Military Review

When replacing means a radical change. Overview of light armored vehicles. (Part of 3)

When replacing means a radical change. Overview of light armored vehicles. (Part of 3)
The teachings of the Italian Marines "San Marco" on their machines LMV Lince. Italy is armed with over 1500 1500 Lince machines, hundreds of them work in Afghanistan

Iveco DV and Oto Melara have recently delivered to the Italian army the first Lince machine equipped with a Hitrole Light RCWS combat module. These machines are currently being deployed in Afghanistan.


IVECO LMV / LINCE: Although the LMV was widely exported to Belgium, the UK, Spain, Norway, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Croatia, and recently to Austria and Russia, only four countries use the car in Afghanistan, including the main customer the Italian army, in which the car is known as Lince ( in Italian). Iveco delivered all the 1400 machines originally ordered, this includes the LMV base version and the upgraded Lince-1 version. The Italian army has signed the next contract for 478 machines improved to the standard Lince 1A. In order to make the construction lighter, but sufficiently strong, capable of withstanding a remotely controlled combat module, the transverse frame was strengthened. Currently, it supports a monolithic roof, which allows the machine to withstand 7g acceleration when falling onto a roof that does not have safety arcs. All vehicles are equipped with a lightweight Hitrole tower, (81 tower acquired by the Italian army and installed on modified Lince 1 machines). The first Lince 1 machine equipped with the Oto Melara tower was delivered at the end of June 2012, and the first 20 machines were deployed in Afghanistan in early August. The absence of overturning arcs plus an additional increase in overall height by another 40 mm increases the available space inside the cabin. A reinforced suspension was installed as the center of gravity rose due to an increase in the height of the vehicle and the installation of the combat module; The generation of onboard energy in the amount of 240 Ah was added. There was also a spare hatch above the commander's seat, which allows the driver and commander to leave the car in case of locking the doors, the seat backs can now be folded to get a passage between the front and rear parts of the habitable compartment. Protection against roadside bombs was further enhanced, the side doors now have three hinges instead of two. Deliveries of the 7,1 tonnage machine Lince 1A began in the 2012 year.

Further development of the LMV machine is expected, although today Iveco DV has not received any details. Despite the fact that there is no desire to bring the LMV to MRAP levels, protection and payload can be areas for improvement while maintaining high traffic and modern automotive technology. The modularity of the vehicle will be preserved, the LMV is already being developed in several configurations, for example, for special forces, the 81-mm mortar transporter, patrol and sanitary, the latter on an increased wheelbase. This chassis can also be used for a reconnaissance vehicle using a standard, protected crew armor capsule, although a vehicle with an extended cab can be designed to "change" the load capacity by volume. Iveco for the Italian army is developing an ISTAR version of the car: the first batch of eight of these cars is planned, the ideal solution could be a shortened wheelbase, although for reasons of volume, an extended wheelbase with a standard crew capsule may be required. The machine must be “tuned” to the task being performed using specialized modules with a primary focus on electromagnetic shielding due to the fact that the EW will be one of the main tasks of the machine. The intelligence arm of the Czech Army will have a long wheelbase and a shortened cab with a two plus one location; the platform will be used to install a specific module of weapons of mass destruction developed in the Czech Republic. The current version for special forces has been developed on a shorter wheelbase; however, further development can lead to a car with an extended base, a shortened cab and a cargo platform.

LMV / Lince remains in its category one of the best European bestsellers. In addition to the Italian army, Norway is showing interest in new versions, like many other buyers by the way. In the Netherlands, for example, there is a program for replacing general-purpose light vehicles. The initial need is indicated approximately in 1000 - 1200 machines, but it is not yet clear what this machine will develop, either an unprotected machine plus a reservation kit, or a machine with some protection plus additional armor. Iveco DV also seeks to expand its product line by developing other options for specific applications and export markets.

Using his experience gained in creating the LAPV series, Mercedes Benz is currently offering the LAFV 6.1 model with better protection and a greater payload.


MERCEDES-BENZ LAPV 6.1: At Eurosatory in 2010, Mercedes Benz exhibited two prototypes of its Light Armored Patrol Vehicle, LAPV, LAPV 6.X and LAPV 7.X, as well as the LAPV 5.4 variant, which was acquired by the Bundeswehr (where it is known under the name Enok) in order to fulfill the requirements of GFF1 (Geschiitzte Fuhrungs und Funktionsfahrzeuge or armored vehicles of operational management). The first order involved the delivery of 45 machines LAPV 5.4, of which a number was deployed in Afghanistan since February 2011. After an initial appraisal by the troops in July 2011, an additional order was placed for 76 vehicles for the military police, with deliveries completed by the end of 2013. With similar experience, the company Mercedes Benz presented an option that has better protection and greater carrying capacity.

