Historically, Kharkov along with Leningrad became the cradle of domestic tank building. Kharkov plant them. Malysheva has had a history since the 1895 year, as a locomotive building. As is known, in the early years of the USSR, it did not have its own tank industry. Therefore, Kharkov Comintern Locomotive Plant, was entrusted with the organization of work on tank construction, and in the future and the development of designs of domestic tanks. This was due to the production of tracked tractors “Kommunar”, which were a good basis for the development of the tank building factory.
The official document determining the start of production of tanks at the plant is the Resolution of permanent mobilization from 1 December 1927 of the year when the General Directorate of the Metal Industry (letter 1159 / 128 of 7 in January 1928 in January) instructed “... to urgently work on the issue about the production of tanks and tractors at KhPZ ... ”
In the 1927 year, when the development of the tank, which had the designation 1-12-32, begins, later it was designated the T-12, the development of which was completed by the end of 1929. In the 1931, the recycled tank, called the T-24, was launched into small-scale production.
Thus, along with the Leningrad plant "Bolshevik", another center of tank production of the USSR appeared.
In the 30s, the designers of the Kharkov plant carried out work on wheeled-tracked tanks of BT type, which were produced in large quantities. Subsequently, Kharkov tank builders created such tanks as the heavy multi-turreted T-35, the legendary T-34, the production of which began in other large enterprises of the country. At the beginning of the Great Patriotic Kharkov, the design bureau was evacuated to Nizhny Tagil, where a modernized T-34-85 and absolutely new T-44 and T-54 tanks were created. After returning to Kharkiv, the converted KB began work on innovative solutions in tank building, which ultimately resulted in the creation of the first domestic tank of the new generation - T-64. And do not forget that the Kharkov design bureau was entrusted by the leadership with the creation of a promising tank, which made the same revolution in world tank building as the legendary T-34. Subsequently, on the basis of the developments on this tank, other domestic tanks were created - T-72, developed by UKBTM, T-80 developed by KB "Spetsmash". However, this diversity in general, similar in its military-technical level of tanks that had little compatibility with each other, laid a heavy burden on the economy of the Soviet Union. Events that produced after the adoption of the T-64 and eventually resulted in the mass production of three main battle tanks in the USSR (although the word “Main” has lost its meaning in this context) goes beyond the scope of this material and is described in more detail in the material History of Russian Tank Building in the postwar period.
At sunset of the USSR, work was carried out on a promising new generation tank in Kharkov, which was to replace the T-64B, T-80U / T-80UD, and T-72B, then produced in production. The first samples of the promising tank “object 477” (Hammer) were manufactured at the end of 80, the tank continued to be worked out in 90 (not without cooperation with Russia), but due to the changed political situation, financial difficulties and problems that arose with interstate production cooperation, work on the promising tank took an increasingly protracted nature. Unfortunately, on this page of the domestic tank building virtually nothing is known.
After the collapse of the USSR, the Ukrainian defense industry was not only in a state of crisis, but on the verge of survival. The new stupefied elite was no longer interested in the development of defense, the main interest of the government of both “independent” Ukraine and “democratic” Russia in those years was how to steal a bold piece of national wealth acquired in 70 years. The production of tanks at the Kirov plant in Leningrad ceased, the development of armored vehicles in the Leningrad KB "Spetsmash" was reduced to a minimum, Omsk "Transmash" was also in a critical situation, Uralvagonzavod and the Kharkovsky Plant named after them also found themselves on the verge of survival. Malysheva, as well as design offices at these plants.
However, an unexpected chance saved both Kharkiv and later Russian (this will be explained later) by a foreign customer presented tank builders. In 1994 - 1995, the T-XNUMHSUD tank was sent for testing to Pakistan, where it received high marks from the local military. Wanting to move the balance of power in their permanent confrontation with India, Pakistan in 80 signed a contract with Ukraine for the supply of X-NUMX T-1996UD tanks.
This contract largely saved the domestic tank builders, forgotten by their own government, which, however, realizing the possible benefits from the sale of military equipment to the foreign market, paid them attention, which, by no means, meant any concern for the country's defense.
However, at that time there was no closed cycle for the production of armored vehicles in Ukraine, the wounded leadership of the GABTU of the Russian Federation refused to assist (albeit later as a result of certain intergovernmental agreements and personnel changes, some assistance was rendered).
Therefore, it was decided to establish a closed-cycle production of armored vehicles, this primarily included:
production of tank guns and ammunition for them (produced and developed in Russia - NIMI, NIITM, plant number XXUMX, KBP, etc.)
production of fire control systems - sighting systems (Zverev Plant)
production of armored vehicles protection means dynamic protection complexes (DZ), active protection complexes (KAZ), optic-electronic countermeasure complexes (CEP), etc., were developed in Russia (Steel Research Institute, KBP, NIITM, etc.).
To create a closed production cycle, Ukrainian tank builders were forced to create the entire chain of products, which will be discussed in more detail below:
Production of tank guns
In the shortest possible time Ukraine mastered the production of the necessary modern artillery systems for equipping tanks. Production was able to expand in a short time, because in Ukraine there was a company producing weighted pipes for oil and gas production - the plant. Frunze (Sumy). The plant was, in fact, at 95 percent equipped with the necessary equipment for the production of cannon barrels. It was also necessary to purchase some additional equipment for specific operations. The production of guns was launched in March 1998.
Thus, the production of guns, previously produced only in Russia (Perm), was established, guns are assembled at the Kharkov plant, barrels come from Sumy. The Ukrainian KBA3 cannon is a close equivalent of the Soviet 2А46М-1 cannon. gun variants were also developed for equipping retrofit tanks T-55 (КБА3К) and Т-72 (КБМ1М) as well as a version of the gun of caliber 120 mm (КБМ2). The design of the gun KBM2 meets the requirements of NATO standards and is operated with all types of ammunition caliber 120 mm NATO standard.
Another interesting development of the KMDB is bicalyber (the design of the barrel and breech elements allows for quick installation of barrels of various calibers 120 and 140 mm). Taking into account the developed AZ, located in the niche of the turret, this will allow creating a tank with a large modernization potential. Also successfully passed military tests 30-mm automatic guns ZTM1 and ZTM2 (similar in basic characteristics to the Russian 2А72 and 2А42).
Fire control systems
For tanks, they are mass-produced at Ukrainian enterprises, where production of advanced sighting systems 1А43-U Ros has been established with a 1ГХNNXX PROMIN sight of the advanced sighting and observation complex of Commander PNK-46 AGAT-SM with a built-in range unit and a headset using a dial-up dialer with a dialing-in-to-profile device. (UBBU), produced by NPP Fotopribor, PNK-5 increases the commander’s firing efficiency by 5-20% and reduces the time spent preparing the shot by half. To replace the sighting system "Buran" there is a thermal sighting system "Buran-Katrin" with imported FPU. Kiev research institute "Kvant" developed a fire control system using optical-television sights OTP-50, which is installed on the combat modules "Squall", "Ingul" and others. The production of a full range of components required for a closed-cycle production of armored vehicles, such as stabilizers (20E2M), metering systems for thermal bending of the gun barrel (SUIT-42), navigation equipment (LIO-N), wind sensors (TWO-BS), and much more . Components are also produced for the T-1, T-54, T-55, T-62 tanks for upgrading the Volo, Bastion, Recruit, etc., which are manufactured at the Feodosia Optical Plant.
Production of high-power tank shots
For the period of the collapse of the USSR, obsolete shots for tank guns - BOPS BM32 with a uranium core and BM44 with a tungsten alloy core turned out to be in service with Ukraine and Russia, both shots had a “classic” domestic reference system (stabilization in the barrel of the aluminum sectors and caliber empowerment with bearings , along with the advantages of the low weight of the host device and, accordingly, a very high initial speed at a distance of more than two kilometers, they turn into disadvantages - large sweat Speed loss due to air resistance, accuracy decreases over long distances. Shells are equipped with a composite core.
At the same time, the Russian developers (NIMI) could offer a more advanced “Lead” projectile of high elongation with a new reference scheme, which is up to 1,4 times as effective as the full-time BNG “Mango”, which was adopted in 1991 year. The development of advanced shots with a core of super-dense single-component and composite materials and improved ballistic characteristics also continued.
