Military Review

Angara launch vehicle: getting closer to the stars

53
The construction of a technical complex for launching Angara launch vehicles is entering its final stage. The launch of a new generation of rockets is guaranteed to take place before the end of 2014. The Angara launch vehicle with new environmentally friendly engines will eventually be able to replace most of the currently existing types of missiles designed in the USSR. The rocket’s first launch is scheduled for May 2014. It is assumed that the Angara missile system will replace such Soviet developments as the Cyclone 2 / 3, Proton, Cosmos-3M. The idea of ​​the new Russian rocket is based on the universal rocket module (URM), which is capable of flying both independently and as part of the carriers of the heavy and middle class.


At a meeting with Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev, which took place in late May, Russian Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin said that the launch of the Angara rocket from the Plesetsk cosmodrome was to be held in May 2014. And already in 2015, the Angara light rocket should be launched from the newest Russian Vostochny cosmodrome, which is being built in the Amur region near the village of Uglegorsk. The Vice Prime Minister noted that it is important that these launches will be carried out by power plants that use oxygen and kerosene as fuel, and not heptyl, which does not hold water from the point of view of ecology.

According to Dmitry Rogozin, who oversees the development of the Russian defense industry, the schedules of preparation for the launches of both light and heavy Angara missiles from the Plesetsk cosmodrome are strictly controlled, so he is confident in meeting the launch dates. After the delivery of the rocket to the Plesetsk cosmodrome, tests of the complex and its refinement will begin here, in order to prepare the launch of the light rocket in time. According to Rogozin, the first Angara light launch vehicle will be sent into space on the night of May 28 2014.

Angara launch vehicle: getting closer to the stars
Spaceport Plesetsk

The Angara is a modern family of launch vehicles built according to a modular principle and equipped with oxygen-kerosene engines. This family will include 4-class rocket (from light to heavy): in the load range from 1,5 tons (Angara 1.1 rocket) to 35 tons (Angara A7 rocket) in low-Earth orbit when launching from the cosmodrome "Plesetsk". The head developer of the Angara family of rockets and the carrier rocket manufacturer is the State Space Research and Production Center named after A.G. Khrunichev. (GKNPTs them. M.V. Khrunichev).

The operational and energy characteristics of the Angara carrier rockets are at a level that makes it possible to compete quite successfully in the international market with the best examples of rocket and space technology. The widespread use of unification in this project, together with the use of the most advanced production technologies, will allow Angara to provide a lower (compared to world analogues) cost of launching the payload into space in a fairly wide range of orbits. The Angara launch vehicle is produced with a very large use of polymer composite materials, so the share of composites in this rocket is 20% higher than in Proton-M. At the same time, it was possible to increase the properties of the materials used almost 2 times. The first place to launch Angara missiles in Russia will be the Plesetsk cosmodrome. The unique technical solutions implemented in this family of missiles allow launching all types of Angara missiles from one launcher.

In practice, various variants of Angara launch vehicles are implemented using different numbers of universal rocket modules (URM-1 for the first stage of rockets and URM-2 for the second and third stages). For light missiles (“Angara 1.1” and “Angara 1.2”) - one URM, for middle-class launch vehicles - 3 URM (“Angara A3”), for heavy launch vehicles - 5 URM (“Angara A5”) . The length of the universal rocket module is 25,1 meters, diameter - 2,9 meters, weight with a filled fuel - 149 tons. All URM equipped with oxygen-kerosene engines RD-191. In the role of upper stages on lightweight rockets, such as the Angar 1.2, the Briz-KM upper stage is used, which underwent flight tests as part of the Rokot conversion medium, while the Angar A5 heavy rocket is planned to use the upper stage Breeze -M "and KVTK.


The total mass of the Angara 1.2 light missile is of the order of 170 tons. At the same time, as part of heavy complexes (“Angara A7”), the number of URM will reach 7, and the starting weight will exceed 1100 tons. Such impressive units are joined to each other and assembled as a very large constructor. Currently, missile tests are conducted on special mock-ups. “With the created technological mock-ups, it is possible to carry out the whole range of pneumatic tests: with a rocket and some electrical tests. In this complex, all launch vehicles of this family will be prepared: from light to heavy, ”said German Malakhov, who is the head of the autonomous and complex testing laboratory of the Russian Plesetsk cosmodrome.

