Military Review

Arctic security

15
Arctic securityStrategic analysts of the US Coast Guard believe that the likelihood of deploying naval bases in high-latitude regions is currently increasing.


The retreat of multi-year ice from some areas in the Arctic during the summer of last year made it possible for ordinary courts to work in these areas.

Three specific goals led people to these remote areas of the ocean: Exploration and science, industrial resource extraction and cargo transportation. On the one hand, these goals lead to further enrichment of humanity, but on the other hand, they can bring problems: the safety of people at sea, the safety of coastal countries from threats that can be delivered by sea, and the environmental safety of these regions. The mission of the coast guard of the countries possessing the Arctic possessions is to ensure the security and management of the territorial waters of the state. On an ongoing basis, the protection of the Arctic borders of Russia, the USSR and Canada has been carried out since the end of the XIX century.

The Arctic coastline is characterized by extremely harsh and unstable weather conditions. Indigenous people in high-latitude regions have retained their living culture, transmitted through countless generations. They perceive sea ice, fast changing winds and several months of the polar night as commonplace. But to a man from mid-latitudes, the arctic weather seems like hell.

The development of the Arctic expanses began in connection with the search for sea lanes, both the northern sea route along the Eurasian continent and the north-western passage along the northern coast of the American continent. But the uncertainty and unpredictability of impenetrable sea ice did not allow regular use of these routes.

In the Americas, harsh Alaska was given new visitors by the gold rush of the late nineteenth century. Changes in technology, new strategies have led to the awakening of environmental awareness, but the extremely high risk of losing ships due to severe ice conditions at sea made commercial ventures in this region unprofitable. Strictly speaking, commercial mining of marine mammals in the Arctic became unprofitable at the beginning of 1900's.

Mineral exploration and research activities in the Arctic continued throughout the twentieth century and are still ongoing. Most of these studies consisted of small, seasonal efforts, often supported by the military. These efforts include geographical and scientific discoveries, the construction of early warning systems and the advancement of technologies for adaptation to arctic conditions. Throughout this era, the Arctic countries have retained the ability to navigate in the Arctic Ocean at all times and seasons.

The revival of commercially viable resource extraction in the Arctic, namely oil and natural gas, began with the transit through the Northwest Passage of the Manhattan oil tanker in 1969. At one time, the development of coastal areas in the framework of hydrocarbon production was associated with the construction of pipelines. However, the demand for energy, as well as the fixed summer and autumn decline in the level of ice in the Arctic latitudes, the improvement of offshore drilling technologies led to the fact that oil companies began to try to rent areas of the coastal shelf for offshore drilling. The increase in shipping in the Arctic region was caused by the need to deliver infrastructure for the development of offshore oil industries. This increased activity represents a new challenge and a potential threat to the region.

Polar история It is replete with many examples of maritime emergencies that required adequate response measures to protect life, property, and prevent damage to the environment. So, back in 1897, the predecessor staff of the US Coast Service found themselves on the high seas with a herd of deer. In the Russian region, you can recall the tragedy of the ship Chelyuskin, which tried to break through the Northern Sea Route in one navigation, but found itself in an ice trap.

It was planned to use high latitudes for military purposes. During World War II, the UK considered a project to build a huge aircraft carrier out of ice, an American missile base was built in the thickness of the Greenland ice, and the Soviet strategic aviation planned to use ice airfields. Since then, high latitudes have become not only a place for conducting scientific experiments and mining, but also a place of pilgrimage for tourists. In 2010, the cruise ship "Clipper Adventurer MV" ran aground near Kugluktuk. To save the ship, the intervention of two Canadian coastguard icebreakers was required.