It is the same size as the 5.4 model, except for the height, because the clearance has increased from 223 to 412 mm. This increases mines protection, the Enok has a bottom structure capable of withstanding threats to the 1 Level with an optional gain of almost to the 2a Level, while the bottom of the 6.1 variant has the 2a protection level. Improved energy-absorbing seats and seat belts also contribute to greater safety of the crew during an explosion. Additional benefits are an increase in the front overhang angle from 24 ° to 40 ° and increased ground clearance, which allows overcoming deeper water obstacles (from 600 to 800 mm). The ballistic protection is maintained at the 2 Level and, optionally, to protect the engine, the hood is armored to the 1 Level. The undercarriage of the LAPV 6.1 is based on the undercarriage of the 300 CDI model with a reinforced chassis and axles capable of supporting loads of 1,3 tons (instead of 1,07 tons).

The picture shows the Eagle 4x4 in the arms transporter version. The mass of the patrol car based on the Duro III chassis increased to 10 tons

NEW EAGLE: The Bundeswehr program, which is yet to be executed, is abbreviated as GFF2, and includes a more secure operational control machine in the 7,5 class of tons (which, however, falls under the category of light armored vehicles discussed in this article). The first few batches of General Dynamics Eagle IV machines were procured under the emergency requirements program, but in the future, the New Eagle will have to "fight" with the AMPV (Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle) armored vehicle from the KMW / Rheinmetall consortium.
Both vehicles are qualified by the Arms Procurement Agency at the end of 2011, and the decision should already be made. However, European laws obliged Germany to hold a pan-European competition. In the near future, selection for this competition is expected, which will serve as a prelude for the subsequent round of trials and final selection, which then should lead to contract negotiations and final approval by Parliament.


AMPV: The time provided was used by the KMW / Rheinmetall consortium to further refine the machine’s payload and protection, especially against mines and roadside bombs. At the manufacturing stage, KMW is responsible for the armor plates, while Rheinmetall is responsible for the monocoque (carrier) design. The total weight of the machine rises from 9,3 to 10 tons, these 700 kg are evenly distributed between protection and carrying capacity. Four AMPVs were made, one was sold to the German army for military trials, and three took part in factory tests.

The latest improvements inside the cab include new seats that were specially designed with removable cushions at the top of the back for optimal placement of personnel equipped with Gladius (name adopted in June 2012 for the soldier’s IdZ-2 system). On the dashboard for the driver was added a display with the image from the camera pointing back. KMW and Rheinmetall have focused on the GFF2 version, other AMPV options have now faded into the background. At the Eurosatory exhibition, the 2012 machine was shown with the Istar system (information gathering, surveillance, target detection and identification, intelligence) from Rheinmetall. Rheinmetall certainly looks at the export market, but is well aware that the very high level of protection of AMPV (namely, the 3A / 2B level against mines) has its price and this can be a problem for some countries. European armies are awaiting Germany’s decision, but given that the KMW / Rheinmetall consortium has already developed the production process, the first production vehicles can leave the assembly line at the end of 2013.

United Kingdom

MRV-P: While advancing the MRV-P car, the Defense Ministry has begun the procedure for issuing contracts for the first phase of the program (covering a preconceptual demonstration), numerous companies have already lined up. The MRV-P became the successor to the previously closed program on the universal car (Operational Utility Vehicle System), in which it develops machines designed for maintenance purposes.
The estimated commissioning date is scheduled for the 2018 year and two companies that met the requirements of LLPV (Light Protected Patrol Vehicle) are, of course, among the current bidders.

Eagle 6x6 can be supplied in various specialized versions, complementing the line of infantry vehicles offered by CDELS

KMW and Rheinmetall have teamed up under the AMFV program; The vehicle being created under this program claims to be the next generation of German light armored vehicles. Its production can begin in 2013.

OCELOT-FOXHOUND: Deployed in Afghanistan in early June 2012, the Ocelot machine, developed by Force Protection Europe (currently part of General Dynamics Land Systems), also known by the British army as Foxhound, was supplied for 18 months, not for the originally defined three years since it was procured under a mixed program of urgent operational requirements. More than Foxhound 60 machines have already been manufactured. They were sent to Afghanistan in the so-called TES (Theater Entry Standard); The machines are equipped with air conditioning, IEDS silencers, GPS navigation, Ilsa's situational awareness system from Thales UK on 360 ° with cameras installed in the front right and rear left corners, Saab Barracuda heat insulating coating, Bowman radio stations and 7,62-mm machine guns.

Immediately after the cars arrived, intensive training was organized at Camp Bastion before participating in real operations. Initially, Foxhound will be used to protect its forces instead of more vulnerable machines and those that were withdrawn from Helmand province, its compact size and high level of protection make it an ideal tool for urban operations. The Defense Ministry placed an initial order for 200 Foxhound in November 2010, and in June 2011 was requested by 100 machines. Final deliveries are expected in the middle of the 2013 year. The next recovery came in August, when Defense Secretary Peter Luff announced that the UK would order another Foxhound 25 machines worth £ 30 million ($ 47,6 million).