Each universal rocket module is equipped with an RD-191 oxygen-kerosene engine. This engine is an environmentally friendly option, unlike other types of engines that are used on heavy launch vehicles and use highly toxic heptyl as fuel. The light class Angara rocket will be able to put into the near-earth orbit more than 1,5 tons of payloads, an indicator of the Angara heavy rocket is 35 tons. This is more than that of the Proton carrier rockets, which are sent into space from the Baikonur cosmodrome, located in Kazakhstan.

At the same time, the launch of the Angara missile was postponed more than once, but now the work on this program is under the personal control of the top military leadership of Russia. Russian Deputy Minister of Defense Yury Borisov noted that it was decided to take the work on this project under manual control, under the personal control of the Minister of Defense of the Russian Federation. At present, a cut-off schedule has already been drawn up. This schedule is rather seriously monitored, every day the commander of the Aerospace Defense forces receives progress reports, once every 2 week reports are received by Yuri Borisov himself, and once a month he reports on the progress of work personally to Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu.


It is possible that in the future the Angara rocket will be certified for manned flights. It is for this family of rockets at the Plesetsk cosmodrome that a launch pad is being prepared today. Work on it began a few decades ago, originally it was intended for Zenit launch vehicles of Ukrainian origin. However, in recent years, the launch pad has been modified. Currently, designers and engineers will test the launch compatibility directly with the rocket itself. The site will be used to launch all Angara type rockets, regardless of the number of modules used. If everything goes according to plans, next year the launch of all military spacecraft can be transferred from Baikonur to the Plesetsk cosmodrome, the main thing is that the launch vehicle should meet the expectations of its creators and customers.

The development of the newest space complex "Angara" was not accidentally declared a task of state importance and taken under close control by senior government officials. The launch of the Angara carrier rockets will allow the Russian Federation to launch into space apparatus of all types from its own territory, which will provide Russia with guaranteed and independent access to space.

Information sources:
-http: //www.vesti.ru/doc.html? id = 1091444
-http: //polyot.su/main.php? id = 208
-http: //ria.ru/tags/product_Angara_raketa
-http: //www.rg.ru/2013/05/27/angara-anons.html
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  1. Dima190579
    Dima190579 6 June 2013 08: 56 New
    +5
    We will look forward to it.
    1. kosmos44
      kosmos44 7 June 2013 06: 17 New
      0
      Ltd! What a difficult "birth"!
  2. mark1
    mark1 6 June 2013 08: 58 New
    +4
    God grant. God forbid! I hope this is the last postponement.
  3. Skarte
    Skarte 6 June 2013 09: 05 New
    +2
    Well done, do not stand still !!! We will, we will wait !!
  4. urzul
    urzul 6 June 2013 09: 11 New
    12
    Launch pad for the Angara at the moment!
  5. pa_nik
    pa_nik 6 June 2013 09: 30 New
    0
    It would be nice to correct the title in the title to the Angara from "Anagara" .. Remember the words of Captain Vrungel !? "What do you call a yacht ..." recourse
  6. Sharingan
    Sharingan 6 June 2013 10: 22 New
    +1
    Even during my service in 2003, at the Plesetsk cosmodrome there had been building infrastructure for Anagara for several years. 10 years have passed, a noble unfinished building. Meanwhile, in the United States, commercial offices are already flying into space, we’re behind, damn it, they have become space rovers :(
    1. urzul
      urzul 6 June 2013 10: 32 New
      -1
      And what about the private owners or even the state!
      They gave private owners all commercial launches
      1. snek
        snek 6 June 2013 15: 25 New
        +2
        Quote: urzul
        And what about the private owners or even the state!


