Military Review



In textbooks, memoirs and other historical Stalin's Order No. 227 is mentioned so often that every Russian must have heard of it. Meanwhile, few people know the exact contents of this document, but meanwhile, it contains a lot of interesting things. For example, the following items:

2.b Form 3-5 armies (200 people in each) within the army, put them in the immediate rear of unstable divisions and bind them to perform panic attacks and panties in the event of panic and indiscriminate divisions your duty to the motherland.

2. Form within the front from five to ten (depending on the situation) penal companies (from 150 to 200 people in each), where to send ordinary soldiers and junior commanders who have been guilty of violating discipline on cowardice, and to give them they have the opportunity to atone for their crimes in front of their homeland.

Naturally, such tough measures were forced to take the situation prevailing at the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, rather than the inherent bloodlust of the country's top leadership, not sung by the “singers of perestroika”.


A few months before the start of the war, Khaydar Iskandyarov, who served as the “urgent” in Karelia (337 th Infantry Regiment of the 54 th division), was transferred from a mortar platoon to an ambulance, immediately conferring the rank of sergeant (four “triangles” in the buttonhole) and putting position of medical assistant. Such a sharp career jump can be easily explained: they called on the Iskandyarovs to the army from the third year of the Saransk medical college.

The soldiers' service in the Karelian forests and swamps is an incredibly difficult affair. How many times during the exercise had to spend the night in the snow in a forty-degree frost. You wrap yourself in an overcoat - it feels warm, and in ten minutes you wake up from the sound of your own teeth. Nothing to do, you get up, you start to crouch, jump. After a couple of minutes, sweat pours hail and you can go to bed again. Another fifteen minutes ...

For a week each soldier was given a small disposable spirit lamp, similar to a thin tin can, with only a lid on top.

You open it, set it on fire, and you can melt the snow in the pot for tea, or warm the stiff hands. The fighters called these press-davi, and for their intended purpose they almost did not use (for obvious reasons).

Of course, the quartermasters, in order not to introduce soldiers into the temptation, refilled these units not with pure alcohol, but with some kind of mixture, but our guys quickly found a way out. Alcohol from the broken alcohol is poured on a towel, which is then squeezed over a cup (hence the name). On the fabric remained gray bloom, and the filtered liquid was taken inside. A little, but nice.


PenaltiesOn the morning of June 22, 1941 found out about the beginning of the war. Immediately plunged into cars and to the border. Towards the wounded border guards wander, belted with machine-gun belts, like revolutionary sailors in the movies.

Iskandyarov found his regiment, reported to the battalion commander Samsonov (participant in the battles in Spain). Judging by the first order of the battalion commander, the situation on that sector of the front was the most crap.

- So, foreman, collect all the cooks, bread-breeder, gunsmith, orderlies. Anyone you find. There will be a small bridge ahead, take up the defense there and hold, don't let the Finns on.

Haydar gathered his “kitchen” team, and they went to carry out the order. More precisely crawled, just shelling began. Haydar himself crawled ahead, the remaining seven meters behind. And then it will gasp: ten shells one by one, very close. He pressed himself into the ground, decided to wait for his people, but they are still not there. He crawled back and his hair stood on end: shell craters, the earth was smoking, pieces of corpses about them. And all this is a few meters away. God spared, otherwise you could not tell.

Of his team, only one survived - the bread cutter Biryukov, and even that, both legs had the most groin blown off. Krovischa gushing, and the white, like a sheet. Iskandyarov spent the entire supply of bandages from the sanitary bag for dressing, and the blood does not stop. He took off his tunic from both, tore at the harnesses, somehow pulled the stumps, dragged Biryukov to the rear.

I reported Iskandyarov to the battalion commander: they did not even have time to get to the bridge. He silently looked at the guy stunned by the war, in the eyes of flashed sympathy. Haydar squeezed out of himself:

- Comrade Lieutenant Colonel, is it really always so scary at war?

- Eh, foreman, it will be even worse ...


First they fought with gambling fire in their eyes: “Why, we will definitely win. We have already broken into these Finns in the fortieth year, and now we wash them with our blood. ” Once it came to the fact that the company soldiers refused to execute the order to retreat. A rumble of voices over the trenches: they did not even have time to join the battle, but ordered to retreat. Senior Sakharov on the parapet jumped out.

- This is a treacherous order! Not a step back we will not do, we will fight!

They decided on that, and in an hour an adjutant of the regiment rode up on a limp horse.

- What are you, your mother, so sit here! Depart urgently, you are surrounded! Faster, faster !!!

Here they rushed ...

So they fought. Dug trenches, defended. They retreated, dug again, occupied again, retreated again ... Once, a Finnish machine-gunners fired at a convoy on the forest road. Of the fifty people, ten were killed in the first second, the rest rushed to the forest. At the deputy commander, Senior Lieutenant Svyatkin (a compatriot from Mordovia), he hit a cap with a bullet, and near Iskandyarov there was a very tight death. Sanitary bag, hanging on the right, pierced through with several bullets. The gas bag on the left is broken. Bowler, who carried in his hand, pierced. Once again, the Most High has saved.