Ukrainian enterprises have also developed a modern BM44У1 sub-caliber projectile with increased elongation and a new master. In the 2006 year, in accordance with the state armaments program, it is planned to take a new shot with a piercing projectile.
Production of guided missiles ("Combat" and "Stugna", etc.).
Tank guided missiles of 100, 120 and 125 mm caliber were developed by specialists of the Luch Kiev design bureau. The control system is semi-automatic (similar to the Russian KUV “Reflex” and “Svir”), providing tele-orientation in the beam of a quantum generator with a wavelength of 1,06 μm, accompanied by a gunner from the sight control panel. Provided immunity from active and passive interference. Due to the modularity of construction on the basis of this design, a whole series of guided missiles were developed for armament of both tanks and infantry fighting vehicles (T-55 / Tip-69, T-72, T-80UD, "Yatagan" and MT-12 cannons, and BMP-3), as well as ATGM.
The main purpose of "Combat" - defeat targets that are beyond the reach of a conventional smoothbore 125-millimeter cannon, as well as helicopters. The projectile has a tandem warhead. The target firing range is 5 kilometers, this distance Combat travels in 16 seconds, the total weight of the projectile 30 kilogram. According to observers, the party of such shots could be delivered to Pakistan.
Naturally, the Kombat guided missile (as well as its Russian counterparts), as it were, was not presented by its press, it cannot be considered weapons of the future. First, armor penetration even in 900-1000 mm does not give the required probability when defeating promising modernized tanks of leading tank-building countries (М1А2, Leclerc, Leopard-2А6, T-90), secondly, missiles do not provide for overcoming active protection systems (KAZ).
Blow from above.
The armor penetration of a modern tandem warhead (warhead) of an advanced 9М119М1 rocket according to the developers is 900 mm for armor protection, not equipped with a DZ. It is noted that this is not the ultimate possibility of armor penetration within the caliber of 125 mm, however, the creation of warheads with armor penetration indicators in 10-12 calibers is a difficult task. In addition, the development of active defense complexes (KAZ) abroad, which can successfully hit flying guided missiles, is acquiring a large scale. A possible way out is to develop ammunition attacking the tank from above or on the fly with the help of a “shock core” (without entering the KAZ from the height to 20 m without descending the target). Such developments have been proposed by specialists of the Kiev Luch Design Bureau. The use of such a development is also very economically justified (as compared with complexes with autonomous self-homing), since the creation of a new rocket is based on the already developed and mass-produced elements and does not require changes to the fire control system.
Options for the execution of such ammunition is the placement of two combat units with "attack cores" located at an angle 180 deg. one is relative to another. During the flight, a tank is defeated by at least one combat unit.
The second option is the execution of a warhead suspended on an axis of rotation parallel to the longitudinal axis of the projectile with minimal friction in the supports and ensuring two degrees of freedom (installing the warhead on the axis of rotation on the bearings allows it to remain almost stationary when the projectile rotates).
Using this design provides the following benefits:
eliminate the possibility of a projectile collision with natural and artificial obstacles between the gunner and the target, eliminates the effects of dust and smoke of the battlefield;
to neutralize the actions of the active protection systems of the tank;
will give the opportunity to hit tanks that have head-on booking more than 1000 mm homogeneous steel armor with dynamic and multi-layer protection due to the defeat of the tank from above, where booking is much less;
reduce the effects of countermeasures by eliminating the target beam being irradiated by the beam;
will give the opportunity to hit modern tanks using non-pandem combat units;
neutralize the harmful effect of the projectile rotation around the longitudinal axis on armor penetration of the cumulative warhead by placing it almost at an angle 90 ° to the longitudinal axis of the projectile (or increase the probability of hitting the target when using several warheads).
Complexes of dynamic protection (DZ)
Cumulative protection "Knife" (HASKKV)
The development of the Knife complex began in 97-98 after the appearance of problems with deliveries of T-80UD tanks to Pakistan with UD 4-22 developed by the Scientific and Research Institute of Steel. SRI Steel demanded an exorbitant price for the possibility of using the technology (up to 10% of the contract value). In 2003, the "Knife" was adopted.
The advantages of the "Knife" experts attribute the possibility of affective impact on the armor-piercing sabot projectiles, as well as ammunition of the "shock core" type. In addition, in contrast to the “Contact-5” feature of the complex is that when triggered, the transfer of detonation to containers not involved in the impact on the attacking ammunition is excluded.
A great interest was shown to the UDZs abroad, so in 2003, the 3 of the T-80UD tank (T-84) with the Knife complex was purchased by the USA. Representatives of the United Arab Emirates showed interest in the complex (installation at Leclerc). The potential of the complex was also studied by the representatives of France and China.
A modification of the "Knife" has now been developed for installation on light combat vehicles. The “knife” provides protection not only against anti-tank grenades and light anti-tank guided missiles, but also against AP caliber shells of 30 mm (including feathered subcaliber ones).
Cumulative protection "Knife" was developed by SKTB IPP NANU together with GP BTsKT "MIKROTEK", SIC "Material processing by explosion" of the IES them. Paton NASU and KMDB them. Morozov.
The "knife" provides protection for tanks or other combat vehicles from armor-piercing-sifting projectiles, cumulative weapons and impact-cumulative ammunition of the "shock core" type. The main difference between the “Knife” and similar existing types of dynamic protection is the impact on the attacking weapons by a cumulative jet, unlike throwing plates in the direction of the attacking ammunition, which in certain variants is the principle of the impact of analogs. The use of a flat cumulative jet to defeat an attacking munition and deflect it from the original trajectory, giving an angle of attack at which the depth of penetration into the protected object decreases, has several advantages - quick response, high efficiency, reliability, possibility of execution that will provide equal protection when meeting under right angle, etc.
It should be noted that various analysts, for example, Rastopshin, in his article “realism is necessary in assessing the potential of the Ukrainian military industrial complex and the official Kiev’s policy”, published in the military industrial complex No. 4 (21) 4 - February 10 of the year, not only give completely incorrect assessments of the overall situation, but they carry frank misinformation on technical issues. For example, what is the scheme given in the above article called “BPS interaction with the Ukrainian Knife protection module”, where he claims that the Knife modules are put out of action during firing with small-caliber artillery, after which the BPS will hit tanks without difficulty. The conclusion was made on the basis of Rastopshin's fantasies about the presence of plate-contacts in the modules “knife”, which closes an electrical circuit with its case, after which a flat shaped shaped charge is undermined, which has nothing to do with reality - “The Knife” works instantly without special means initiation, does not require preparation for use and maintenance. Authors like Rastopshin need to study what they are writing about before they write, and if they don’t have information to fantasize, just keep silent.
Installing the complex using the Knife modules increases the level of protection of the tank against cumulative and kinetic projectiles 2-3 times.
KNOWL modules are distinguished by: high reliability (100% response and protection against all types of anti-tank weapons), safety when firing small arms, no detonation from debris and incendiary mixtures, interchangeability with elements of the built-in DZ 4X20 or 4X22 (manufactured by the Russian Federation) in correlation 1: 2, increased 1,8-2,7 times (relative to 4С22) efficiency, reduced magnitude of prohibitive effect on armor, ease of installation, low cost. In 2003, the "Knife" passed state tests and was adopted by the Ukrainian army. Production of UDZ (devices of dynamic protection) "Knife" is already established at several Kiev enterprises. For details, see - Cumulative protection "Knife"
Modular armor - new developments in bonded protection designs
The subsequent increase in the protection of tanks, according to experts, is connected with the use of a modular design of armor protection of the hull and turret of the tank. The modular design of the reservation allows, without changing the thickness and weight of the armor, to increase the counterhard resistance, provides the possibility of improving the armor during the life cycle of the tank and the possibility of replacing the old modules with new ones made of armor created with the latest technological advances. Protection modules can be quickly replaced in case of damage. Moreover, these works can be performed in the field. In addition, it is possible to manufacture protective modules in conditions of mass production, which significantly reduces their cost.
Complexes of active protection (KAZ)
The complex of active protection (KAZ) "Barrier", designed to protect objects from anti-tank weapons with flat and dive trajectories, regardless of the guidance systems used in them and the type of warhead.