    2. biglow
      biglow 6 June 2013 10: 54 New
      +3
      we are not far behind. Compare the capabilities of our carriers and the Americans in terms of carrying capacity. And Americans are buying engines from us and not vice versa. Big tasks require more time to solve them, all the more we need to remember what happened at the beginning of 2000 ..
    3. Jurkovs
      Jurkovs 6 June 2013 18: 22 New
      0
      So the Angara from that time conceptually twice changed.
  7. Egor.nic
    Egor.nic 6 June 2013 10: 59 New
    +1
    Well, finally, and already for 13 years they have been working with her. It’s time.
  8. Xmypp
    Xmypp 6 June 2013 12: 20 New
    +1
    Well, when will they build a "death star" already?
    1. Volkhov
      Volkhov 6 June 2013 13: 37 New
      -14
      They built a madhouse, deployed to the whole of Russia, the inhabitants have to be occupied with something - that’s what they have been building the "Angara" for 20 years - do not bother the educators.
      To create a more sensible technique, you must first ask the neighbors - do you need the arrival of our officials? ... having received the answer before asking the question, they began to build the "Angara" in no hurry.
      1. Volkhov
        Volkhov 7 June 2013 09: 57 New
        -1
        The characteristic post rating is -14/1 and created collectively:
        - cheers-patriots (-) because not cheers
        - Zionists (-) because criticism of their leadership of the country
        - the Nazis (-) because they created this technical dead end and it is a guarantee of their superiority
        and only 1 someone (7%) sees the problem - with this correlation of prospects, the state does not have and it is no coincidence that the government works as a liquidation commission, curtailing industries other than raw materials and transporting everything suitable to China.
        1. kosmos44
          kosmos44 11 June 2013 05: 50 New
          0
          Quote: Volkhov
          The characteristic post rating is -14/1 and created collectively:


          Yes, because here the majority - "Kindergarten - pants on the straps"!
          Except - “we will wait, well, settling down” for pseudo-stars, nothing can be said about the case due to modern education.
      2. Cynic
        Cynic 7 June 2013 10: 55 New
        0
        Quote: Volkhov
        They built a madhouse, deployed to the whole of Russia, the inhabitants have to be occupied with something - that’s what they have been building the "Angara" for 20 years - do not bother the educators.

        Deep knowledge in the passage of rehabilitation psychotherapy is felt.
        We did not make a scandal - the leader was missing.
        There are few real violent people - there are no leaders.
        But the intrigues and nonsense of the network we have and nonsense,
        And the wicked intrigues of enemies will not spoil us!

  9. Enjoy
    Enjoy 6 June 2013 12: 33 New
    +2
    If only with the new Breeze-M it didn’t work out that almost half of the launches were emergency. And so, it would be more likely that Vostochny would be completed, so that the Kazakhs would no longer bargain.
    1. urzul
      urzul 6 June 2013 14: 13 New
      0
      With Breeze-M there were absolutely 55 launches;) so how much will there be half the emergency?
      Answer about 7-8%
      1. lazy
        lazy 6 June 2013 15: 16 New
        +1
        it’s a bit much, if in the GA 7-8% were emergency, people would stop flying, but planes fly for 20-30 years, and then a disposable product and such a percentage, and the efforts and hopes of thousands of people, like with phobos, are ruined immediately reliability is necessary, otherwise it will become an Achilles heel for a hangar
    2. Containers
      Containers 6 June 2013 21: 37 New
      +1
      Yes, what is he new ... 13 years already let him.
  10. spirit
    spirit 6 June 2013 12: 46 New
    +1
    But what about the super-heavy rocket?
    1. Trofimov174
      Trofimov174 6 June 2013 20: 41 New
      +1
      Not earlier than 2025.
  11. nod739
    nod739 6 June 2013 17: 32 New
    +3
    Quote: Sharingan
    turned into space rovers :(


    you need to be proud of it, not sad grins to do.

    a cab driver into space - this is not a taxi for you, it is a high-tech industry that brings serious money.
    Any other country only dreams of becoming a cab driver No. 1, but competition is growing - China is catching up, the rest of the identities are not standing still

    But the fact that they are building for a long time is not for you under the garage boxes, there is a serious infrastructure, electricity supply, oxygen and nitrogen liquefaction plants, a lot of everything ...
    Of course, the Gagarin start of the year was built for 3-4, but the Vostok had a mass of less than 300 tons, and the carrying capacity was about 4 tons, it’s like to compare a car and a truck

    Quote: Enjoy

    If only with the new Breeze-M it didn’t work out that almost half of the launches were emergency.


    the data is quite open - 4 emergency launches due to the acceleration block of more than 50 launches of carrier rockets, of course this is 2,5-3 times higher than the industry as a whole
    1. Justme
      Justme 6 June 2013 19: 12 New
      0
      you need to be proud of it, not sad grins to do.
      What to be proud of is that we have the main space "horses" from the era of the Queen or around that era ...