And that was not the end of luck. During reconnaissance in force, officers of the company took cover behind a huge granite boulder. Komrot, deputy political officer, three platoon commanders and medical assistant Iskandyarov. It would seem that this machine will not penetrate any projectile. And then a shout from the chain: “Saninstruktor, here is wounded!” Just ran away, the mortar mine hit the same place (the trajectory was attached). All the officers on the spot.


27 July numbers 1942, the 54 Infantry Division, was taken to the Reserve for rest and replenishment. The next day, everyone built and read the same Order number 227. The introductory part struck the most: well, about the difficult situation on the fronts - this is clear, but here is an example BETTING WITH THE OPPONENT, creating penal companies and battalions. Here you can not find the words.

Iskandyarov thought to himself: “God forbid there to get there,” and a couple of days later he was summoned to the division headquarters. He took his deputy. by political part. Surname, name, patronymic? .. Nationality? .. Tatar? This is good, the Tatars are fighting guys.

- Such a thing, comrade foreman, we were recommended to you as a good specialist. It was decided to send you as a paramedic to the division's company. It’s good there, in six years, it’s coming, you’ll get home earlier. And the salary of the permanent composition, as in the guards parts - double.
Haydar, as expected, replied: “Yes!”, And the thought struck in the brain “This is what bastard recommended me ?!”

Following the appointment, an order followed: to find the rear of the penalty company. Two fines in black were escorted to Iskandyarov’s place naval form - sailors or from the Marine Corps. Walking through the woods for a long time, three kilometers, and in my head one thought: “Well, that's it, they’ll kill now!”

In fact, everything was not so scary. The company commander is an old acquaintance, senior lieutenant Bondar, a member of the "Finnish" who was a sergeant in the regimental training room. It was he who, as it turned out, dragged the assistant doctor of Iskandyarov to himself. Cooper, it seems, before the service had time to "sit out": a paramedic, in any case, he called on the camp - "lepila."

In a separate 51-th penal company sent soldiers of the division for purely army crimes. However, whether you consider these acts as crimes is you, dear reader, decide for yourself. In the penalty area, for example, scouts got who couldn’t get all their dead and wounded out of the “search”. And one foreman came under the tribunal because he was sent to the rear to receive the Narkomovskys to the whole battalion. He received them - a twenty-liter canister of vodka for two hundred people, and on the way back he looked to a familiar nurse from the medical battalion. While they were shura-mura there were diluting, someone took the canister.

The official crime is obvious, but the foreman is a scout honored, he “dragged” “more than once”, has awards. On this occasion, even a special meeting of the tribunal took place: to deprive him of his orders, or to leave? We decided to leave.

The rule of staying in the penal company was the simplest. I fought for three months and return to my unit. If he was injured, then immediately after the injury. And again, Iskandyarov was lucky: in the company there was a vacant post of platoon commander. Hydera was appointed to it and assigned the rank of lieutenant right away. True, in this position, Iskandyarov spent only a week, but the title remained.

Service at the penalty box remained just a service: keep the defense, do not let the enemy. Of course, the penalty box was allocated the most dangerous section, where not a single day passed without shelling, but this was only the usual front-line life. Having fun, shouting to the Finns through the neutral strip. Those: “Soldiers, your case is lost, we will kill you anyway, go to us, surrender. There will be warm women at your side and a quiet peaceful life. ” And our sailors masterfully wrapped them in response to front-line obscene poems: “I'll tell you without notes, bitch ё..may in my mouth ...” Fun, in short. And half a kilometer behind the company, another line of trenches was dug, and in it were soldiers with machine guns. Barrier squad. In the case of retreat penalty box "cheer" bursts in the back. It's fun too.

However, the penalty box is not discouraged. Once they came out of the bathhouse and met the regimental commander by the name of Sologub, who was riding in his sleigh in the forest. They threw him along with the adjutant and the driver, saying "our commanders walk on foot." Then they drove the horse and sleigh to the commander of the penalty area: take it, senior. Cooper, of course, obscended them: "Take back!" Those in any: well-known business, will not be sent on the front, no more bullets will be given ...

Another time, two boxes of canned food were gone from the divisional warehouse. Storekeepers call into the penalty area: “They are yours, there is nobody else!” They organized, of course, an inquiry, but they did not find a single bank. Later, when everything was eaten, the men themselves admitted. They, it turns out, dragged boxes to the "neutral" at night, about a hundred meters from the front edge. At night, crawled, got as much as necessary. Risk, but well fed.

In the penalty was not long: someone has served his time and returned to part, someone killed. Replenishment did not come even once and in six months the company was disbanded. Iskandyarov returned to normal front-line life as a paramedic in the 118 regiment.


After some time, they again summoned me to the division headquarters: you already have experience, you will go to the newly created 51 penal company. What can you do, you have to ...

The matter seems to be customary, but this time the contingent is different - Rostov, Astrakhan and Odessa thieves. Healthy men of thirty years and older. All blue from prison tattoos. Well, right picture galleries: “rings” on the fingers, crosses on the entire back ... One, it is a shame to say, even in that very place, a messy picture is cracked.

Yesterday's convicts talked about past life without embarrassment. One (a cultural one), appointed as orderlies for Iskandyarov, immediately said: “I was a bear hunter, I broke the locks at the safes”. And immediately followed by a purely business proposal: “You, Lieutenant, let me go, and in three days I will make your parents naked.” Thieves, what else to say.