For the first time, the new active protection complex of the Zaslon tank, along with other innovations of the Ukrainian military-industrial complex, was demonstrated at the IDEX-2003 exhibition in Abu Dhabi. The complex is manufactured and offered for export by Ukrinmash (a subsidiary of the state-owned company Ukrspetsexport), in 2006, the complex must pass state tests, and according to their results adopted by the Ukrainian army (the developers do not hide the fact that the adoption of active protection by the Ukrainian tanks, first of all, it has a commercial background, it is unlikely that someone from foreign customers will buy such a high-tech complex, which is not in service even in their homeland).
The Zaslon complex was created in order to eliminate the shortcomings of the existing Drozd and Arena tank active defense systems. Unlike the Arena or Thrush, the danger zone for infantry is much smaller, the sensors are moved outside the tank, as a result, the speed of the intercepted targets is increased to 1.200 m / s (700 m / s from the Arena), protection from ammunition attacking from above and possibly in perspective and BOPS.
Impact on attacking ammunition differs from Drozd and Arena, cumulative munitions under the influence of a blast wave and high-speed fragments detonate or change the trajectory, attacking munitions with a solid metal body under the influence of ammunition change their trajectory and either go outside the protected object, or with the main booking at an unfavorable angle.
State tests of the complex are planned for October 2006, after which, the complex can be installed on the Bulat and Oplot tanks. Work is also underway on the complex, which provides full protection against kinetic ammunition (BOPS).
It should also be pointed out that in the Russian press - the magazine MIC (MIC No. 4 (21) 2004 of the Year), which is the mouthpiece of such analysts as M. Rastopshin wrote about this complex, that's what the Ukrainian version of active defense (AZ) Zaslon "demonstrates Ukraine's 30-year lag in this area. Probably Rastopshin believes that all KAZ are the same, and demonstrates its complete ignorance of the KAZ "Barrier". Compared with the "Arena" it has several advantages, in fact it is completely different complexes. Firstly, KAZ Zaslon has an autonomous modular structure and can be installed on any tanks, light and heavy armored vehicles and stationary objects without significant additions to the design, and secondly, compared to the Arena, the Zaslon has a much larger speed range of hit PTS - 1200 m / s. against 700 m / s. Arena and performance (0.001, 0.005 vs. 0.07 with.).
Optical-electronic countermeasures (COEP)
For the first time in the world tank construction, the Shtora-80-KOEP TShU-90-1 “Shtora-7”, created at the end of 1-s, installed the “Shtora” complex, which warns the crew about laser irradiation of a tank in the spectral range, on serial domestic tanks T-80UK and T-0.7. 2.5-XNUMX micron range and provides active jamming anti-tank complexes with a semi-automatic guidance system by setting multi-spectral aerosol curtains that quench the laser radiation.
However, now this complex can not meet the tasks, because The spectral range of wavelengths currently used in rangefinders is 0.63-10,6 μm (erbium lasers with a neodymium with a Romanov shift, lasers on carbon dioxide). A new generation of the complex is being developed. A possible direction could also be the development of complexes involving an active noise generator for laser ranging equipment.
Ukrainian developers have already created an advanced complex, the optical elements of which are made on the basis of zinc selenide (ZnSe) and including coordinate-sensitive photodetectors of detector heads, which provide sufficient sensitivity in a wide spectral range of 0,6-14 μm wavelengths. This is due to the optical transparency of lenses based on zinc selenide in this operating range.
To equip the new and modernized armored vehicles, the Guard (Warta) and Kolos complexes were developed. The basis of the complex is an accurate and coarse detection head of laser irradiation, which are used in the advanced guard-optical opto-electronic suppression system (complete with searchlights) and Kolos (Linkoy / SDR), as well as in ship-based optical-electronic suppression systems "Gyurza", "Owl".
The complex provides detection of laser irradiation of a tank within 360 ° in the horizontal plane and 20 ° in the vertical. The accuracy of determining the direction to the source of radiation by the front (Accurate) receivers is at least the 3 ° 27 'head in the 90 ° sector. Two precise heads, mounted in front of the roof of the tower, and two coarse heads, mounted in the aft part of the roof of the tower.
Means of reducing visibility - "Contrast"
Camouflage design for the protection of military equipment "Contrast" developed by Kharkiv National University. Karazin and the Institute of Automated Systems.
The intensive development of high-precision weapons kills the protection factor of weapons objects among the key problems determining the further development of military equipment. Moreover, the peculiarity of the use of modern means of destruction is that they ensure the destruction of armored vehicles practically throughout the depth of the operational-tactical formation of troops, which is up to 300 km, regardless of the time of day and weather conditions.
In 2002, the construction of the Contrast passed state tests on samples of military equipment: the T-84 tank, the Buk air defense complex and the Grif frontier-launch boat. Measurements made during the tests showed that the Contrast camouflage designs make it possible to reduce the target range by means of high-precision weapons 9 times. In particular, it was found that the T-84 tank, equipped with the Contrast camouflage network, is not recognized by means of visual observation from a distance of more than 500 meters. Tests have confirmed that "Contrast" can significantly reduce the visibility of weapons and military equipment in the infrared, radiothermal and radiolocation ranges and can be used for mobile weapons and military equipment.
The kit is resistant to fuels and lubricants and self-extinguishing.
According to the results of state tests. The Ministry of Defense of Ukraine adopted a set of Contrast camouflage designs for use by the Ukrainian Armed Forces. In turn, the commission that conducted the tests, taking into account the high technical characteristics, low cost and manufacturability of the “Contrast” CCM, recommended organizing its industrial production, which is currently organized in two cities of Ukraine. Now the production of "Contrast" is established in several enterprises, which produced about one hundred sets.
The issue of reducing visibility requires an integrated approach at the sample design level. KMDB them. O. O. Morozova changed the method of designing samples of armored vehicles of tanks with a view to reducing their visibility The KSMD tanks have the following means of reducing visibility: thermal shielding of the roof of the power compartment and the undercarriage, ventilation of the roof of the power compartment, improved sample architecture, reducing the effective dispersion surface (EPR), corner radar reflectors, etc.
New products proposed by KMDB
The main tank T-80UD (Object 478B / 478BE)
Under the terms of the contract, which is estimated at $ 650 million, Ukraine has pledged to supply Islamabad with 320 tanks and spare parts for four years, as well as train personnel and provide service equipment.
The interest of the Pakistani military to Ukrainian vehicles arose during the IDEX-95 exhibition in the United Arab Emirates, where a new, hitherto unknown participant in the Ukrspetsexport market showed three tanks to the public. In the summer of 1996, the contract was signed. Almost immediately, Ukraine received a prepayment of $ 68 million.
The first batch of X-NUMX tanks T-XNUMHUD was delivered to Pakistan in March 15, another 80 tanks were delivered in the middle of that year. The first batch of tanks consisted of tanks produced by the plant to them. Malysheva after the collapse of the Union, but not delivered to the customer. All in all, according to some sources, 1997 tanks T-35UD "Object 145B" from stocks of enticed forces of Ukraine and 80 new vehicles with a welded turret "Object 478БЭ" were left to Pakistan.
175 vehicles of this type were delivered to Pakistan (the remaining 145 tanks were supplied from the Armed Forces of Ukraine) under contract for 320 units.
The main tank T-84 "Hold" (Object 478DU4 "Kern").
Created in 1994 on the basis of the T-XNUMHSUD tank. Mainly differs from the latter by increased mass (80 t instead of 48 t), elongated, approximately 46%, body, welded turret, 10ТD-6 engine with an objective capacity of 2 ths. L. with. instead of 1,2TD-6 with power 1 thousand hp, greater speed, including reverse gear (1 and 75 km / h), the presence of the optical-electronic suppression system "Shtora-35" or "Varta" and weapons of Ukrainian production (1-mm tank gun - launcher KBA-125, machine guns KT-3 and KT-12,7).