      .. you do not have boxes under the garage, there is a serious infrastructure, electricity ..

      Half a year ago, I worked for one research institute of Roscosmos - they really forgot how to work there - in general terms.
      1. Containers
        Containers 6 June 2013 21: 39 New
        +2
        You need to be proud of your past too. Especially when there is something to be proud of.
        Three months ago, I talked with software engineers in a well-known design bureau. Plowing like damned, because the work - no end.
        1. crambol
          crambol 6 June 2013 22: 12 New
          +1
          This is precisely what inspires bright optimism!
        2. Justme
          Justme 6 June 2013 22: 18 New
          +2
          To be proud - without conditionally it is necessary
          But we must not break the thread of success - and the problem is often that behind such positive reports - the situation is at least in those places where I worked to be in a state of development blockage
          I remember in the 80s "..yes, our one laboratory can replace the floors of developers in our research institute (we had a very talented beginner) .. and the quality of development we had was immeasurably higher ..
          Where now that nachlab - they threw him out - did not fit.
          How many kinds of programs were failed due to the fact that they simply did not want to give the project only to those who were able to achieve a decent result ..

          Technical-governing fools are fools, but they figure out many-way combinations of their selfish interests.

          So in ROSKOMOS there are still those secrets of the Court of Madrid.
          The only hope is that not everywhere.

          And on the account of the abundance of work - this is a difficult question - as I see it, the overload at our research institute was due to the fact that they removed us — the middle-oldest age from the active adoption of high-level decisions.
          1. Containers
            Containers 6 June 2013 22: 29 New
            0
            I don’t know what your research institute was there, what you developed there (maybe a remedy for some space bugs) and how much this “something” was in demand and relevant. I know that now in the space field, work on new projects is very active, you won’t believe it - VERY MUCH (surprisingly, yes? We are told that “everything, Khan, some old men!”) Young specialists (young SPECIALISTS, I consider children of age somewhere around 25-27 +, after the institute / school, the so-called semi-finished products of 90% come out), and not at the bosses of sinecure (although there are, of course, to argue), but in the workshops, behind the machines or are engaged in the design. Yes, not without accidents. But only he who does not walk does not stumble.
            1. Justme
              Justme 7 June 2013 06: 48 New
              0
              And I have no accidents ..
              And I can purely achieve in one attempt to achieve the highest result of Russia for a decade in a narrow but important technical field (for example, monthly tests of one of my ideas at KMZ December 2005)
              I admit only fair competition in design ..
              So to “dunk” the Soviet candidate of sciences in such a contest in the 80s — with an advantage 1.5–2.5 times in the main parameters — it was devilishly difficult.
              The last such contest with a modern candidate - a young rising Superstar - was an advantage 43 times. And by the way, then I even thought to get into a professional position ..

              My friendly advice is that I’m just talking about understanding the coordinate system wherever you are and seeing wider ..
              1. Containers
                Containers 8 June 2013 02: 46 New
                0
                My advice is to communicate more clearly. Because your words sound like "Well, we have TAAAAAAK devices and TAAAAK knowledge ... but we won’t tell you about them."
                This is by the way about some unclear advantage coefficients in terms of not very clear parameters.
                My advice is when you write, do not drink and do not smoke. The coordinates then will not move.
                1. Justme
                  Justme 8 June 2013 20: 53 New
                  +2
                  I have been working in the space industry industry since 83 years.
                  To achieve a vivid valuable result has always been a matter of honor and such sports excitement .. In addition, I rely on theoretical superiority .. That is, the result of design and subsequent verification is always more than worthy.
                  The question is - where are our final results? Which ALL of us could be proud of?
                  With them xp * is new. And a personal assessment would often not hurt.

                  And here you need to begin to understand that in the comic industry there is a very complex hierarchy, complicated undercover games, complicated rules, lack of demand for seemingly very necessary results ... And so I wildly do not digest all this rotten top and its promises (.. and we ran here along the corridors all the way to Perminov)
                  And the information on financial nuances here is also generally understandable ..
                  Maybe I unsuccessfully expressed all this before ...