There were even two intellectuals among the penalty box: an engineer who did not have time to repair the plumbing in his city, and the head of one of the correctional colonies (it’s strange that he hadn’t been killed on the train). When an engineer, when he fell asleep in the sun, a Rostov thief by the name of Bondarenko took off his watch and brought it to Iskandyarov:

“Lieutenant, we saw you have no hours.” Take it, wear it.

- What are you, sdurel, take them back!

- Though kill, I will not bear back.

And this case was not the last. Another medical orderly brought Iskandyarov a white medical gown, a stethoscope and new felt boots. Take, they say, lieutenant, on the occasion got. And it turns out that they stole them in the medical battalion. When they called the company about this, Haydar could not resist, grabbed one of the donated boots and began to hunt down the “donor” for what it was:

- You, bastard, what did you bring to me ?! Bring it all back immediately.

- Hey, lieutenant, you at least kill me, at least shoot, but I will not carry anything back. I am a thief, this is my bastard.

A shot, I must say, in the penalty company without any. The officer from the special department - the “mansion”, who oversaw the penalty box, had full power here. For example, one of the soldiers refused to go to the post. They began to persuade him, but he didn’t say: “I’m not going and that's all!” Valanden Day was with him, two ... and on the third a company was built, a company company came forward with a "private house", read the order on the sentence to the highest measure, then ordered so and so, fail. From that moment, the entire thugger’s ambition immediately flew off, screamed “No, no, I will not do it again, do not shoot !!!” And he rests ... He knew his company well, called the same “refusers” by surname.

- Deactivate the convict.

Those hint understood: today it, tomorrow them. They dragged ... and the grave was already dug out not far away ...

For a long time a company with a “mansion” argued - to whom of them the guilty were withdrawn. The dispute won the company.

Another one went on trial for a self-shot - a hand through a hat filled with earth, shot through. Nobody arrested him, just set up separately before building. The Mansion read the sentence, without unnecessary words, pulled the TT from the holster and put a bullet in the back of the head. Point blank. And the next morning I called the division and reported: "Dad, I slapped one here."

In general, cons, they are everywhere cons. At the forefront, knives were made of iron pieces. And the handles are not simple, but type-setting, in three colors - white, black and gray. Of what?!! Who knows.

Soon, in the 44 year, the offensive began. Penalties, as usual, drove into the meat grinder. Iskandyarov did not see all the charms of these fights, he was a little behind. But here it was forever in memory how it was brought to him that very Rostov thief Bondarenko was brought to him. The leg above the knee is torn off, the bone sticks out, the rags of bloody meat are hanging ... And he is happy, he is smiling, he is screaming at the throat of a cruel song. I have not broken my mind from pain.

- Are you crazy? !! You have no legs.

And he grinned gold fixes:

- Eh, lieutenant, what do you understand? No legs, but his hands remained. I'm a thief, my legs are useless.


In the penal company of Iskandyarov until the autumn of 44, until the next disbandment, the surviving penalty box was transferred to full rights. Then he fought like everyone else. The commanders did not particularly indulge in awards: the medals “For Military Merit”, “For Bravery” (he pulled twenty-five wounded from the battlefield weapons), the Order of the Red Star, the medal "For the capture of Koenigsberg", "For the liberation of Prague", "For the victory over Germany."

When it came time to retire, it turned out that forty-year-old Haidar Sabirovich Iskandyarov had already passed his seniority in his third decade: in a war in three years, in a penalty year in six. When I met with front-line soldiers in Saransk, traditional conversations were started: “Where did you fight? Since when? ”Hearing that he served in the penalty company, almost everyone asked:“ What did you get? ”I had to explain.

After the war, he met only one of his "wards". It was in Volgograd and he seems to have tied up with his former life. And in his native Lyambir district, he met a peasant who served at the time in the home guard. He said reluctantly, but after a few years he just hanged himself. It can be seen, could not live with the memories of how to shoot at his machine gun.
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  1. My address
    My address 4 June 2013 09: 05
    A friend's father served for some time as a soldier in a detachment. According to the stories of a friend, they got it, several times in the 42nd they stopped the Germans, said that it was more dangerous there than in ordinary infantry. It is more dangerous than a sudden transfer and unpreparedness of positions for defense. He said that they did not shoot at his own people. He has military awards - "For Courage", "Red Star", the first for the detachment.
    1. Lopatov
      Lopatov 4 June 2013 09: 17
      I heard from my grandfather that overseas detachments often dragged their machine guns into infantry chains.
      1. Gladiatir-zlo
        Gladiatir-zlo 4 June 2013 21: 54
        And why is it surprising, what an idiot you need to be, complete, so that you yourself, and without that meager ammunition spend on the slaughter of their own. In fact, the German was never a fool, and he would guess that there was only a detachment in front of him, with a half-size BC. And after all, the detachment will not be in a hurry to give the order to retreat, "not a step, not a step." Therefore, they thrashed the Fritz with everything they could, but to escape, and in April 45 deserters were caught, and there were deserters. Someone else's soul is dark.
  2. Fibrizio
    Fibrizio 4 June 2013 09: 13
    Mikhalkov is indignant from such a rabid lie)
    In general, seriously, my excesses were always and everywhere, but I willingly believe in this story. Shot, huh? Is it dangerous? But no one wasted human resources and atrocities.
    1. Bronis
      Bronis 4 June 2013 21: 26
      Mikhalkov did not even shoot an arthouse, but some kind of self-delighting mess of schizophrenia, mat and intestines. Cats with knife-claws like a super-hero from American comics. Ltd! And the scene with the "christening" when Mikhalkov's daughter and Garmash hung on the mine reminded "Features of the national rabalka". Why? Yes, despite the blood and guts from the screen, you don't empathize with the characters, you don't believe them.
  3. Algor73
    Algor73 4 June 2013 09: 43
    They fought, held back the enemy, brought Victory closer at any cost. And people are different, and those in the "penalties", and those in the foreign detachments. It is difficult now to give an assessment to both. But both one and the other fought. It is difficult to kill a person, even knowing that he is your enemy, and even harder that he, maybe your fellow villager, from one city ... And for failure to comply with an order during the Second World War - execution
  4. avt
    avt 4 June 2013 09: 46
    Quote: Fibrizio
    Mikhalkov is indignant from such a rabid lie)