The fire control system includes a day sight the gunner 1G46M, thermal sight "snow-storm-Catherine-E" (optional komplekttsii) sighting and observation complex commander PNA-5, anti-aircraft sight ROM-7, ballistic computer LIO-in sensors of input information, an improved 2EX42M stabilizer; sensor measuring the initial velocity of the projectile (complete set version). The commander's sight has a built-in laser range finder, which provides the commander with the ability to measure the distance to the target independently of the gunner, as well as a lateral lead entry device. In general, on Opot, compared with T-80U, T-80UD, T-90, the commander has the best capabilities for searching and self-defeating targets in the DUBL mode. The sight TKN-5 has a built-in laser range finder and a device for inputting lateral lead angles (UVBU).
The armored protection of the Oplot tank is provided by a modern, welded-rolled turret manufactured using advanced technology and high-quality materials. In the cavities of the tower placed highly efficient cellular filler. The roof of the tower is made of one-piece, which increased its rigidity, ensured manufacturability and stable quality under mass production conditions.
A complex of universal dynamic protection of the new generation of “LAW” is installed on the tower and the hull, which provides the tank with an increased level of survivability on the battlefield.
In the latest developments of Ukrainian tanks, the designers went on reducing the ammunition for the sake of increasing the safety of the tank in order to increase its survivability in case of penetration of the main armor. On the T-80, for example, the BC consists of 45 shots placed in the combat and control compartments without additional protection. On the T-84, the ammunition is reduced to 40 shots, 28 of which are placed in the charging mechanism, and the rest in the armored compartments in the hull and turret.
In 2000, the 10 machines were purchased by the Ministry of Defense of Ukraine. In 2006, along with the ongoing upgrading of the T-64B to the standard Bulat BM, funds were allocated for the purchase of new Oplot tanks (article 113 of the state budget for 2006 a year).
The tanks pass through the center of Kiev during a military parade in honor of Independence Day on Friday, 24 in August 2001. On this day, Ukraine celebrated the 10 anniversary of its independence. Photo UNIAN.
The main tank T-84-120 "Yatagan" (KERN-2 120)
This tank was created in 2000. During its development, technical solutions were used that were tested during the modernization of the T-72-120 tank, which was the first to use a new automatic loader for the cannon placed in an isolated autonomous compartment in the stern of the turret. The tank is armed with an 120-mm cannon - launcher complying with NATO standards, it is also possible to install a new 140 mm cannon. This upgrade option is worth considering in more detail below.
Tank "Yatagan" with automatic loader for the gun located in an isolated autonomous compartment in the stern of the tower. Photo by Anna Gene.
Rearrangement of domestic tanks with the use of AZ in a stand-alone module behind the tower.
KP KKBM named after A.A. Morozova has developed a version of the modernization of production tanks of domestic and foreign production (T-54 / 55, T-62, T-72, M60, etc.) as well as when creating new Yatagan tanks. It is possible to install guns caliber 120-140 mm without making significant design changes.
Automatic charging is located in the aft of the tower and is designed as an autonomous armored module. The module is mounted on the tower with the possibility of rotation around a horizontal, vertical, or inclined axis. To access the power plant quickly, it is enough to return the module to the automatic charging device around the axis at a sufficient angle and fix it in this state. In case of defeat of the ammunition of the automatic charge, the danger of the spread of fire.
Ammunition for the gun is forty shots (22 shots are placed in the conveyor of the automatic loader in the turret, 16 shots are placed in the auxiliary combat pack - the body conveyor, 2 shots are in the fighting compartment).
Such placement of ammunition is a significant advantage, significantly reducing the likelihood of destruction of ammunition as compared to domestic and foreign tanks ("Leopard-2", "Leclerc", etc.)
The use of the automatic charging of this data will increase the maintainability, reduce the irretrievable losses on the battlefield and ensure the possibility of retrofitting under the projectiles of different calibers.
In one of the containers are placed a hydraulic cylinder with the help of which they lift and rotate relative to the upper edge of the tower sheet. Electrical equipment is stirred in another armored tank.
Protection of the armored module is provided with the possibility of providing a rebound during shelling within the course angle ± 25 °, which corresponds to the NATO standard. The level of reservation of the autonomous compartment of the automatic loader is similar to the level of the main battle tanks of foreign countries (Abrams, Leopard-2, Leclerc).
An additional advantage of the technical solution is ease of use. This is stipulated, firstly, by the fact that, if necessary, repairs MTV (engine repair, transmission, etc.).
the armored sheepskin coat rises and returns on its hinges relative to the edge of the armor sheet, thus opening free access to the logistic equipment and units.
Heavy infantry fighting vehicle BTMP-84. Developed in 2001 g. It is an unparalleled in the world hybrid of a full-fledged main tank "Oplot" with the preservation of its full armament with the troop compartment. A feature of the design of the machine is the presence in the aft hull of the troop compartment, designed to accommodate infantrymen 5. The door in the stern of the car’s hull opens to the left, a ladder extends downwards, and the chassis roof hatch above the door rises, which allows the infantry to leave the car quickly. BTMP-84 is designed for all types of combat operations in conjunction with tanks. It is believed that the machine provides units mobility, security and firepower similar to tank units. The disadvantage of an infantry fighting vehicle set up in Kharkov on the basis of a tank is the small capacity of the troop compartment, an insufficient overview of it and the difficulty of leaving the machine under fire (in the case of BMT-72, which will be discussed below).
Armored repair and recovery vehicle BREM-84. Created in 1997 on the basis of the T-84 tank and intended for the evacuation of damaged and stuck armored and other vehicles, their field repair, the performance of engineering works and the transport of goods on the battlefield.
The main tank "Al Khalid." After the delivery of the Ukrainian T-80UD party, the Pakistani military continued to develop its national Al Khalid tank. The basis was taken Chinese tank Type-85, which was produced in Pakistan serially, but could not meet modern requirements. China did not produce the engine with the required power and therefore it was planned for the tank to install a diesel engine with 1200 horsepower. domestic or western production. Along with the Ukrainian 6TD-1 engine in Pakistan, three more tank prototypes with various power units were tested. Among them were the MTO with the English Perkins Condor diesel engine with 1200 horsepower, German MTU-871 / MTU-396 and TCM AVDS-1790. All the above-mentioned foreign engines did not stand the test of the harsh hot climate of southern Pakistan. However, preference was given to the Ukrainian MTO with the 6TD-1 engine (hereinafter referred to as 6TD-2). The Pakistani military was satisfied with the reliability of the T-XNUMHUD powerplant, which introduced a number of improvements. The power plant of the tank showed excellent reliability in the extreme desert climate of eastern Pakistan.
MTO with 6TD-2 engine
The production of the installation batch of Al-Khalid tanks was carried out at the Heavy Industries Texila plant in Pakistan. The first of the installment cars was assembled in March 2001 of the year, and the rest by July of that year. On the following series of tanks used engine compartment with an engine 6TD-2, hp power 1200. By the 2007 year, it is planned to manufacture 300 Al-Khalid tanks. Thus, the entire fleet of modern Pakistani tanks (T-XNUMHSUD and Al-Khalid) are unified by logistics and logistics. For the supply of engines Ukrainian tank builders received another 80 million US dollars. During the period of 150, a contract was signed for the supply of logistics equipment to the People's Republic of China, besides, the modernized logistics equipment is planned to be delivered to Pakistan in 2009.
A distinctive feature of the MTO with the 6TD-2 engine in comparison with other Russian and Ukrainian developments is that the transmission provides the 7 front and 5 reverse gears (BP provides an additional four reverse gears and can be installed during the modernization of the MTO other tanks). This ensures a high speed of reversing at speeds up to 35 km / h.
The main tank T-64BM "Bulat"
In the period from 1991 to 1999, the KMDB developed a number of technical projects to enhance the security and modernization of the fire control system of the T-64BV and T-64BV-1 tanks to the level of the Oplot tank. In this case, three options for modernization were worked out.
The first option was to install a universal modular dynamic protection of the Ukrainian development for serial tanks T-64BV and T-64BB-1. Six T-64BV-1 tanks overhauled at the 115-m tank repair plant in the city of Kharkov with a built-in dynamic protection mock-up were demonstrated at the parade in honor of the independence of Ukraine 24 August 1999 of the year.
The second option of modernization, along with the installation of dynamic protection, also included the modernization of the fire control system. A distinctive feature of the tank was the preservation of the searchlight L-4 sighting system TO1-KO1. Two upgraded tanks produced by HZTM were also demonstrated at the August 24 parade of the year 1999.
