Military Review

Infrared sensors "friend or foe" on the uniform

63
Since the invention of the gunshot weapons "Friendly fire" became the cause of the death of soldiers and officers of various armies of the world. With the growth of the firepower of the warring armies, the number of losses only increased. This was characteristic of the Napoleonic Wars, and for all subsequent armed conflicts. For example, in World War I, out of 978 thousand dead French soldiers, about 75 thousand became victims of their own artillery. In some cases, losses from "friendly fire" were even greater than from enemy actions. For example, on June 25, 1944, during the mass bombing of the Saint-Lo area (France), an American aviation inflicted such losses on its troops that divisions of 2 divisions were reorganized, while Lieutenant General McNair, the highest ranking officer who died in World War II, was killed.


A lot of similar cases are connected with the American army. One example is simply anecdotal, if you do not take into account human sacrifices. As a result of the operation “Cottage”, American and Canadian soldiers landed on the island of Kyska, from which the Japanese garrison had already managed to evacuate. This operation entirely consisted of "friendly fire". Losses amounted to 313 people killed and missing, 1 destroyer was damaged! Such incidents have a very bad effect on the morale of the personnel of the howling armies. That is why the military is very interested in solving this problem.

In the twentieth century, it became even more acute, as gradually modern armies began to conduct active military operations at night. Determine where your own, and where a stranger in such conditions is quite difficult. If the system of identification “friend or foe” for different types of equipment is more or less good, then with ordinary soldiers the situation was worse. However, in the US, a possible way out was found - the use of special infrared tags on clothing.
Infrared sensors "friend or foe" on the uniform

Not so long ago, information appeared in the press that the Russian Ministry of Defense completed tests of such infrared tags to identify soldiers when using night vision devices (NVD). These tags are planned to be sewn on the new sets of the WKBO field uniform - the all-season set of combat clothing, which was created by BTK Group. Due to the unique design, such tags give infrared illumination, which allows you to distinguish your soldiers from the enemy soldiers. The tag is planned to be made in the form of a rectangle and placed on the armbands. The option of placing on velcro is being worked out, so that in the afternoon this label can be simply removed.

The material of such a tag reflects only the infrared part of the spectrum, which makes it possible to observe a very bright point when using the NVD. At the same time, such a tag is not perceived visually, the human eye does not perceive this radiation spectrum. According to Vladislav Shurygin, the editor-in-chief of the magazine “Soldiers of Russia”, the first infrared tags on the uniform of their soldiers began to be sewn in the USA in the 80s of the last century. At present, such tags have become an indispensable attribute not only for soldiers of the American army, but also for combat units in many countries of the world.

There were similar tags on the previous version of the main American military uniform DCU, and on the modern version of the ACU. These infrared tags, resulting in the designation of ACU IR tabs, are great for solving the identification of "friend or foe". Labels on the American form are a square-shaped synthetic reflective material that, when directed at it at night, the infrared beam reflects it in some form. For example, it may be a square, a circle, etc. Due to this, at night it is possible to reduce the likelihood of shooting his ally by mistake.

These tags are located on the back, on the chest, on the shoulders, as well as on all 4 sides of the soldier’s helmet. In this case, infrared tags are equipped with special velcro flaps, so that if necessary they can always be closed. Since these identification marks are used only by the military, their distribution is strictly limited (so that they do not hit the enemy). For example, in the open sale there is only civilian adaptation of the American military uniform, in which the same material is used (50% xb and 50% nylon), the same tailoring, but the tags are not sewn at all or cut off (if it is a used form).

According to Shurygin, before the American soldiers fastened these tags, called "cat eyes", on the back of the helmet. But with the 2000-s began to sew on their pockets. At the same time, the new tags turned out to be smaller than the old ones, which made them not quite convenient to recognize them with night vision devices. Currently, a large number of larger infrared tags are being manufactured for the military, which can be mounted on sleeves, body armor, hats, etc.

It is noteworthy that at the present time, the NVD is not enough in the Russian army, and those that, according to the military, do not make it possible to clearly distinguish the infrared tags. In the common NSPU (night vision device for small arms), low resolution and a small overview. Instead of a clear picture, he gives a muddy porridge and vague silhouettes. Therefore, without the use of modern good night vision devices, the sense of such tags will be scarce.