    good By the way, they didn’t let me out of the German penal battalion.
    1. reichsmarshal
      reichsmarshal 4 June 2013 22: 42
      Sometimes there were cases when they were released for injuries. But very seldom. the whole point is that they were often not trusted by their own.
  5. Standard Oil
    Standard Oil 4 June 2013 09: 56
    Quote: Fibrizio
    Mikhalkov is indignant from such a rabid lie)

    Excuse me, what kind of historian or veteran is such Mikhalkov?
  6. avt
    avt 4 June 2013 09: 59
    Quote: Standard Oil
    Excuse me, what kind of historian or veteran is such Mikhalkov?

    Ayayay you! This is our historioGRAF. laughing
    1. Standard Oil
      Standard Oil 4 June 2013 10: 27
      Oh, so this is BARIN, forgive me for the MOON-FACE Sun in the dark firmament of Russian history.
  7. Dima190579
    Dima190579 4 June 2013 10: 15
    I liked the article very much. I advise everyone to read. A lot of what I read is new to me. Usually I learned about fines from the liberal press and there were always horrors there. Yes, the war is scary, but you can survive.
    1. washi
      washi 4 June 2013 13: 33
      Put a minus. A normal person no longer believes in one source. Read more. read longer, more thoughtful. Most importantly Analyze if you get information from different sources
      1. omsbon
        omsbon 4 June 2013 16: 41
        Quote: Vasya
        Put a minus. A normal person no longer believes in one source. Read more. read longer

        If you believe the sources, eyewitness accounts, participants, then either the person is not normal or did not read anything. I understand you correctly, Vasya?
      2. Yarbay
        Yarbay 4 June 2013 23: 19
        Quote: Vasya
        Put a minus. A normal person no longer believes in one source. Read more. read longer, more thoughtful. Most importantly Analyze if you get information from different sources

        I support !!
    2. Gamdlislyam
      Gamdlislyam 4 June 2013 17: 31
      Dear colleague of Dima, our colleague Vasya correctly noted "Read more. Read longer, thoughtfully. The most important thing is to analyze if you get information from different sources."
      In order 227, it was said that the detachments were deployed behind unstable divisions. The number of the detachment is up to 200 people. The article says that a detachment was located behind the company in the 500s. This is journalistic insanity. The article was written by a journalist, perhaps after a conversation with Haydar? Iskandyarov (an elementary rule of respect, requires calling a veteran by name and patronymic), but most likely as in that saying - "I heard a sign, but he does not know where he is", and inserted a veteran to give this opus visible credibility. There are a lot of absurdities in the article, and it ends with absolutely delirium - "Apparently, I could not live with the memories of how I shot at my own with a machine gun."
      1. fero
        fero 4 June 2013 19: 10
        Order 227 says that 3-5 detachments of 200 people in each for the army are being formed. Yes, there is a detachment behind the company ... Where did you see the contradiction?
        Or do you think that 200 people are directly sitting and controlling the division for 7-10 thousand bayonets over a front of several kilometers?
        Perhaps a person from this very company describes what he saw directly himself, in front of him. He could not write "the detachment was dispersed in places of possible flight of the division for 15 kilometers, in groups of 10 people, forming a continuous line of cover."
        1. Gamdlislyam
          Gamdlislyam 5 June 2013 12: 23
          Dear fero colleague, 3-5 detachments of 200 people each are not for the army, but for the front, in which there are just 3-5 armies. Barrier detachments, this is not the second line of defense, but barrage units that are exhibited in to the rear unstable divisions, i.e. in the direction of a possible panic retreat (drape). It can be roads, bridges, gatis, driveways between ravines, forests, hills - those areas where machinery, carts and people are likely to move.
          1. fero
            fero 5 June 2013 18: 54
            2. Military councils of armies and above all commanders of armies:
            a) unconditionally remove corps and division commanders and commissioners who allowed unauthorized withdrawal of troops from their positions without orders from the army command, and send them to the military council of the front for trial before a military court;
            b) form in army limits 3-5 well-armed detachment units (200 each), place them in the direct rear of unstable divisions and oblige them to shoot panicists and cowards in the place of panic and disorderly withdrawal of divisions, and thereby help honest division fighters fulfill their duty to the Motherland ;
            c) to form within the army from 5 to 10 (depending on the situation) penal companies (from 150 to 200 people each), where to send ordinary fighters and junior commanders who are guilty of violating discipline by cowardice or instability, and put them in difficult areas army, to give them the opportunity to atone with blood for their crimes before their homeland.

            in the original there is the word "army", and by it I mean the army.
  8. lvn321
    lvn321 4 June 2013 10: 40
    In my opinion - a sample article. Just a story as it was. No politics, comments. Definitely a plus.
    1. Bronis
      Bronis 4 June 2013 22: 09
      Quote: lvn321
      In my opinion - a sample article. Just a story as it was.