The third option, according to which it was decided to modernize the T-64 tanks to the Bulat BM standard, is to install the Knife universal dynamic protection, complete with additional passive reservations, and the 1А45 fire control system installed on the T-80У, T -80UD and T-90 and "Oplot". A prototype tank was demonstrated at the 24 August 1999 parade in Kiev. Thus, in terms of firepower and protection, the tank caught up with the best foreign analogues.
In 2005, 17 tanks were transferred to the armed forces (manufactured in accordance with government orders for 2004 year, in 2005, the order for Bulat BM was disrupted for political reasons), which were received by 1 Tank Brigade 8 of the army corps, and 19 will be upgraded in 2006 year. In 2006, from the budget for the modernization of tanks to them. Malysheva allocated about 100 mln. (about 20 mln. cu). According to the 2005 year, the price of upgrading one tank was 2 million 300 thousand. grove
Modernization of T-64 to the standard "Bulat" - the first major state defense order to the plant. Malysheva, starting with 1992 year.
Tank T-64B in the shops of the plant. Malysheva is awaiting modernization. 22 in May in 2006. To the right is a tank upgraded to the standard of Bulat BM.
Photo KP "Plant them. Malysheva.
Photo KP "Plant them. Malysheva.
Modernized tank T-64B (BM "Bulat") on the basic technical characteristics is comparable to the Russian T-90 and is close to the Ukrainian "Oplot" and has prospects for subsequent modernization due to the installation of a more powerful power plant with an 6TD-1 or 6TD- engine 2., Improved sighting devices, active protection system, a more modern communication and navigation system. The service life of the upgraded T-64B tank has been extended by 15 years, the tank's life has been increased to 11 thousand km. (as for the new tank).
Tanks BM "Bulat", made to order 2004 year before being sent to the troops. Photo by Anna Gene.
In the light of the introduction of a modernized BM Bulat tank to the armaments of the Ukrainian army, it is worthwhile to briefly review some materials that appeared about him in the press. For example, one cannot fail to comment on the article “Patches for Bulat” that appeared in the online edition of “OBKOM”, or Worn armor for the Ukrainian army, where the author Pavel Volnov, who is clearly not burdened with technical knowledge, tries to talk about this tank.
For example, the author claims that the “sixty-fours” were considered hopelessly outdated and certainly did not strengthen the combat power of the country. And further informs that in fact he is just “one of”. At the same Kharkov plant, a much more efficient T-84 "Oplot" was created.
First of all, the author of the above lines should understand that the “strongholds” do not produce at all because they do not want to, and therefore. That the cost of upgrading the T-64 to the standard “Bulat” costs 4 times lower than the production of the new tank BM Oplot (the Oplot costs 1. 684 million USD, while the Bulat in 416 .e) At the same time, according to the main characteristics of firepower, protection and mobility, the tank is only slightly inferior to the new “Oplot” tank. Modernization is the main direction in the development of tanks, both abroad and in Russia and Ukraine, for example, in Germany, the Leopard-2 tanks underwent several upgrades. The last of them is “Leopard-2А6”, Russia is upgrading its T-72B and T-80 tanks, Poland is upgrading its T-72 to PT-91A standard, and the Czech Republic, Slovakia, is also modernizing its T-72 as well as the vast majority of other countries. Surprisingly, the author did not notice.
It’s too early to write off the T-64, this is the main tank of the Ukrainian Armed Forces, which, even in its un-modernized form, is capable of performing the tasks before them. It is impossible to completely replace it with a new one, in the amount of at least 350-400 units for financial reasons. Moreover, the upgraded "Bulat" is not inferior, and in some respects it surpasses the most advanced tanks that are in service with Ukraine’s neighbors, such as the PT-91 "Twardy" (the modernized T-72M, Poland), TR-85M1 "Bison" (modernized T-55, Romania), T-72М2 and T-72СZ (Upgraded T-72. Slovakia and the Czech Republic). Tank BM “Bulat” is at the level of the best Russian models of T-80 and T-90, as well as in all characteristics, except for the ability to fight in the dark, such foreign tanks as “Leopard-2А5” and М1А2 “Abrams” .
The main tank T-72. T-72-120, T-72MP, T-72AG
The modernization program provides for the elimination of the lag of the T-72 in combat performance, firepower and survivability from modern main tanks.
The most profound version of the modernization of the T-72 tank proposed by Ukraine is the modernization of tanks under the T-72-120 program. The T-72-120 is equipped with a 120-mm cannon KBM2 (can be installed with a 140 caliber mm). In the stern of the turret of the tank is placed the loading mechanism in the stand-alone module on the 22 unitary shot of the NATO standard. Under the revolving floor placed mechanized protected styling.
The armor protection of the Ukrainian tank is significantly enhanced by the installation of universal dynamic protection of the hull and turret, as well as additional passive protection. The tests of dynamic protection showed that it reliably protects the tank at a distance of more than 500 meters from damage by NATO cumulative and armor-piercing ammunition. The T-72-120 tank is also equipped with the Curtain-1 or Varta CPD.
The fire control system is installed at the request of the customer in versions of domestic and foreign execution. The first version uses the modernized OMS 1A45. The second option - the installation of the French MSA "SAVAN-15". Increased mobility on this and other T-72 retrofit options is provided by the installation of 6ТD-1 hp 1000 engines. and 6TD-2 horsepower 1200 instead of the standard engine power 780 / 840 hp (which does not provide high performance when working in hot conditions).
For upgrading, two less radical programs are also offered, while maintaining the old placement of the automatic charging device in the housing. The modernization programs use many of the main components of the T-XNUMHUD and Oplot tanks. Modernization of the tank to the configuration of the T-80AG includes the installation of the 72-1 MSW, improvements to the protection of the tank, and the installation of a new MTO with 45TD-6 or 1TD-6 engines. At the request of the customer, the T-2 tank can be equipped with the modernization of the commander PNK-72 with the TKN-5 sight. The sight TKN-5 has a built-in laser range finder and a device for inputting lateral lead angles. A closed-type anti-aircraft installation is installed on the tank, providing, with the closed hatch, effective fire at ground and low-flying air targets at a range of up to 5 m.
Heavy BMP BMT-72
Heavy combat infantry vehicles (BMT) are intended for combat operations as part of tank units and subunits, being with them in the same battle formations, as well as independently. In this case, paratroopers paratroopers parachute and continue the battle on foot. The use of BMT, possessing weapons, protection and maneuverability, the same as that of tanks, provides close cooperation on the battlefield of tanks and gunners, paratroopers with the most complete use of the strengths of these types of troops.
BMT-72 was created on the extended seven-base base of the T-72 tank, after carrying out a set of measures to modernize it, including the installation of additional protection on the hull and turret, and the installation of the engine compartment of the Oplot tank.
Due to the compactness of the Ukrainian diesel tank engines, it began to provide it with a new compartment to accommodate the 5 infantry. Unlike the BTMP-84 vehicle design, the Oplot tank was designed on the basis of the chassis of the hull which was supposed to allow the infantry to quickly leave the vehicle on the BMT-72, landing and disembarking from BMT-72 is carried out through the hatches in the roof of the vehicle behind the tower. This solution is hardly optimal.
Medium tank T-54 / 55, T-62. T-55AGM
The modernization program includes bringing their combat characteristics, firepower and survivability and mobility to the standards of modern main battle tanks.
Modernization of tanks T-54 / 55, T-62 is carried out in the directions of increasing firepower, protection and mobility. Modernization can be carried out for each of the proposed areas separately or in any combination thereof.
Modernization of firepower can be provided by installing 125 mm cannon CBA-3 or 120 mm cannon KBM2, new fire control system, weapon stabilizer, etc. At the same time, the tank is equipped with automatic charging in an autonomous container in a buried niche, in principle, similar to those used on the tank "Yatagan" and when upgrading the T-72-120 tanks but calculated not on the 22 but on the 18 shots. In this case, the crew of the tank is reduced to 3 people, while the rate of fire does not depend on the terrain and crew fatigue.