Viktor Murakhovsky, who is the chief editor of the industry magazine Arsenal of the Fatherland, believes that infrared tags may be useful in the near future. He believes that this situation with NVD, as now, in our army will not last so long. Money for the purchase of such products are allocated, the purchase of new systems and night vision equipment is being made. Over time, the Russian army will fully master the combat operations at night. It is then that these tags will become indispensable, as they will help to quickly identify their soldiers.

The expert notes that the experience of Afghanistan and Iraq has once again demonstrated that the armies of NATO countries prefer to fight at night, using night-vision devices. Currently in Russia, the most common and numerous night vision devices are riflescopes of the NSPU family, which can be installed on all types of small arms, starting with the famous Kalashnikov assault rifle and ending with hand grenade launchers. NSPU is a development of the 80-s of the last century and belongs to the NVN of the 1-th generation. From 2009, the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation began the purchase of night visions of Belarusian production “Yukon” and “Daedal” for infantry, belonging to the 2 generation. Along with this, work is being carried out in Russia to create a new generation of 3 generation of night vision devices.

Information sources:
-http: //gunm.ru/news/infrakrasnye_metki_voennykh_ssha/2011-07-30-398
-http: //rjnzhfvfnthjdbx.gorod.tomsk.ru/index-1369235029.php
-http://www.bratishka.ru/archiv/2010/2/2010_2_4.php
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  1. Mikhado
    Mikhado 31 May 2013 08: 28 New
    +5
    One of those "little things" that will help save the lives of our soldiers. It is not a sin to adopt this, if possible, from the amers.
    1. fartfraer
      fartfraer 31 May 2013 08: 30 New
      +4
      will end only in the war with the "Papuans".
      1. Alexey Prikazchikov
        Alexey Prikazchikov 31 May 2013 09: 17 New
        +2
        You have all the same answers.
        will end only in the war with the "Papuans".
        1. scliss
          scliss 31 May 2013 11: 09 New
          +4
          but if so
          meaning in such a label only if the opponent does not have NVD
          as well as just too much light
          1. Pimply
            Pimply 31 May 2013 13: 01 New
            0
            The label is small in size, mounted on the back of the helmet or sleeve. Have you ever looked into a night vision device? The enemy will not see all these details, because he will be at a distance. But the soldiers of the unit will see all this perfectly.
            1. vjhbc
              vjhbc 31 May 2013 13: 45 New
              +1
              Yeah, especially in the city, the enemy will not be visible at all, they will close their eyes and remove the PNV
              Quote: Pimply
              The label is small in size, mounted on the back of the helmet or sleeve. Have you ever looked into a night vision device? The enemy will not see all these details, because he will be at a distance. But the soldiers of the unit will see all this perfectly.
              1. Pimply
                Pimply 31 May 2013 15: 41 New
                +2
                Did you use it? I used it. More than comfortable
            2. Misantrop
              Misantrop 31 May 2013 13: 55 New
              0
              Quote: Pimply
              mounted on the back of the helmet or sleeve.