      Well, or something I did not understand, or journalists. In general, the Finnish Karelian army was formed in the early days of JULY 1941 of the year. Then the offensive began jointly with the Germans. Prior to this, the Luftwaffe only operated from Finnish airfields and from June 25-26 defensive battles took place. In other words, on 22 of June, the Soviet border guards CANNOT retreat under the blows of the Finns ... So the article as an article is more readable, although not delusional against the background of modern dirt.
  9. Dimych
    Dimych 4 June 2013 10: 48
    The article is interesting, but only at the end there was a fly in the ointment. What makes the author think that the former land plotter shot at his own with a machine gun? In peacetime, people hang themselves with or without, and those who were in the war, he saw enough of everyone there. Why pour mud just like that, to please the liberals? Although, an article from 2001, but then it was impossible to write otherwise.
  10. leon-iv
    leon-iv 4 June 2013 11: 02
    By the way, companies from the Lesson fought fiercely. But unfortunately, many of them after the war could not find themselves in civilian life.
    1. Yarbay
      Yarbay 4 June 2013 23: 21
      Quote: leon-iv
      By the way, companies from the Lesson fought fiercely.

      not only from lesson!
      *** He quarreled with the command and was sent to the penalty company. After the end of the term, he was asked to command a free company. So captain Buniyatov became the commander of the 213th free company as part of the 5th shock army. The company consisted of 670 fighters.

      During the Vistula-Oder operation, all commanders of penalties and penal battalions were called to the commander of the 1st Belorussian Front, G.K.Zhukov, and each unit was assigned a specific task.

      In January 1945, on the territory of Poland, the troops of the 1st Belorussian Front went on the offensive at once from two bridgeheads - Pulavsky and Magnushevsky.

      The task of Buniyatov’s unit was to capture and hold a mined 80-meter bridge across the Pelitsa River.

      In hand-to-hand combat, using knives, the penalties destroyed the personnel of the battery defending the bridge and did not allow it to explode. Now they had to prevent the retreating German units from passing over the bridge.

      After some time the German units approached the crossing, they came across a Soviet defensive position. A fierce battle ensued. The enemy immediately threw an attack on the infantry with the support of four tanks. Three of them were killed by Buniyatov’s fighters, and the fourth was forced to retreat to a nearby forest. The position of the company hit the bombing of German aircraft. Under the guise of air strikes, the Nazis again went on the attack. At certain points in the battle, it came to hand-to-hand fights. As a result of a two and a half hour battle, the Germans failed to take control of the bridge. Soviet tanks broke through to the crossing. As a result of the operation, the remains of three German divisions were surrounded, 8 thousand soldiers and officers, four generals and a large number of weapons, military equipment and equipment were captured.

      Of the nearly 700 fighters of the penal battalion, only 47 were left alive in a defensive battle, led by a company commander. All received orders, and captain Buniyatov February 27, 1945. was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union
      . ***

      ***Zia Buniyatov participated in the Berlin operation. For valor and heroism shown during the assault on the Zeelov Heights, he was awarded the Order of the Red Banner of Battle. He was shell-shocked.

      Stormed Berlin. During the advancement of his company from the outskirts to the Silesian station, out of seven hundred fighters, only seven remained in service.
  11. Ivan Mechanic
    Ivan Mechanic 4 June 2013 11: 18
    I'm still waiting for the story of a fighter pilot who served in the penalty squadron (and there were still) in which the "bloody" foreign squadron of fighters will be mentioned. The pilots from this detachment should, in theory, hang on the tail of a penalty fighter and try to shoot him down for not flying at the fascist in the frontal! In general, the ending is delusional - I read several times in the memoirs of the penalty box how the foreign detachments gathered a crowd running in panic (although according to the stories of some "historians" they should have just fired), seated them in their trenches and took up the battle with the advancing Wehrmacht forces!
    1. washi
      washi 4 June 2013 13: 39
      Where did you hear such nonsense (read)?
      There about Aviation penal squadrons
    2. aviator_IAS
      aviator_IAS 4 June 2013 16: 33
      Quote: Ivan Mechanic
      I'm still waiting for the story of a fighter pilot who served in the penalty squadron (and there were still) in which the "bloody" foreign squadron of fighters will be mentioned. The pilots from this detachment should, in theory, hang on the tail of a penalty fighter and try to shoot him down for not flying at the fascist in the frontal! In general, the ending is delusional - I read several times in the memoirs of the penalty box how the foreign detachments gathered a crowd running in panic (although according to the stories of some "historians" they should have just fired), seated them in their trenches and took up the battle with the advancing Wehrmacht forces!