Modernization of the tank's power section is ensured by installing an 5TDF engine with an 700 horsepower. or 5TDFM power 850 hp onboard gearboxes, efficient maintenance systems.
Modernization of protection is carried out by installing passive armor protection (sets) and built-in dynamic protection (VDZ). The set of additional protection (CDS) is intended to increase the level of protection of the tank against cumulative and kinetic attack means with the minimum possible increase in the mass of the tank.
The use of the latest dynamic CLEAR protection devices provides an increase in the protection of the T-55 tank from kinetic attack weapons - in 3,5 ... 4,3 (base tank protection - 200 mm, upgraded protection increases to 700 - 850 mm), which corresponds to the protection of modern main tanks. Such an increase in protection remains unattainable for other developers, who provide tank resistance at the level of 450-500 mm, which is not enough to protect against kinetic action from modern ammunition.
Increased resistance in the event of penetration of the main armor provides an improved automatic fire-explosion suppression system, which has an increased speed of detection and elimination of fire sites. Additionally, measures are taken to reduce tank visibility, increase crew survivability, etc.
Modernization proposals have also been developed for foreign-made tanks, such as the M60. Modernization may include the installation of a modern turret, similar to that installed on the Yatagan tank, the 6TD-2 engine, a set of dynamic protection for the turret and the hull.
Combat modules are designed to arm the newly created and upgrade light and medium category armored vehicles, as well as heavy infantry fighting vehicles to increase their firepower. Replacing the regular combat unit of outdated equipment such as the BMP-1 / 2, M-113, BTR of various modifications, etc. allows, without modifying the chassis base, to bring the firepower of a combat vehicle to the level of the best modern world analogues. The small dimensions of the modules allow them to be placed on virtually any vehicle (for example, the Ingul module with the 30 mm gun and ATGM can be placed on the BRDM-2) armored personnel carriers, coast guard boats and other carriers.
An analysis of the current state of domestic and foreign light-armored vehicles shows that many countries have a large number of combat vehicles armed with weapons that do not meet modern requirements, which are characterized by a sufficiently reliable undercarriage of their own resources. As an example - infantry fighting vehicles BMP-1. Replacing the entire fleet of armored vehicles with new ones, at this time, is not possible even for the most economically developed countries, so the most acceptable way out is to upgrade using universal combat modules.
Ukrainian enterprises have developed a large number of combat modules, which by the basic indicators correspond to the best world standards, and by many they are superior. Among them are the Typhoon, Thunder, Ingul, Flurry, Bug, ZTM-1, BAU-23 XXNNX, and other modules.
Universal combat module GROM rendered armament for light combat armored vehicles, designed to defeat manpower, combat armored vehicles, firing points and low-flying, low-speed targets of the enemy. The armament is stabilized in two planes with the help of the modern armament stabilizer IED-1000.
It is installed on light combat armored vehicles (BTR-60 / 70 / 80, BTR-3Е, MT-LB, M-113, BMP-2, etc.), providing an increase in their firepower.
Through the use of rendered weapons, the crew’s protection increased, the mass of the combat module was reduced, and the living conditions in the fighting compartment were improved (no gas contamination when fired). The module was installed on the promising Ukrainian BTR-4, as well as on upgraded versions of the BTR-70 and MT-LB. The module was developed by the KMDB named after Morozov.
Universal combat module INGUL
The combat module Ingul was developed by the Kiev Scientific and Technical Center of Artillery and Small Arms (KP NTT ASO) for the modernization of existing models of wheeled and tracked combat vehicles. Distinctive features of the module is its high compactness with high firepower, allowing it to be installed on light-duty machines up to the BRDM-2.
The armament of the module uses an automatic gun ZTM-2 (or another gun, for example 2А42, 2А72) caliber 30 mm and a machine gun paired with it, an example of KT-7.62 (PCT).
The OTP-20 Cyclops-1 optic-television sighting system, which includes a television camera and a laser rangefinder, the carousel SVU-500 stabilizer, provides high accuracy of fire in motion, is used to control the fire on the module. The module is not habitable, the gun is guided by the monitor’s help at the operator’s (commander’s) workplace in the body of the combat vehicle. This provides increased personnel safety, less gas pollution in the internal volume of the combat vehicle.
For launching smoke grenades installed system 902В "Cloud". To combat heavy armored personnel carriers and enemy tanks, the module is equipped with a launcher for anti-tank missiles, for example, the Barrier complex with P-2 missiles or others at the request of the customer.
The module can be installed on the BTR-70, BTR-80, BRDM-2, BRDM-2M as well as small displacement patrol boats.
Universal combat module TYPHOON
The “Typhoon” combat module contains a stabilized gun coupled with a machine gun, means for installing a missile complex, a grenade launcher. The basis of the fire control system is a stabilized aiming-searching equipment with a thermal imaging channel, a laser rangefinder and counting devices of an artillery system. Sighting and search equipment additionally contains an optical-electronic channel, including television surveillance cameras with a wide field of view and a narrow field of view, a video computer, and a video computer monitor at the operator’s workplace.
The sighting and search equipment works as follows: the operator-gunner sets a marker on the selected target and presses the auto-gripping button. Three gyros provide a combination of a marker and a target. At the command of “Auto Capture”, further observation of the target is carried out by a surveillance camera operating in the narrow field of view mode, or a thermal imaging camera with a zoom lens, and the video computer program of the target auto-tracking is activated. In this case, when the tower is mounted on the chassis, the camera automatically tracks the moving target, allowing it to keep the target in the center of the monitor screen.
After that, the operator-gunner chooses the type of weapon, the type of ammunition and presses the "fire" button. The calculating device automatically calculates the vertical angle of the weapon, depending on the distance of the target. After hitting the target, the operator-gunner switches the surveillance camera from the narrow field of view to the wide field of view and selects the next target.
In all modes, there are two stabilization systems. One weapon stabilization system, the other system stabilization of search and sighting devices.
The test results showed that the effectiveness of firing increased compared with similar devices by 20%, the reaction time of the artillery system is 1-2 seconds. The effective firing range is up to 5500 m. The weight of the turret without ammunition is no more than 2000 kg. The module was developed by the Kharkov design bureau "UKRSPETSTEHNIKA".
Universal combat module SHKVAL includes 30-mm cannon, 7,62-mm coaxial machine gun, 30-mm automatic grenade launcher and anti-tank guided weapons. The module was developed by KP "STC ASO". The construction of the Squall combat module is very flexible, which makes it easy to replace the existing weapons with another.
The 30-mm dual-feed gun has ready-to-use ammunition from 350 shells. Ammunition 7,62-mm coaxial machine gun is 2500 ammunition. An 30-mm grenade launcher is mounted on the left side of the turret, in which 29 is ready to use grenades, and in addition 87 grenades are transported in reserve (three stores, each of which contains 29 grenades).
Six 81-mm smoke / aerosol grenade rigs are installed three on each side of the turret for firing ahead.
The fire control system includes the OTP-20 aiming complex, which is integrated with the guided missile firing control system, and the VCA-500 weapon stabilizer.
Universal combat module ShKVAL is installed on the upgraded BMP-1U and on the BTR-3U armored personnel carrier.
On the upgraded version of this module (installed on the base on the BMP-1 base), an advanced fire control system was installed, based on an optical-television multichannel aiming complex with a thermal imaging, laser ranging channel and a guided missile channel in a single unit. Previously, the module included separately placed television cameras TPK-1 and TPK-2 included in the optical television [/ b] OTP-20 Cyclops-1 complex, as well as the VDL-2 laser distance meter and OU-5 IR illuminator.
It is worth noting that the Ukrainian modules look quite good against the background of foreign, including Russian, developments, especially this applies to the Typhoon, Ingul and Thunder modules, which are largely unique in their characteristics. Increased attention in the Ukrainian modules is given to the issues of review and shooting efficiency.
Creation of armored personnel carriers and infantry fighting vehicles
Technical and strategic miscalculations - BTR-3U and BTR-94
Another activity of the KMDB and the plant them. V.A. Malysheva in the 1990-ies. was the creation of the BMP and BTR. As a result, exotic heavy infantry fighting vehicles based on the T-84 and T-72 tanks were described above. Also, the BTR-94 and BTR-3 armored personnel carriers were developed, which, in fact, represented the BTR-80 modernization programs. However, here the company was not a big success. This is explained, first of all, by technical reasons, due to the non-optimal layout of the BTR-70 / 80 on the basis of which they tried to create a promising vehicle.
