted until the 1917 year. Perhaps still it remains the best example of the Russian military motto.

[1] Russian legislation of the 10th-20th centuries. The 9 T. T. 3. M., 1985. C. 43.
[2] Ibid. S. 458.
[3] Buturlin D. P. Military история Russian campaigns in the eighteenth century. SPb., 1821. CH 1. T. 3. C. 52.
[4] Maikov L.N. Nartov's stories about Peter the Great. SPb., 1891. C. 35.
[5] S.M. Soloviev Works: In 18 book. KN.11: History of Russia since ancient times. T. 21. M., 1999. C. 182.
[6] Legislation of Catherine II. The 2 T. T. 1. M., 2000. C. 66.
[7] Ibid. S. 629.
[8] The complete collection of laws of the Russian Empire. Ed. 1 T. 16. SPb., 1830. C. 22.
[9] Legislation of Catherine II. The 2 T. T. 1. M., 2002. C. 30.
[10] Russian Gazette. 1811. No. 8. C. 71. Quoted by: Russian writers. Bio-bibliographic dictionary. T. 1. M., 1990. C. 179.
[11] http://www.pravaya.ru/ludi/450/1465
[12] http://hist.msu.ru/ER/Etext/karamzin.htm
[13] Discourse on love for the Fatherland // Shishkov A.S. The fire of love for the Fatherland. M., 2011. C. 41.
[14] Brief Notes Vedano in the former with the French in 1812 and subsequent years of the war // Ibid. C. 62.
[15] Proceedings of the Moscow Division of the Imperial Russian Military Historical Society. T. 2. M., 1912. C. 360.
[16] The complete collection of laws of the Russian Empire. Ed. 1 T. 32. SPb., 1830. C. 789.
[17] Shevchenko M.M. The end of one greatness. Power, education and the printed word in Imperial Russia on the threshold of the Liberation Reforms. M., 2003. C. 68-70.
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  1. cartridge
    cartridge 7 June 2013 08: 54 New
    +7
    Now it has become difficult both with the tsar and with faith ... But the Fatherland has not gone anywhere! Russian people will always speak for the Fatherland, for Russia! And they’ll win, I’m sure!
  2. vladsolo56
    vladsolo56 7 June 2013 09: 33 New
    -1
    For Faith, the Tsar and the Fatherland this is just a slogan; if this slogan was in the soul of every soldier, then in the year 17 there would not have been a revolution.
    1. anip
      anip 7 June 2013 10: 18 New
      -3
      And would it be good from this? Or are you comfortable with how ordinary people lived before the Revolution? just don’t need to read the propaganda cliches of the current liberalism, just read the writers of the classics (for example, Tolstoy, Dostoevsky, Pomyalovsky, Fonvizin, etc.) and pay attention to the parts where they describe the life of ordinary people. Did you live well? Does it suit you? Without the Revolution, now they would have practically lived the same way, but, by the way, now everything is gradually slipping into this.
      True, if your ancestors were from the "bourgeois", then it is understandable.
      1. Alone
        Alone 7 June 2013 11: 59 New
        -2
        Now dissatisfied with the 17th year, who you can’t ask, everyone is the descendants of almost princes. And so, I completely agree with you.
      2. click80
        click80 7 June 2013 12: 22 New
        +6
        Even before the army, I worked as a roofer, so I blocked the roof on one of the city’s buildings, and by chance I found a checkbook of some guy from the Tver province, I don’t remember which county dated 1901. Duc here this worker for 3 months of work paid a salary of about 200 rubles. I don’t remember all the details exactly. I gave this rarity to a history teacher. And that at that time was not a small amount. Who worked and earned, and those who did not want to work made a revolution in 17.
        1. Maks111
          Maks111 7 June 2013 12: 29 New
          0
          for 3 months of work they paid a salary of about 200 rubles.

          And this at that time was not a small amount.
          Yes, it was not a little by Soviet standards))) and only by Tsarskiy .....
      3. Blackwing
        Blackwing 7 June 2013 13: 38 New
        +4
        Great for you. So right after the revolution, everyone became much better for both peasants and nobles? - the whole country was bathed in blood, which is really bad.

        No one argues that even under the Tsar it was not all and not sweet for everyone, but there were prerequisites for a better life (unfinished reform of Stolypin, for example)

        PS The minus is not mine. everyone can have their own point of view.
      4. vladsolo56
        vladsolo56 7 June 2013 17: 16 New
        0
        I’m not going to argue how they lived before the revolution, as after the revolution, they lived everywhere and everything was different. I just made an argument on the topic of faith, king and fatherland. All who put a minus, prove that there was no revolution, that the majority of the population of Russia spat on the tsar, on faith, well, maybe the only thing that was untouched was the fatherland. But the second half, in order to maintain faith and the king, spat on the fatherland. So much for the logic. give counter arguments, anyone can put a minus.
        1. fartfraer
          fartfraer 7 June 2013 22: 07 New
          +1
          http://opoccuu.com/rab1913.htm
          offhand found about pre-revolutionary salaries. 50 p. in month received the most skilled worker, master of his craft. Thus, to tell that someone received 200 in three months. not quite right. Look also for food prices for good measure, then you will understand that life was painful for the majority. We will not discuss it as it were (history does not tolerate the subjunctive mood), but 1-Stolypin was not killed by those who took power in October 17, and 2-devastation of the 1st world is the merit of the then political leadership, which led the country (RI) to death
  3. deman73
    deman73 7 June 2013 10: 47 New
    +3
    Then at least there were slogans that united Russia, and now this isn’t the only one loot people don’t believe in anything, including power
  4. a.hamster55
    a.hamster55 7 June 2013 12: 55 New
    +2
    And I like "GOOD, HONOR AND GLORY" more
  5. xan
    xan 7 June 2013 14: 53 New
    +4
    there was another motto of our ancestors "for their own"
    that hundreds of centuries ago, that recently in Chechnya harnessed for their own, maybe unfamiliar, but ours
    strong motivation
  6. erg
    erg 9 June 2013 09: 26 New
    0
    For faith, king and fatherland. The word fatherland is in third place after faith and the king. The slogan of later times: for the homeland, for Stalin! The word homeland comes first. It’s a trifle, but you won’t think about it freely. Judging by the memoirs of Denikin (Essays on Russian Troubles), the people were very cool about things like the tsar and faith.
    1. Marat
      Marat 16 June 2013 23: 31 New
      0
      but how can I say ... For example, in the first couple of years of World War I, a Russian soldier fought exclusively for the tsar-priest and for the Serb brothers. How could the soldiers (with their majority of peasants) know the Dardanelles and some Black Sea straits?