              One sniper with a noiseless noise behind this unit will carry it out completely even before the start of the clash
              1. Pimply
                Pimply 31 May 2013 15: 42 New
                +4
                Let's not live fairy tales. Have you seen in reality how this system works? I am.
              2. The comment was deleted.
            3. fartfraer
              fartfraer 31 May 2013 18: 04 New
              0
              "The enemy will not see all these details, because he will be at a distance. But the soldiers of the unit will see all this perfectly." - At what distance? At night, you can quite get close enough.
        2. fartfraer
          fartfraer 31 May 2013 11: 25 New
          +2
          You chose some kind of word not interesting to show your respect for the interlocutor.
          but besides futuristic rudeness do you still have arguments?
          1. Pimply
            Pimply 31 May 2013 13: 02 New
            0
            Well, a person is absolutely right. You get into a conversation about which you have no idea. Have you ever watched a night vision device?
            1. fartfraer
              fartfraer 31 May 2013 18: 01 New
              +2
              "Well, the person is absolutely right. You get into a conversation about the topic of which you have no idea. Have you ever looked into a night vision device?" - if you have seen it, used it, and I know perfectly well what (sorry) we have in army (not with specialists, but in motorized rifle units), for example, at night a person in a camouflage cannot be seen until he starts to move, but with this mark it will be quite visible to himself. Further, the statement that the mark will only be on the back of the helmet and on the side of the sleeve, it will be clearly on the sleeve. further, the sentry at the post will not be able to determine whether his or her enemies are approaching him, if he does not see the marks (with the back of the head, we don’t often walk, agree?), and if he sees the mark, then to Why the statement that the enemy will not see the mark?
              1. Pimply
                Pimply 31 May 2013 19: 21 New
                +1
                Have you seen these tags? Have you ever worn NVD?
                1. fartfraer
                  fartfraer 31 May 2013 20: 09 New
                  +1
                  I’ve got a night light on a machine gun. Or is it no longer PNV?
                  1. Pimply
                    Pimply 31 May 2013 20: 20 New
                    0
                    NVD. Have you seen the infrared label in it?
                    1. fartfraer
                      fartfraer 31 May 2013 20: 23 New
                      0
                      sorry, one more question "have you seen" and I will not talk to you anymore) no, I haven’t seen, so I’m asking you how this label looks
        3. vjhbc
          vjhbc 31 May 2013 13: 44 New
          0
          think with our head we have the enemy; the enemy doesn’t have it;
          Quote: Alexey Prikazchikov
          You have all the same answers.
          will end only in the war with the "Papuans".
        4. Vovka levka
          Vovka levka 31 May 2013 14: 42 New
          +1
          Quote: Alexey Prikazchikov
          You have all the same answers.
          will end only in the war with the "Papuans".

          I agree, there is a big problem.
      2. Atrix
        Atrix 31 May 2013 13: 45 New
        +2
        Quote: fartfraer
        will end only in the war with the "Papuans".