The seasonal decline in sea ice has increased the commercial exploitation of marine natural resources. These activities increase the risk of contamination of the fragile Arctic marine ecosystem, on which balance the lives of coastal people depend. In addition, any activity in remote regions of the world poses risks to personnel due to the presence of problems such as poor information about the surrounding installation, and extreme environmental conditions. Growth trends in shipping in the Arctic have also increased the likelihood of a quick maritime emergency response. To ensure a permanent maritime presence in the arctic regions, it is necessary to develop the minimum necessary coastal infrastructure on the coast of the Arctic Ocean. The development of a chain of sea bases along the northern sea routes is likely to become the most viable option for the coast guard of all Arctic countries. In addition, a number of analysts in the United States seriously raise the issue of creating a carrier class of the sea class, which can reliably ensure safety and leadership, regardless of the season or the state of the environment.
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  1. Arberes
    Arberes 5 June 2013 18: 16
    +4
    An anti-icing aircraft carrier? And what the hell is not joking, maybe it will appear!
    Progress is leaps and bounds! The main thing we would have time!
    1. 755962
      755962 5 June 2013 20: 15
      +6
      It's time to recall the projects of military icebreakers ...
      Project 97P Volga border patrol ship


      PSKR "Purga" of the project 52


      "Dobrynya Nikitich" with installed weapons

      Yes, there is much more here

      http://lib.rus.ec/b/286607/read

      There is progress, it remains to finalize under modern realities ..
  2. Nevsky
    Nevsky 5 June 2013 18: 16
    +6
    Somali pirates will leave the Gulf of Aden, and move to the Bering? wassat wassat
    As long as the US and NATO do not poke in there, the Arctic will be safe. good
    1. Arberes
      Arberes 5 June 2013 18: 21
      +4
      Quote: Nevsky
      Somali pirates will leave the Gulf of Aden, and move to the Bering?

      The poor fellow will freeze! Are the Eskimos more likely to do this business? drinks
      But seriously, there are more terrible animals there (US and NATO submarines), so we need to take action!
  3. Lech from ZATULINKI
    Lech from ZATULINKI 5 June 2013 18: 23
    +4
    The Arctic is full of minerals - the question of extracting them there is just a matter of time.
    The WORLD has already begun the struggle for the possession of these RESOURCES (so far in a calm form)
    However, for Russia, the time will come when it will be necessary to wage an armed struggle for the legitimate possession of the Arctic.
    1. Captain Vrungel
      Captain Vrungel 5 June 2013 18: 56
      +4
      The icebreaking fleet of the USA, Canada and even Argentina belongs to the "Coast Guard".
      What prevents Russia from endowing the same functions with its small icebreaking fleet.
      There is enough space on them for the installation of fraudulent radar, weapons. Convenient mobile means of technical observation and quick response, with a large (especially nuclear-powered) autonomy. Three in one. Wiring. Observation and control.
      1. mark1
        mark1 5 June 2013 20: 19
        +2
        Naval battle on icebreakers, which could be worse! It’s good to go on a ram, our healthiest ones, adversaries right away, grunting! and in two parts. But seriously, our border guards had a couple of icebreaking ships of special construction, if they have one now, I don’t know.
        1. stalkerwalker
          stalkerwalker 5 June 2013 20: 57
          +4
          Quote: mark1
          our border guards had a pair of ice-built ships of special construction, I don’t know if they are now.

          "Cut in Nails" in the early 90s ...
  4. knn54
    knn54 5 June 2013 18: 26
    +5
    About 3 million people (2%) live in the Arctic zone, but almost 15% of GDP is produced, including 20% ​​of oil and 75% of gas, which provides almost 25% of the country's total exports.
    And so that the Medvedev-Stoltenberg Pact would be the first and the last, otherwise all efforts for Arctic security will turn into empty chores ..
  5. avt
    avt 5 June 2013 18: 33
    +3
    Already takes evil! Well, after all, with such difficulty in the north they mastered and at once under ..... the Gaidar left. And now - what a surprise! Amer experts say .... they practically teach life ..... fuck !!
  6. andrei332809
    andrei332809 5 June 2013 18: 37
    +3
    well, if pin-up-sy somewhere worried about security, wait for trouble
  7. aviamed90
    aviamed90 5 June 2013 18: 38
    +1
    Well, where are the conclusions at the end of the article? Do it yourself? Or have they been formulated for a long time? And in Russia, work on countering the Americans is in full swing?
    1. dimon-media
      dimon-media 5 June 2013 18: 45
      +4
      I think one conclusion. Whoever has a more powerful icebreaker fleet will dominate the Arctic. So far, only Russia has a nuclear icebreaker fleet.
      1. Arberes
        Arberes 5 June 2013 18: 58
        +4
        Quote: dimon-media
        I think one conclusion. Whoever has a more powerful icebreaker fleet will dominate the Arctic.