Meanwhile, GDLS and FPE are working on improvements to meet the new requirements, although numerous markets are already ready to accept the 7,5-ton machines currently available in three versions, namely, command and patrol (two plus four seats), reconnaissance (two plus two) and universal (two). In addition to the additional needs of the UK, the company is working to fulfill orders from different regions. This is mainly the Far and Middle East, as well as Africa and South America. In some areas, the problem of roadside bombs is constantly deteriorating and is now falling not only on the shoulders of the armed forces, but also on the shoulders of paramilitary groups and internal security structures.

SPV400: The second "surviving" competitor after the LPPV test stage, the Supacat SPV400 car was completely refined and is now completely different from the car that was once estimated by the UK. The seventh prototype is very close to the serial configuration and is currently used for tests for reliability and maintenance, while, as stated in the company Supacat, the machine showed the reliability of 96 percent. The development phase, which included mileage over 21000 km, allowed Supacat to make many design changes. The main one was the adoption of a different suspension geometry, a lot of time was spent on fine adjustment of the air springs to obtain the desired amplitude of movement. Now the differential locking system limits the front axle slip when locking the rear axle differentials, this scheme showed its best driving performance. The braking and cooling systems have also been modernized, and the central tire inflation system has been completely improved.

The company Supacat also worked on the internal layout, which is now much freer than the original prototypes. The on-board electronics was revised, and the glass cockpit based on color displays shows not only the usual data necessary for the operation of the machine, but also technical information. SVP400 also attracts the interest of the countries of the Near and Far East and European countries. Supacat is developing a modular concept to meet British and European programs.

In April 2011, Penman acquired Creation, a design company from Hampshire. The company showed the latest version of its MRV-P at the 2012 DVD demonstrations, where it aroused great interest. The car was already ready for production under the designation Zephyr, but was not selected for the British LPPV program after leaving Babcock.

Foxhound machine of the British Army in Afghanistan; this name was adopted by the army for the Ocelot model developed by Force Protection Europe (now part of GDLS) and adopted by the UK based on the LPPV application
Armada Compendium October 2012
Articles from this series:
When replacing means a radical change. Overview of light armored vehicles. (Part of 1) USA
When replacing means a radical change. Overview of light armored vehicles. (Part of 2) France
When replacing means a radical change. Overview of light armored vehicles. (Part of 3)
When replacing means a radical change. Overview of light armored vehicles. (Part of 4)

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  1. bask
    bask 4 June 2013 17: 37
    "" When replacement means radical change. Overview of light armored. ""
    It is a pity that in Russia in the near future such armored vehicles are not and never will be.
    Firstly, we are behind in technology and production, light multipurpose armored vehicles.
    Secondly, even that there is MREP, Typhoons ,, SMP-3 ,, Bear in the troops do not compete.
    More cars in Russia .. with no mine protection !!!!!
    1. self-propelled
      self-propelled 4 June 2013 22: 00
      Quote: bask
      Secondly, even that there is MREP, Typhoons ,, SMP-3 ,, Bear in the troops do not compete.

      sort of going through comprehensive tests. let's hope for the proverb "Russians slowly harness, but they go fast" request
      1. bask
        bask 4 June 2013 23: 27
        Quote: self-propelled
        follow the proverb "Russians slowly harness, but they go fast"

        Very, I would like it to be that way.
    APASUS 4 June 2013 19: 25
    The British Army Foxhound "armored car" in Afghanistan immediately has a rigid coupling.
    Is it uncertainty or reinsurance?
    1. bask
      bask 4 June 2013 21: 22
      Quote: APASUS
      "armored car" Foxhound of the British army in Afghanistan immediately provides for a rigid coupling

      This is a military test ,, Foxhond ,, insurance probably.
      In our country, there should be several classes of armored cars ...
      1. MULTI-PURPOSE ARMOR. Weights from 5 to 7,5 tons, with partial and full reservation. For mine and ballistic protection STANAG 2-3 and not an armored version. Cheap in manufacture on units and assemblies of mass-produced cars ... With a carrying capacity of 1000 kg. Cost -5 -7 ml rub. With the possibility of modular weapons .5-7 people .. landing.
      2. Medium, weighing up to 15 tons. Modular design, freight option is possible (( .. ,, Wolf ,,))
      up to 2,2,5 tons STSNAG 4. Mine protection, explosion under the body of 8 kg W / e.
      3. Heavy MPAP up to 25 tons. KamAZ, Urals, Typhoons, + Armored vehicles on units and assemblies of serial freight cars ... ((Typhoons K and U costing from 1 ml $$$, a little expensive)) The average price should not exceed 400-500 $$$$, maximum.
      4. Freight cars with an armored cab.
      But in Russia there is no INTEGRATED PROGRAM FOR THE DEVELOPMENT of automotive armored vehicles !!! Everything is for the personal tastes and preferences of Moscow Region.
  3. rumpeljschtizhen
    rumpeljschtizhen 4 June 2013 19: 43
    Yes, now it’s interesting to review our ... in comparison .... there are no serial new ones; the rest is unknown far
  4. bubble82009
    bubble82009 4 June 2013 20: 12
    what light armored vehicles are they? their weight is under 10 tons