        But the bandages on the sleeve are against advanced countries.
        1. fartfraer
          fartfraer 31 May 2013 20: 13 New
          +1
          you are strange people) explain how ours will be able to see the marks, and the enemy with PNV will not be able to. ) so really a sniper-enemy with a good night sights will not see the mark that ours should see in the army trash?
          1. Pimply
            Pimply 31 May 2013 20: 32 New
            0
            The mark is placed on a very limited area, for example, on a spider attached to the armor or on the helmet at the back. It gives a dim light, which is slightly distinguished from the background of the form. Slightly. Your figure in the night does not glow like a torch. This is a small icon that is visible from limited angles, and is not noticeable if the fighter is lying, for example.
            1. fartfraer
              fartfraer 31 May 2013 20: 39 New
              +1
              finally answered, I just can’t believe in such happiness.
              Well, then I understand correctly that one unit will not be able to find out who is meeting their own or others?
              all questions are removed.
              1. Pimply
                Pimply 31 May 2013 21: 18 New
                0
                Have you read the article at all? This is a label. To reduce the likelihood of "friendly fire". Moreover, in different countries it is attached in different ways. You throw out dozens of factors, how and in what form they will be attached, what labels, etc. - and oh, they will shine! A sniper will shoot them all.
                1. fartfraer
                  fartfraer 31 May 2013 21: 46 New
                  0
                  I did not say that they would shine, but the possibility of a guide to the mark was quite possible. However, if it is on the back of the helmet, then the enemy certainly does not have such a possibility.
          2. Cake
            Cake 24 July 2013 00: 38 New
            0
            If a sniper has a good PNV, then he will figure it out without a mark. Yes, and this is not much, I think, it will reduce losses if you fight not against the "Papuas") but against a country whose soldiers are also marked, who, for example, wakes up at night in the city in a nose-to-nose collision the mark is square or triangular.
    2. Apostle
      Apostle 31 May 2013 11: 15 New
      +1
      Yes, a great thing, a useful little thing ...
      1. vjhbc
        vjhbc 31 May 2013 13: 49 New
        +1
        complete nonsense to deliberately make your soldier visible if you do something like airplane identification that responds only to your call, but this is overweight, although the development of electronics is going down, so they’ll come to this
        Quote: Apostle
        Yes, a great thing, a useful little thing ...
    3. vjhbc
      vjhbc 31 May 2013 13: 42 New
      +1
      it’s some kind of shit, but this is a sacred target for the enemy, you don’t need to look out for the silhouette, but just loop at the tag
      Quote: Mikhado
      One of those "little things" that will help save the lives of our soldiers. It is not a sin to adopt this, if possible, from the amers.
      1. Pimply
        Pimply 31 May 2013 15: 43 New
        0
        How do you imagine that? Around the soldier halo halo? Or is a bright luminous dot lit on the silhouette?
    4. Misantrop
      Misantrop 31 May 2013 13: 53 New
      +1
      Quote: Mikhado
      help save the lives of our soldiers.
      ... by shooting enemy soldiers. Moreover, focusing precisely on these clearly visible labels. Think for yourself, camouflage is designed to HIDE a fighter from surveillance, and here is such an illumination. So they write to you that this is ONLY suitable in a war with those who can’t make out these identification marks. And even then, only until the very first trophy trunks request
      1. Pimply
        Pimply 31 May 2013 15: 44 New
        0
        Have you seen these tags in reality? How do you imagine them - apparently, as the illuminated silhouette of a soldier or a brightly burning dot on the silhouette, right?
        1. fartfraer
          fartfraer 31 May 2013 18: 10 New
          0
          Well, for the label to work, it should at least differ from the general background, right? That means it most likely is brighter against the background of the fighter’s figure (a dot on the helmet for example), or vice versa it should just be black and invisible in the spectra of the night light, but then you need to make such an entire shape, and not tags, I think so. What is wrong?
          you so often tell that we are wrong, you have seen everything and you know everything, but at the same time you haven’t said what this mark is like when viewing it from a "night light", share, if you please
          1. Pimply
            Pimply 31 May 2013 19: 21 New
            -2
            Once again I ask NVD put on, saw tags?
            1. fartfraer
              fartfraer 31 May 2013 20: 16 New
              0
              you are somehow inadequate, it seems to me. everything is clear from my comments, I didn’t see the tags. you claim to be seen, so tell us how they look in stadium
              1. Pimply
                Pimply 31 May 2013 20: 21 New
                -3
                So you, without seeing the tag, start here high about how it will be tracked for kilometers, can you explain to me?
                1. fartfraer
                  fartfraer 31 May 2013 20: 25 New
                  +2
                  I didn’t say a word about kilometers. Keep your fantasies with you and do not misinterpret my words.
                  from 300 m. the mark is visible? and from 200?
            2. vjhbc
              vjhbc 12 June 2013 23: 32 New
              0
              I’ve answered, I’ve put it on, we’ll go on, take a corpse with a mark, show it at night so that we go around from all sides from different distances, train to remember and where to shoot at the sight of the mark and that's it