      Stormtrooper pilots had other educational methods. It was practiced to put fined flyers on the Il-2 - shooter (temporarily). Ghibli arrows more often. There were pilots who lost 80-3 shooters to 4 sorties. One of the pilots after such a shake Twice became a Hero.
      1. Gamdlislyam
        Gamdlislyam 4 June 2013 17: 38
        Quote: aviator_IAS
        One of the pilots after such a shake Twice became a Hero.

        Is it possible to find out the name of the Twice Hero? I'm seriously asking.
        1. aviator_IAS
          aviator_IAS 4 June 2013 20: 47
          I'm sorry. Bent a little. recourse I just read it for a long time, and got various memoirs. Now I found the source. Twice the hero is replaced by four times the Battle Red Banner.

          From the memoirs of Yuri Mikhailovich Khukhrikov (566th ShAP, pilot, 84 b / c).

          There was a case when one good pilot, Afonchenko, who had fought since the 41st year, led a group of 20 aircraft to the Finnish airfield, could not stand it, did not reach the target and turned. They gave him 7 years, he redeemed guilt and, as a result, was four times awarded the Order of the Battle Red Banner.
        2. The comment was deleted.
  12. Valery-SPB
    Valery-SPB 4 June 2013 12: 21
    On the morning of June 22, 1941 found out about the beginning of the war. Immediately plunged into cars and to the border. Towards the wounded border guards wander, belted with machine-gun belts, like revolutionary sailors in the movies.

    Help 1:
    The 7th Army was formed in 1940 in the Leningrad Military District on the basis of the 56th Rifle Corps. Before the start of World War II, she defended along the state border of the USSR north of Lake Ladoga and covered Ukhta, Rebolsk, Petrozavodsk and Sortavala directions.
    Since June 24, 1941, the army, consisting of the 54th, 71,168th, 237th rifle divisions, the 26th fortified area, the 55th mixed air division and a number of artillery and engineering units, was included in the Northern Front.
    Since July 1, 1941, its troops conducted defensive battles against the Finnish troops in Karelia. The left-flank divisions of the army, deployed on a wide front, were forced to withdraw under the blows of superior enemy forces. Having received a number of formations and units to strengthen, by July 30 the army stopped the enemy offensive at the line of Porosozero - Shotozero - Tuloksa River (25 km northwest of the city of Olonets).
    Help 2:
    On June 30, 1941, Mannerheim founded the "Karelian" army for an offensive in northern Karelia.
    The "Karelian" army launched an offensive on July 10.
    1. washi
      washi 4 June 2013 13: 40
      for knowledge, or an attempt to learn it +
  13. adg76
    adg76 4 June 2013 12: 33
    The film "Penalty battalion" smells like. Perhaps the truth is in the article. Everything could be. The war was great ...
    1. washi
      washi 4 June 2013 13: 43
      Confused by the presence of a thief, but he could set himself like that. In fact - a petty hooligan. With long deadlines, they did not call.
  14. Alexey M
    Alexey M 4 June 2013 13: 37
    Sense of detachment detachment 500 meters from the front edge? If the company breaks down from positions, then after 5 minutes there will be barrage in the trenches of the detachment. And if you shoot your own, then the guard will have to butt with the enemy, and this is definitely death. Therefore, they didn’t shoot at their own, but the second line of defense is obtained.
  15. Evrepid
    Evrepid 4 June 2013 14: 33
    The article, of course, is interesting.

    For thieves, from "their" to steal zapadlo.
    For rats, the conversation is short-lived.
    1. ale-x
      ale-x 4 June 2013 16: 24
      The comfrey of the rear did not consider it their own, read Shumilin "Vanka company", a box of canned food and felt boots could easily be stolen, about the clock, you are most likely right.
    2. kavkaz8888
      kavkaz8888 4 June 2013 23: 45
      The engineer and the zavsklad (from where canned food) are not their own for the thief. You can’t show rats.
  16. Murzyak
    Murzyak 4 June 2013 14: 35
    I could not live with the memories of how I shot at my own with a machine gun.
    Tired of listening to this never-ending bike.
    For a person, even slightly understanding in military affairs, it should be clear that the strength of the stopped withdrawing unit + the strength of the detachment itself is still more than one detachment. Therefore, the commander of the detachment, even out of a sense of self-preservation, will not give the command to shoot the "company with a machine gun". And then, without completing the task and not holding the line, this commander will justify - for that I shot the company. So you can get yourself under shooting.
  17. Proud.
    Proud. 4 June 2013 14: 40
    The article is alarming. On this site, on the topic of penalties, there are more reasonable materials. After reading them, you doubt the veracity of this one. I will give an example from a different angle: "... When the company received a call about this, Haydar could not restrain himself, grabbed one of the donated valenkov and began to harass the "donor" for anything:

    - You, bastard, what did you bring to me ?! Bring it all back immediately.