In 1999, the 50 BTR-94 procurement contract was concluded with Jordan. At the beginning, the customer had complaints about the quality of the BTR-94, which were subsequently eliminated. In 2004, all the BTR-94 were transferred as part of the assistance of Jordan to the new Iraqi army.
At the end of the year 2005 plant them. Malysheva (using his status as a special exporter) signed a contract for the sale of 150 combat modules to Jordan to equip light armored vehicles.
Impressed by the Pakistan contract, the rate was placed on tanks and vehicles based on them. Alas, in a very crowded market, in conditions with a very non-flexible marketing policy, it was not possible to consolidate success.
If the KMDB had started the development of the BTR-4 and LTBM Dozor earlier, the situation could be completely different now, even without considering multimillion-dollar contracts for the supply of wheeled combat vehicles up to 30 tons (Poland, Finland, Czech Republic, etc.) to European countries the share of supplies of high-quality cars of this category to the countries of Asia and the Arab states could drastically improve the situation of the KMDB.
BTR-4. Photo KMDB.
The new generation BTR-4 BTR was first introduced in 2006 at the Aerosvit-21 exhibition. Of course, work on a machine of this class was started very late.
The layout of the BTR-4 is completely different from all previously created domestic BTR (BTR-60 / 70 / 80 / 90). The control compartment is located in the front of the hull, the power compartment is located on the left side behind the driver’s back and is provided with a passage on the starboard side into the troop compartment. Next is the troop compartment with double doors for the landing of troops. For the commander and the driver, there are doors in the boards with integrated bulletproof glass blocks. Windshields are also bulletproof glass blocks that can be closed with armored covers.
The combat mass of the BTR-4 in the base version is 17 tons (19.3 tons with the “Thunder” module), in the version with additional armor, the weight can reach up to 27 tons (protection from 30-mm cannons). The landing BTR-4 is eight people and three crew members. The power plant consists of a two-stroke diesel 3TD horsepower 500. with automatic hydromechanical transmission. At the request of customers, it is possible to install an engine from Deutz with a power of 489 or 598 hp. On the basis of the BTR-4, it is possible to manufacture vehicles for various purposes: fire support vehicles, commanding, ambulance, anti-aircraft, combat reconnaissance vehicles or repair and recovery vehicles.
heavy BMP / BTR
A new vehicle based on the T-64 was created by specialists of the Kharkiv Armored Repair Plant. The base machine for the family of combat and auxiliary vehicles was created by “turning” the T-64 tank in the engine-transmission compartment forward, removing the turret and the equipment of the troop compartment from it. The result was the UMR-64, which can accommodate up to 15 functional modules weighing up to 22 tons. One of the options is to create on its base a heavy infantry fighting vehicle with a landing force to 10 people and an uninhabited combat module. In the base case, the BMP weighs 32,5 tons. On the basis of the machine, it is also planned to create a universal combat supply vehicle (UMBP-64), a highly protected command and command vehicle weighing up to 41 tons, 120 millimeter self-propelled mortar and other machines.
For landing and landing, the BTR is equipped with convenient doors in the aft hull. This distinguishes this development of Kharkov tank builders from competitors both in Ukraine and Russia. Unlike the KMDB specialists, the designers of the Kharkov Armored Repair Plant did not attempt to combine incompatible things — a tank and an armored troop-carrier; as a result, they received a less applicable design that did not fully perform the functions of either one or the other. From the Russian heavy armored personnel carriers (BMO-T, DPM-72), the Ukrainian machine compares favorably with the greater capacity of the troop compartment and significantly better conditions for landing and boarding the car.
BTR-64E. Photo Dmitry (DPD).
Thus, on the basis of the T-64, instead of their disposal, the company headed by V. Fedosov created a number of special equipment, primarily for the foreign customer, so that the buyer could choose the product he liked.
An autonomous module with a front-mounted logistics system with the aim of creating on its base various military vehicles (heavy armored personnel carriers) and civilian design developed by the im plant. V.O. Malisheva, who once participated in the competition for the creation of heavy infantry fighting vehicles for the Jordanian army based on the Centurion tank. Then the designers went easy by installing a compact diesel 5TDF / M on it, which provided a small hatch in the rear of the hull for landing troops. However, the customer preferred the more expensive car of his own design - “Temsakh”. To provide the infantry unit with the possibility of safely dismounting from the stern of the vehicle, a vehicle with a front engine was designed. To achieve this without constructive changes in the hull of the base tank with the aft engine layout, it is used in such a way that in its new look the design of the tank hull front part was reprofiled (the tank aft became the lead part). To use the tank in this form, the direction of rotation of the onboard gears is changed, the suspension geometry is also adjusted to preserve the distribution of track tension. The commander and driver are moved to elevated workplaces behind the partition of the engine compartment.
The management of the DP Kharkiv Armored Repair Plant, where the T-64 was overhauled and upgraded (up to the standard T-64BM2), believes that the tank has prospects in the external market, also offered the creation of a heavy machine on its base BMP / BTR, support vehicles, self-propelled mortar, command and staff vehicle, universal combat supply vehicle. All these vehicles, along with the main modernized tank T-64B, can become the basis of an autonomous complex of armored vehicles on a single base of the tank. Such an autonomous complex can be a powerful armored complex based on the T-64 tank, including part of any formation of general-purpose forces, capable of performing tactical tasks in isolation from the rear bases. Imagine how much you can simplify the processes of supporting combat capability, maintenance and repair of equipment of subsections and parts of the Ground Forces of Ukraine, if you unify the base of the main tank, the infantry fighting vehicle of the armored evacuation vehicle, the command-staff sanitary evacuation vehicle and the material support machine. In addition, the complex will include field artillery, air defense complexes, reconnaissance complexes. All this is offered by the specialists of the Kharkov Armored Repair Plant. They do not just offer, individual samples and draft designs are made.
The concept of an autonomous reconnaissance and strike complex is fundamental to the development of the military-technical concept of a new generation armored weapon system. This is the creation of a family of standardized samples on the basis of a single chassis (united in a single information space). Thus, at the beginning of the 21 century, samples of armored weapons again adapted to the changed conditions and turned into ground combat highly protected vehicles, which are part of a unified weapon system. At the same time, they retain the main distinctive feature - a high degree of universality, which allows solving various types of combat missions in all types of combat operations and effectively interacting with other combat weapons.
In this aspect, it is worth looking at the opinion of experts from 38 Research Institute of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation and Omsk KBTM. Experts of the Federal Republic of Germany adhere to a similar concept. For details, see Autonomous complex of armored vehicles - Transformation of armored weapons in modern conditions.
However, the initiative of Kharkiv repairmen for the possible export of a family of vehicles based on T-64 was not at all welcomed by the Central Armored Office of Ukraine, it was stated that the task of Kharkiv residents was to repair equipment, and not to argue about its export.
In addition, it should be noted that the modernization of T-64B tanks to the standard of Bulat BM or T-64BM2 tanks, which can be carried out at the enterprises of the Ministry of Defense of Ukraine for much smaller funds, is noted by V. Fedosov, director of the subsidiary Kharkiv Armored Repair Plant. and director of the concern "Tehvoenervice" Leonid Sholomitsky. At the very least, it would be wise to divide these tasks between them and the plant. Malysheva in a proportional manner.
Meanwhile, the armored repair plants of the Ministry of Defense of Ukraine are now mainly engaged in work on the repair and modernization of armored vehicles for a foreign customer - Pakistan, China, Jordan, Algeria, African countries, etc.
Kiev Armored Plant gives a second life and T-72. The firing efficiency achieved from a distance of three kilometers was equal to 97% - and this despite the fact that the shooting was carried out in motion and at very high air temperatures.
Foreign market competitors
On the external market, the main competitors of Ukrainian tanks are roughly similar to them in price and, in general, according to the main characteristics, tanks representing the approach of the Russian school of tank building, these are primarily T-90, Polish PT-91, Chinese Type-96.