        I completely agree with you, even the newest nuclear boats are needed-multi-purpose especially!
  8. MIKHAN
    MIKHAN 5 June 2013 18: 53
    +2
    After the Middle East, amers will take over the Arctic .. And then we will be in complete surroundings.
    1. Darkheir
      Darkheir 5 June 2013 19: 16
      0
      Do not forget Norway, China, Singapore.
  9. Darkheir
    Darkheir 5 June 2013 19: 13
    +1
    Quote: Arberes
    An anti-icing aircraft carrier? And what the hell is not joking, maybe it will appear!
    Progress is leaps and bounds! The main thing we would have time!

    In Russia, at the moment there is NONE A full-fledged aircraft carrier. And those same Americans have their 10th, 11th
    1. mark1
      mark1 5 June 2013 20: 14
      +1
      To protect the Arctic possessions, Russia does not need aircraft carriers, a good enough number of missile-carrying naval aviation (for the start of the Tu-22M3 and Su-34, and a well-developed aerodrome network, well, and nuclear submarines (to start pr 949A. Then 885, etc.), where without them. By the way, in 1963, our regiment of missile-carrying naval aviation repelled the desire for 10 years from the American AUG to enter high latitudes.
    2. alexkross83
      alexkross83 6 June 2013 01: 16
      0
      What for? We have a "Thread", such a complex on a wooden base, one even in Ukraine, the Chinese are still trying to find out the secret ... it doesn't work :-) we just have the necessary ascent angle, they have a remote control, we have a penny for it , they have millions of green ... in general, the Russian people are genius. And all ingenious is simple :-) if the amers' satellites are disabled (by scattering ordinary nails of a certain length), control will be lost in general, and we have a control system independent of satellites that is mothballed. Something like this.
  10. kobussubok
    kobussubok 5 June 2013 19: 20
    0
    Quote: MIKHAN
    After the Middle East, amers will take over the Arctic .. And then we will be in complete surroundings.

    I agree! But, I think, the amers will bend there! There, after all, they will have to do everything with their own hands (there will not be a row of corrupt stupid aboregens ...), in general, the last pile of dough will be swollen and forever eternal!
  11. waisson
    waisson 5 June 2013 19: 32
    +1
    first of all, the question immediately comes up about minerals; they supposedly belong to the people in our country, but in reality a bunch of gangs of aligarchs so let these aligarchs fork out to strengthen the Russian grouping in the Arctic or they will again bite a pie for free
    1. ded10041948
      ded10041948 5 June 2013 23: 51
      0
      The State Duma will create another law to facilitate the lives of the oligarchs suffering from overwhelming oppression of the people and the people will receive another ... instead of minerals!
  12. Strashila
    Strashila 5 June 2013 19: 52
    +2
    "Strategic analysts of the US Coast Guard believe that the likelihood of deploying naval bases in high-latitude regions is currently increasing." ... how many naval bases of Russia in the North can you name ... Murmansk and Polyarny. But during the Second World War there was one base, which is not remembered and not awarded with signs of military glory, which actually controlled the transportation along the Northern Sea Route ... Dikson Island of the Krasnoyarsk Territory, but this is where the raider "adm.Speer" was piled. In modern conditions, the island can become an unsinkable aircraft carrier (restore the runway), an air defense-missile defense base (considering that it is on the route of cross-polar airlines), and the base of the Navy.
  13. MIKHAN
    MIKHAN 5 June 2013 20: 08
    0
    Quote: kobussubok
    Quote: MIKHAN
    After the Middle East, amers will take over the Arctic .. And then we will be in complete surroundings.

    I agree! But, I think, the amers will bend there! There, after all, they will have to do everything with their own hands (there will not be a row of corrupt stupid aboregens ...), in general, the last pile of dough will be swollen and forever eternal!