    - Hey, lieutenant, you at least kill me, at least shoot me, but I will not carry anything back. I am a thief, this is my bastard ... "To beat a thief? Also with shoes!? Sorry, but the lieutenant, after that, would have remained lying, killed by this thief. Muslims consider it humiliation, striking a blow in the face with a shoe. (as far as I know) this is also a grave insult.
    1. Evrepid
      Evrepid 4 June 2013 15: 30
      for the phrase: "Cattle" could be paid very seriously. :)
      Probably after that he slept on the floor of his eyes)
  18. asadov
    asadov 4 June 2013 15: 42
    I see a lot of "exes" hanging out here
    1. Proud.
      Proud. 4 June 2013 16: 54
      Yeah ... Exceptionally political. Pichalka ..
      1. kavkaz8888
        kavkaz8888 4 June 2013 23: 48
        Plus for the bird.
  19. Sour
    Sour 4 June 2013 15: 46
    Something is wrong here ...
    As far as is known, in the penal companies and penal battalions were exclusively soldiers of the Red Army, either convicted by a military tribunal, or sent to penal units in a disciplinary manner. But in any case - only the guilty military personnel and only for a period of 3 months. Allowed as an exception to penal companies and civilians convicted of minor and domestic crimes. Amnestied and parole were not sent to fines, but were drafted into the army on a common basis.
    The role of the "officer from the special department" in the penal unit is not entirely clear. What was he doing there? As far as I know, there were commanders and political workers in penal battalions and penal colonies, as in ordinary units. There were no special officers in their staff. And in general it is not clear what relation the special departments had to the fine-production divisions. To shoot the guilty? Nonsense, this and the commander with the commissar could well be engaged. And the special officers were mainly engaged in the following tasks: 1) Monitoring the political moods of the personnel. 2) Counterintelligence. 3) Monitoring compliance with the secrecy regime. Fines had nothing to do with this, and I hardly believe that special officers were sent there.
    Someone clarify all this, only if possible, reasonably.
    In general, there are almost no people left. who could tell about all this. I was lucky - I was familiar with people who passed German captivity and fought after it. He was familiar with those who fought in the NKVD troops. He was familiar with the participants in operations behind the Germans. He was even familiar with the participants in the Civil War. From them I learned a lot of things that are not at all connected with the current history, official and unofficial. Yes, and with Soviet history, too. But I didn’t have any friends who fought in the penal battalions.
    1. Lopatov
      Lopatov 4 June 2013 15: 56
      These are separate military units. So the specials were definitely there. It is possible that each of them oversaw not only penalties, but also other separate units of the front and army subordination. Rough- one on several separate companies or battalions.
      A separate penal battalion, in essence, was not much different from any separate battalion of communications in the regular plan.
  20. family tree
    family tree 4 June 2013 16: 58
    medals “For the capture of Koenigsberg”, “For the liberation of Prague”
    Our shoot has ripened everywhere. The medal “For the capture of Koenigsberg” is awarded to soldiers of the Red Army, Navy and NKVD troops - direct participants in the heroic assault and the capture of Koenigsberg from January 23 to April 10, 1945. The operation was led by Marshal of the Soviet Union A.M. Vasilevsky, who led 3rd Belorussian Frontwhich was included 1st Baltic Front I. Kh. Baghramyan. And once! The “For the Liberation of Prague” medal was awarded to soldiers of the Red Army, Navy and NKVD troops - direct participants in the Prague operation from May 3–9, 1945, Prague was released 3 and 4 Guards. TA of the 1st Ukrainian. And the 1st Ukrainian Berlin took, how did the author goof it then? Since it’s easy from one front to another, Berlin is on the way, so what?
  21. pavelk
    pavelk 4 June 2013 17: 12
    Bullshit about foreign troops. This is how the second line of defense was renamed.
    1. Sour
      Sour 4 June 2013 17: 33
      So after all, the detachments were in the state of rifle divisions, obeyed by divisional commanders and no one else. The division commanders sent them wherever they wanted. Often confused with the detachments of the NKVD rear guard, but the detachments had nothing to do with the NKVD. They were disbanded in the autumn of 1944, and the NKVD troops for the protection of the rear in the autumn of 1945, after the surrender of Japan. My uncle served in the NKVD troops, and by the way had injuries and military awards, and he received one medal already in 1947, in western Ukraine (then these troops were called the MGB troops). In these troops, too, the service was not a gift.
      I didn’t have any acquaintances or relatives who fought in detachments.
  22. agrindler
    agrindler 4 June 2013 17: 17
    Eternal memory to the heroes of the penal battalion!
  23. family tree
    family tree 4 June 2013 17: 25
    On the morning of June 22, 1941, they learned about the beginning of the war. Immediately plunged into cars and to the border. The wounded border guards wander towards them, girded with machine-gun belts, like revolutionary sailors in the cinema. So, foreman, gather all the cooks, the grain-cutter, the gunsmith, the orderlies. Everyone you find. There will be a small bridge ahead, take up defense and hold there, do not let the Finns.
    The Finns entered the war on June 25, and the hostilities began on June 29. All in all, a very artistic work.
    1. Valery-SPB
      Valery-SPB 4 June 2013 21: 42
      According to our sources, ground forces have been fighting in this sector since June 29. According to the Finnish side, on June 30, only the "Karelian Army" was formed, which began hostilities on July 10. One way or another, but not June 22. After the German attack, the Finns confirmed their neutrality. There were no hostilities until June 25. On June 25, only the air units of the Red Army struck, after which everything started spinning.
  24. Genady1976
    Genady1976 4 June 2013 17: 54
    Separate assault rifle battalions. Something I heard that officers were taken there and did not even lose their rank.
    1. Gamdlislyam
      Gamdlislyam 4 June 2013 18: 14
      Dear colleague of Genady1976, individual assault battalions were formed from former prisoners of service. The officers who surrendered were sent there (they fought as ordinary soldiers or Jr. commanders).
      However, these servicemen were not convicted by a military tribunal. These units existed for a short time and were mainly used in the main areas in offensive operations. Subsequently, they either disbanded or transferred to ordinary rifle units. The officers, for the most part, were restored to their ranks.
  25. Massik
    Massik 4 June 2013 18: 42
    He spoke reluctantly, but after a few years he simply hanged himself. Apparently, he could not live with memories of how he shot at his own with a machine gun.
    pfff, but not Che from katyusha ??? With a shortage of ammunition, putting fines from a machine gun is simply super economical.
    Why don’t give it to the people, the more impudent and monstrous the more willingly they believe, I personally do not believe much in anything, except what I hear "firsthand" and seen with my own eyes, and even then not always. Read the book "The Whole Truth About the Penal Battalion" there is little description of the war itself, but all the soldiers and commanders are described with photos and complete data, for some reason there are no thieves, murderers, etc.
  26. Grieg
    Grieg 4 June 2013 20: 31
    Let this scribbler publish the whole order No. 227. And then he will rant!
  27. QWERTY
    QWERTY 4 June 2013 20: 35
    I read this article for a long time. In the newspaper "The X-Files" in my opinion. There periodically and not such nonsense could be seen.
  28. fero
    fero 4 June 2013 21: 25
    From Order No. 227
    ...After his winter retreat under the pressure of the Red ArmyWhen discipline in the German forces was shaken, the Germans took some severe measures to restore discipline, which led to good results. They formed 100 penal companies from fighters guilty of breach of discipline by cowardice or instability, put them on dangerous sections of the front and ordered them to atone for their sins with blood. They formed, further, about a dozen penal battalions of commanders who were guilty of violating the discipline of cowardice or instability, deprived them of orders, placed them on even more dangerous sections of the front and ordered them to atone for their sins. Finally, they formed special barrage units, placed them behind unstable divisions, and ordered them to shoot at the place of alarmists in case of an attempt to leave positions unauthorized and in case of an attempt to surrender. As you know, these measures had their effect, and now the German troops are fighting better than they fought in the winter. And so it turns out that the German troops have a good discipline, although they do not have the lofty goal of protecting their homeland, but there is only one predatory goal - to conquer a foreign country, and our troops, which have the goal of protecting their scolded Motherland, do not have such discipline and suffer this defeat.
    Shouldn't we learn from our enemies in this matter, how did our ancestors learn from our enemies in the past and then triumph over them?
    The order to read in all companies, squadrons, batteries, squadrons, teams, staffs.
    People's Commissar of Defense