                  About three years ago, I began to write a technical ideology on how to carry out the ROSKOSMOS Diagnostics topic (.. my knees were shaking around that time ..) In principle, nothing special for those who did such things. I fixed the initial ideas - then for me- Come on, Sorry, Move over -
                  money smelled in the air ..
                  We all have our selfish interests, I’m here with understanding ...
                  Another thing is interesting here - those who intercepted these projects in fact and cannot and are not going to reach the parameters corresponding to the purpose of this program - to create debugging systems for new generations of rocket-technical equipment ..
                  This is some kind of running around in a circle ..

                  As for the description of my "Well, we have TAAAAAAK devices and - These are mainly measuring instruments of diagnostic systems or control loops. Analysis here or by “key parameter (s) ceteris paribus” or “key parameter (s) / construction costs”
                  But this is my inner sport - the main people will be bored about it.

                  Testing at KMZ is more interesting.
                  Somewhere in the 90s, I proposed my version of the so-called electro-assisted turbo boost diesel engines. They made a model in SKBT with enthusiasm and for a penny. Somehow persuaded the CUSTOMER - Kolomenskoye Engineering Plant.
                  "Well, well - let's try."
                  They twisted this system for a month (for the first one and a half weeks everyone thought that measuring instruments had failed, then it turned out that they did not lie ..)
                  The results of the official protocol - "the fuel efficiency of a diesel engine increased by 4.5% in partial loading modes ..."
                  For this parameter, this is an awesome result.
                  We considered this system to improve the dynamics of diesel acceleration. So the marine diesel engine should accelerate twice as fast (this is from the category of promises, but when I stood behind the control panel - the effect was available - but for that test the electric motor was rather weak)
                  And where is the final practical result?
                  With the grant money received from the Ministry of Railways, the director of SKBT Kireyev and his commercial deputy wrote out prizes and bought smart "cars"
                  The experience was repeated at the Penza Diesel Plant - the same practical result.
                  Now the same system was created in Mitsubishi .. So, you can buy ...
                  1. Russ69
                    Russ69 8 June 2013 21: 08 New
                    +2
                    Quote: JustMe
                    Now the same system was created in Mitsubishi .. So, you can buy ...

                    Unfortunately, this is not only in space ...
                    It is necessary to almost radically change the principles of financing new programs.
      2. Alex
        Alex 16 September 2013 12: 29 New
        +2
        Quote: JustMe
        you need to be proud of it, not sad grins to do.
        What to be proud of is that we have the main space "horses" from the era of the Queen or around that era ...


        Incidentally, amers about these "horses" respond to the most superlative degrees. One of them said to the camera: "It’s convenient to fly in the Shuttle, and reliable in the Soyuz." Somewhere like that.
  12. The comment was deleted.
  13. Cynic
    Cynic 6 June 2013 18: 05 New
    0
    other than
    with new environmentally friendly engines

    Nothing that would explain the replacement of current carriers designed back in the USSR.
    bully
    1. Pilat2009
      Pilat2009 6 June 2013 18: 15 New
      +1
      Quote: Cynic
      Nothing that would explain the replacement of current carriers designed back in the USSR.

      I think that there is still a difference between a penny and a viburnum
      1. Cynic
        Cynic 6 June 2013 20: 45 New
        +2
        Quote: Pilat2009
        the difference between a penny and viburnum is still there

        You yourself did not understand what truth was voiced!
        Kopeks are still running, but whether viburnum will run after forty-odd years ...
        You look so young, what's your secret? - I'm eighteen.

        Do we have at least something of youthful age?
        wink
        1. Containers
          Containers 6 June 2013 21: 42 New
          0
          Acceleration block Breeze-M, acceleration block Frigate.
          1. Cynic
            Cynic 7 June 2013 10: 18 New
            0
            Quote: Kosha
            Acceleration block Breeze-M ...