T-90 was created in the late 80-x as a deep modernization of the tank T-72B. In 1989, the UKBTM put the first four tanks to the test, which later became known as the T-90. The main difference of the T-72B from the tank was the presence of an automated OMS borrowed from the T-80U / UD tank, before this the T-72 had not been equipped with an automatic OMS. The tank was also equipped with a built-in dynamic protection "Contact-5", and subsequently also the CEP "Shtora-1". At the same time, the design of the tank as a whole was similar to the T-72B tank, equipped with a cast turret and an HP 840 engine. In response to 1996-99 selling X-NUMX T-320UD India tanks to Ukraine in Ukraine, they urgently decided to restore the balance of power (at that time Indian tankers simply had nothing to do with Pakistani T-80UD, which were a bit overwhelming to their T-80M and T-72) and purchase a batch of T-55C in Russia (export version of T-90). In 90, the 1999 T-3C machines took part in tests in India, one of them with a cast turret and 90 new with welded turrets. The tests of the Russian T-2С tanks, which took place in the desert of Rajasthan, according to the Indian side, turned out to be not quite the same as the Nizhny Tagil tank builders would like. According to the report, which is referenced by an Indian source of “Political Events” (Political Events), B-90-84 engines with a power of 1 hp. all three machines that took part in the tests did not pass the test due to severe overheating. And one of the tank engines failed, unable to withstand operation in conditions of high temperature and dust. But in the end, in Delhi, they did not abandon the purchase of new Russian tanks. In addition, due to the lack of air conditioning over the past four years, because of this, the 840-80 OMS, which costs almost 90% of the total cost of the tank, were unsuitable for use, attempts to solve this problem have not yet been crowned with success. Thus, the supply of Ukrainian tanks to Pakistan, in fact, reanimated the Russian tank construction, which in those years was in the deepest crisis - there was a question about turning off the capacity for the production of tanks at Uralvagonzavod.
So what is the T-90 compared to the Ukrainian tank "Oplot"? In terms of armor, the Ukrainian tank not only greatly exceeds the T-90, equipped with a cast turret, but also new T-90, which began to equip with a welded turret. Steel with the ESR, from which the tower of the Oplot tank is made, provides an increase in durability on 10-15 percent compared to a welded turret made of medium-strength armor steel used on T-90С tanks that were delivered to India. The roof of the tower of the Ukrainian tank is made entirely of stamped, which increased its rigidity, ensured manufacturability and stable quality in mass production conditions, unlike T-90С, in which the roof of the tower is welded from individual parts, which reduces the rigidity of the high-explosive impact. It is also rather strange that the T-90 has a structurally lower tower defense, relative to the hull (theoretically it should be the other way around). It is also worth noting the improved architecture of the "Oplot", which reduces the effective surface scattering (EPR), corner radar reflectors and means of reducing the visibility in the radar and infrared wavelengths. T-90С has 1,2 ... 1,5 times more EPR, about 1,2 times greater thermal contrast in the infrared range (engine exhaust - on the left side), which facilitates targeting of weapons with homing heads, is detected by means of intelligence from a longer range. T-90, with external similarity with T-84 looks more archaic.
In terms of firepower, the Ukrainian and Russian tanks are actually equivalent, since in fact they use the same fire control system with minor modifications. Nevertheless, it is worth noting that the Oplot tank’s sighting system of the PNK-5 commander AGAT-SM with the integrated laser range finder and the lateral lead angle inserter (UVBU), the PNK-5 increases the effectiveness of firing by the commander for 20-50% and halves the time to prepare a shot. Also, to ensure stable shooting accuracy, a SUIT-1, produced by Luch Design Bureau, was installed on a Ukrainian tank (such designs exist in Russia, but appeared later and have not been offered for export yet). In addition, at Oplot, there is a sensor measuring the initial velocity of the projectile, which makes it possible to measure the specified speed with each gun firing and then enter information into the tank ballistic computer of the fire control complex in order to automatically take into account the correction for barrel bore wear, temperature of the charge and other factors.
In terms of mobility, the B-84 engine is significantly inferior to the Ukrainian 6ТD-2 in terms of both power and reliability of desert conditions at ambient temperatures and ease of use. In recent years, Russian developers have managed to catch up with the Ukrainian diesel in power (B92C2 -1000 hp and B99 1200 hp), but further boosting the engine seems unrealistic. At the same time, the Ukrainian diesel 6TD-3 can develop power up to 1500 hp.
In 2004, the State Enterprise "Malyshev Plant" fulfilled the state defense order for the modernization of armored vehicles - Bulat BM tanks, this was the first government-paid order to supply armored vehicles for the army from 1992, when T-44UD "Birch" was supplied .
Delivered in the 1999 year and shown on the parade of tanks "Oplot" manufactured by the order of the Ukrainian army, were manufactured at the expense of the own funds of the plant. In vain, the then plant manager, Grigory Malyuk, hoped that they would pay us back this year ... visits to Kuchma, who found a more suitable solution, did not help either - just dismiss the director ... for not paying the workers ’salary, who planned to file a lawsuit against the government if it does not pay until 4 August, the state order for the release of "strongholds". Another explanation for the prompt and decisive action of the Kuchma junta is the intractability of the general director on the delivery of T-XNUMHUD tanks with dynamic protection of “LAW” to the US, as the general director said, Americans are purchasing two or three copies to handle the means of destruction. The director rejected the proposal to put the tanks as targets, with the result that disclosure of certain properties of the machine is not excluded. The 80 tank was later delivered to the USA.
The budget for 2004 year for the modernization of tanks T-64 BM "Bulat" provides 40 mln. In 2004, the plant them. Malysheva fulfilled an order for the manufacture of Bulat tanks for the 17 Ukrainian army, in 2005 the tanks were transferred to the troops. Naturally, this can be called the merit of the government headed by Prime Minister Yanukovych, during which there was a significant growth of the country's economy.
However, due to the aggravated political situation and the onset of political strife in 2005, the. Malysheva - the main performer of the order for the modernization of the T-64. The line for the allocation of 2005 million in 120 in the year, which were allocated by the Yanukovych government to continue the modernization, was removed from the budget and thus the plant was left without a state order. Thus, the empty areas for the production of tanks brought great losses to the plant, and fixed assets came from the production of agricultural and mining equipment, such as deliveries of drilling machines to China and the production of Obriy combines, as well as deliveries of diesel engines for Ukrzheleznoy Road and drilling rigs and pipe layers for Naftohaz Ukrainy. Now it is also possible to separate civil and special production of the plant with its possible subsequent privatization.
Nevertheless, even with the “orange” power on the 2006 year, the plant received a state order, although not to the extent that was required.
The Ukrainian leadership needs to realize that the preservation and normal functioning of the state-owned enterprise "Malyshev Plant" and the KMDB im. Morozov is the most important task for the preservation of Ukraine as a developed industrial power. Without a state defense order, this is not possible; management also needs to realize that for the commercial success of promising high-tech developments, they must be put into service and delivered, at least in small quantities, to the troops. No foreign customer will spend money on the purchase of high-tech complexes of active and dynamic protection, guided weapons, etc., if they exist in single copies and are not in service with the army of Ukraine. This, above all, relates to new developments of KAZ Zaslon, DZ Nizhny, promising TOUR and other promising developments.
In 2009, a new modification of the Oplot tank, equipped with a full-line anti-tandem dynamic knife defense, was released to the state tests.
Newspaper "Narodna Armiya" 2006.01.03. "With a rift on the zakordonny rinok ..."
The newspaper "Army of Ukraine" 2005 №10. "Bulat at style Modern"
Magazine "Arms Export" No. 5. 2005. "Production of armored vehicles in Ukraine: a glorious past, a crisis present, a hazy future"
MIC №№4 (21) 2-4.02. 2004. "Realism is needed in assessing the potential of the Ukrainian military-industrial complex and the policy of official Kiev."
Center for Army Studies of Conversion and Disarmament. 08.08.2001. “SERVICES OF THE KIEV ARMORETRIAN FACTORY INTEREST IN MACEDONIA, PAKISTAN, CHINA, JORDAN AND ALGERIA”
Patents of Ukraine № 49978, 22363, 73006, 50850, 32621.