    Don’t tell them they have a lot of money (the whole world lends to them) and the natives will be brought in the holds (they have a lot of experience) .. This is in the event that Syria and Iran fall .. we are next in line .. Now the question is again about the existence of Russia as a state .. in the 90s failed .. now there is an attempt No. 2 .. they hope that from the Middle East all this evil will begin to leak out to us .. Assad crushes them (well done) even at the UN complained about him and Russia threatening .. hehe So what else will fight !!!
  14. Captain45
    Captain45 5 June 2013 22: 42
    +1
    Quote: Strashila
    Dixon Island of the Krasnoyarsk Territory,

    On Dikson, everything was collapsed a long time ago, only this year the band was restored to receive An-24, in Khatang the lane is still in order, there the strategists can sit and the X-NUMX An-2003 got on, before and the air defense radar in Khatang stood yes and further in Tiksi, Anadyr, like a strip, they also allow you to receive airplanes of the Air Force. Previously, there were airfields all over the North, and radars and weather stations almost every 124 km were located, everything was ... In many ways, everything was stupidly abandoned due to lack of funding 200's, and now on a new build.
  15. Boa kaa
    Boa kaa 6 June 2013 01: 11
    +1
    Mastering the Far North—task of national importance. It is in the North that the untold riches of the mineral storehouse "Zakramov" of the Motherland are located. Naturally, they need to be reliably guarded. This requires ships of a special ice class, polar aviation and much more (ice reconnaissance, navigational and hydro-meteorological support of ships' escort).
    Already have ideas to replace AVU in these latitudes aviation offshore platforms, which is more economical and promising coastal airfields, the coordinates of which are well known to all. Naturally, they will be with nuclear power plants, which will increase their autonomy and habitability in the polar latitudes. Russia has the largest nuclear icebreaker fleet of 6 units. But in 2013. it is planned to lay and in 2015 take a super icebreaker with a length of the order of 170 m, a width of 34 m ("50 Years of Victory" - 159 m and 30 m, respectively). The new generation RITM-200 power plant was developed by the Afrikantov Design Bureau specifically for this icebreaker. Each of the two reactors of the installation has a capacity of 170 MW - more than the capacity of the KLT installation used in modern nuclear icebreakers (140 – 150 MW). Icebreakers have weapons plans in case of war. Personally, I saw 2 “hemp” under the wasp. There are places for installing art systems. I think now you can install something more modern, such as Daggers or Chestnuts.
    When deciding protection problems of the Arctic, it passes into the plane of the 12-mile zone of the water guide and the 200-mile (maximum - 322km) economic. Our oceanologists, led by Chilingarov, had to prove that the continental shelf belongs, according to the law of the sea, to Russia and stretches for 3,5 thousand km from the water edge. States disagree with this. They believe that the Northern Sea Route should belong to the whole of humanity, and not only to Russia, as it has developed historically. Conflict of interest is evident. Further, the UN and clients of the United States will be connected to declare our national treasure - SevMorPut - a Broadway for Mr. Traders, etc.
    So confrontation is already flowing into the Arctic latitudes. Canada, Norway, Finland, Denmark, Sweden, Iceland and China are also going to become active players here! If we do not want to lose our influence at our side, we will have to strain.
  16. Reserve buildbat
    Reserve buildbat 6 June 2013 07: 58
    +2
    Reading the comments about military icebreakers, I remembered some amersky militant, where there were the following words: "Russian scientific vessel. Civilian. That is, no more than two guns, torpedo tubes ..." laughing
    I think roughly the same should be the icebreakers of the Northern Sea Route in the 21 century. Just add rockets.
  17. True
    True 6 June 2013 19: 57
    -1
    Icebreakers of the Arctic type (project 10520) are the most massive project of atomic icebreakers: they include six out of ten atomic icebreakers built in the USSR and Russia. The project includes the possibility of converting an icebreaker into an auxiliary battle cruiser. For at least two of them (“Arctic” and “Soviet Union”), the corresponding equipment and equipment is partially placed on board, partially in warehouses and preserved.