    Who has documented evidence of Stalin’s words about the presence of fascist detachments from the winter of the 41st? Give a link for your reference. Or so he called field gendarmerie Germans?
    1. Valery-SPB
      Valery-SPB 4 June 2013 23: 43
      No. Field gendarmerie? It's too French. Gehaimfeldpolizai - the secret field police, in contrast to the "... state police" (Gestapo), was subordinate not to the RSHA, but to the Wehrmacht Abwehr. Our correspondence is the Red Army's Smersh military counterintelligence service.
      1. fero
        fero 5 June 2013 18: 52
        I meant "Feldgendarmerie" this is just the field gendarmerie (field gendarmerie), its duties included just the same search and shooting of deserters in the rear ... sort of like.
    2. Bobrovsky
      Bobrovsky 16 June 2013 21: 47
      I have order OO227 completely. And there are these words of Stalin.
      1. fero
        fero 18 June 2013 16: 20
        Stalin’s words in the order are not disputed, I meant if there is any other documentary evidence of what is written in order No. 227 on German detachments.
  29. mark7
    mark7 6 June 2013 22: 30
    Like it or not, a penal battalion is a measure necessary in any war
  30. Bobrovsky
    Bobrovsky 16 June 2013 21: 46
    The detachments were of two types. The first is a detachment of a special department. He was engaged in the fact that checkpoints, foot patrols and outposts were organized three to five kilometers from the front line. They stopped those who went to the rear and those who did it without permission, interrogated and, depending on the nature of the offense, took measures against them. There were detachments and troops, which were subordinate to the command of the units. And they could already act with weapons against the runners. But how often it was a big question. My uncle in 1942 fell under the blockade. He was a senior lieutenant, their division defended itself in the steppe and was smashed to smithereens. The whole steppe was littered with the corpses of people and horses. At night, in dashes, they managed to break away from the Germans and went east. Suddenly in the night - who is coming. Their. What are yours? And who are you. We are such and such a detachment. Why did you leave the front? We were smashed. They sent everyone to a large beam. And at about twelve o'clock they called them and said - yes, your unit was completely defeated, go to re-form. That's the whole detachment. There is a book - "Memoirs of a battalion commander". HE was the commander of a penal company for some time. He writes that the penalties fought better than the others, everyone wanted to justify themselves. And he does not remember any detachment.
  31. Bobrovsky
    Bobrovsky 16 June 2013 21: 53
    And further. If the horse and sleigh were so impudently taken from the regiment commander, then you won’t be afraid of such detachments.
  32. Motorist
    Motorist 23 June 2013 14: 57
    Interestingly, the Americans had fines? repeat