            What is overclocking, then overclocking this cannot be taken from him.
  14. Grif
    Grif 6 June 2013 18: 11 New
    +3
    About the Angara in the early 90s they said that it was about to fly. Something has been running for a very long time. Hurry to be.
    1. Containers
      Containers 6 June 2013 22: 30 New
      0
      As they say, it’s better to aim for 5 seconds longer, but certainly shoot.
  15. crambol
    crambol 6 June 2013 18: 52 New
    +2
    According to Dmitry Rogozin, the preparations for launching both the light and heavy Angara rockets from the Plesetsk launch site are strictly controlled, therefore he is confident in meeting deadlines.

    Colleagues! Is there really a renaissance of the native defense industry? I knock on a piece of wood so that everything goes as it should. But on account of the postponements, I would advise you not to flatter yourself. The manufacture of such a giant, and even such complexity at the first stage, will reveal a lot of problems that could not be foreseen. That's why this work is research. If only designers and production workers are not particularly pulled!
  16. Enot-poloskun
    Enot-poloskun 6 June 2013 19: 08 New
    +2
    Question.


    Is it possible to create a carrier for nuclear weapons on the basis of the Angara?
    1. Cynic
      Cynic 6 June 2013 20: 48 New
      +3
      Quote: Enot-poloskun
      nuclear weapon carrier

      Yes, it is fundamentally indifferent to what to put into orbit.
  17. luka095
    luka095 6 June 2013 21: 33 New
    +1
    Nevertheless, I would like the deadlines to be met. Do not tighten.
  18. crambol
    crambol 6 June 2013 22: 10 New
    +2
    Quote: Cynic
    Yes, it’s fundamentally indifferent to what to put into orbit

    Fundamentally - it makes no difference. But keeping ready the darkness of liquid oxygen is nonsense (to put it mildly).
    1. Cynic
      Cynic 7 June 2013 10: 15 New
      +1
      Quote: crambol
      But keep ready the darkness of liquid oxygen

      The original, in absolute terms, dispute between TT and liquid systems on carriers .
      Well, now they are keeping half the darkness, they will keep the darkness.
      laughing
      1. Alex
        Alex 16 September 2013 12: 37 New
        +2
        Well, now they are keeping half the darkness, they will keep the darkness.

        Yes, you can keep two and three darkness, keep it technically not a question. And economically? One arms race has already ruined us, so conclusions need to be drawn.

        PS True, the amers also did not expect such expenses, because they also have one of the nightmares - the revival of the USSR.
        1. Cynic
          Cynic 16 September 2013 17: 48 New
          0
          Quote: Alex
          And economically?

          Yes, as if everything is considered and paid, it would be where cheaper, places on the media would not be bought in the queue (no need for dumping, publicity _ maybe).
          Quote: Alex
          One arms race has already ruined us, so conclusions need to be drawn.

          The USSR means ruined, but USA c x ... knows how many tens (hundreds?) Trillions of public debt are not?
          An empire without control could not survive. Its fragments _ because, to the extent.
  19. sergey158-29
    sergey158-29 6 June 2013 23: 31 New
    +1
    The concept of modularity implemented with the help of a different number of universal missile modules is very logical, simple and understandable ... I would very much like to see it in work ...
  20. shinobi
    shinobi 7 June 2013 06: 22 New
    +1
    They implemented the modular principle. Remarkably! Korolev’s dream came true to assemble rockets as a designer, launches will become cheaper. Honor and praise to the designers! But comrades, after all, the fathers of rocket science and astronautics themselves claimed that rockets were only an intermediate stage! The future is for space planes (not to be confused with shuttles ), a single-stage type. And here we are marking time. The British are only developing something there privately.
  21. Sirs
    Sirs 7 June 2013 06: 26 New
    +1
    I want Russia to fly to MARS first - manned)))))
    1. Cynic
      Cynic 7 June 2013 10: 42 New
      +1
      Quote: Sirs
      I want Russia to fly to MARS first - manned

      But why actually?
      So far, apart from the drum battle and the roar, the timpani is not drawn in honor of the pioneers.
      Now Yusovtsy constantly remind everyone of _ We were the first on the Moon !!! So what ?
      hi
  22. Cynic
    Cynic 7 June 2013 10: 32 New
    0
    Still, there is no Angara, Angara, but why Energy pulled down ?
  23. crambol
    crambol 7 June 2013 17: 58 New
    +1
    Quote: Cynic
    But why actually?

    I absolutely agree with you.