              Quote: Pimply
              Once again I ask NVD put on, saw tags?
  2. aszzz888
    aszzz888 31 May 2013 08: 35 New
    +1
    Implement is necessary. And then all these handkerchiefs and bandages on the sleeves and other parts of the body look like the Indians in the war.
  3. unclevad
    unclevad 31 May 2013 09: 24 New
    +5
    Especially they will be effective for snipers. Although target designation at assaulting positions at night is also a great thing (and if you hide them with such an assault, then why are they needed?).
    1. Pimply
      Pimply 31 May 2013 13: 04 New
      0
      Have you ever looked at sniper NVD? All these little things are not visible at a distance. But within the battle group or at a short distance they are noticeable.
      1. fartfraer
        fartfraer 31 May 2013 18: 20 New
        0
        What kind of PNV tell me specifically?
        1. Pimply
          Pimply 31 May 2013 19: 22 New
          0
          At least some. Let's talk about starlight systems. Let's not touch on infrared yet.
          1. fartfraer
            fartfraer 31 May 2013 20: 21 New
            0
            you can’t answer the question? I asked the model specific to your cool PNV. I don’t know the principles of their work, and I don’t need to know this. I know how to use it, I know that what we had was only suitable for open areas and in the forest it is of no use only to prevent tripping over a stump and not crashing into a tree.
            And what kind of PNV did you use? Where did you see the tags? And how do they look in PNV?
            1. Pimply
              Pimply 31 May 2013 21: 23 New
              0
              Will the Israeli names "akhbar", "adi", "akhbarosh" tell you anything? NVG of the 2nd and 3rd generation.
              1. fartfraer
                fartfraer 31 May 2013 21: 52 New
                +1
                ATP for the answer. That thing that in the picture is not familiar to me. I’ll tell you more, it is not familiar to the vast majority of Russian military personnel.
                so I concluded that we decided, as usual, that "they" have good "night lights" and tags, and we will have tags. taking into account the number of "night lights" in companies (motorized rifle, airborne, in general, not "specialists" ) this label is really needed only by "specialists". Here we, with your help, have found out everything.
                1. Pimply
                  Pimply 31 May 2013 22: 48 New
                  0
                  This label, coupled with a night vision device, is needed by everyone. Because it sharply reduces the likelihood of defeat from "friendly fire". Naturally, it is meaningless without a night vision device
  4. Nayhas
    Nayhas 31 May 2013 10: 38 New
    +5
    I don't know about the USA, but our main losses from "friendly fire" occur during the daytime when one ... gives incorrect coordinates to artillerymen or aviation, or ... does not warn neighbors about the actions of his subordinates in the square where they can mistaken for non-friends or ... the artilleryman gets confused in the calculations and instead of the desired target they cover their own, here no marks will help ...
  5. Reserve buildbat
    Reserve buildbat 31 May 2013 11: 21 New
    +4
    Controversial innovation. Such a mark shows the location of the soldier not only to his own, but also to the enemy, who also cannot use the NVG. So the "boyars are summing up" ...
    1. fartfraer
      fartfraer 31 May 2013 11: 28 New
      +2
      the development of individual means of communication is much more effective .. it is true that it will come out more expensively. when can you simply ask “Vasya, is that you?”, and in response, “es, yvan, this is me.” Throw a pseudo-Vasya grenade and keep vigilant at the post.
    2. Pimply
      Pimply 31 May 2013 13: 05 New
      +2
      Does not show. The mark is mainly needed to work at a short distance. From the big it is unrealistic to actually see. Used similar in the 2000s in Tsahal. It greatly simplifies the identification of their own.
  6. EDW
    EDW 31 May 2013 12: 06 New
    0
    Why do we need the same identification system as the "probable friends", especially since they (or the mercenaries, terrorists, etc. equipped by them) will be able to see our soldiers better?
    We need something else, less primitive and not used.
    Or the purpose of IR tags - to make it impossible to distinguish us from them at night?
    1. Pimply
      Pimply 31 May 2013 13: 06 New
      0
      What are your specific suggestions?
      1. Misantrop
        Misantrop 31 May 2013 14: 00 New
        +1
        Quote: Pimply
        What are your specific suggestions?
        Peace talks. Usually do not shoot at this time lol
        1. Pimply
          Pimply 31 May 2013 17: 14 New
          0
          This is a mistake 8))
      2. EDW
        EDW 31 May 2013 23: 14 New
        +1
        I won’t specifically propose anything (because here is a discussion and not a brainstorm on a problem with subsequent implementation) although there can be many proposals.
        I just think it's wrong to use IR tags 100% compatible with the PNV of "probable friends" and indeed, with any PNV.
        Thus, I believe that IR tags, for some reason called by the "friend or foe" recognition system, do not justify their name.
        P.S. if you still want specifics, then offhand the options are:
        from analogs of aviation recognition systems, although this is not an optimal solution, to contactless data reading circuits,
        or resonant circuits with a notch of sewn / attached to / on equipment ...
        or before using alternating polarized-reflective surfaces in the same infrared range (then you will have to set a polarizer in the PNV, but the requirements for the PNV will be lower than when using IR tags) ...

        There are plenty of ways to implement the same thing.
  7. USNik
    USNik 31 May 2013 14: 08 New
    0
    I think this thing is purely specific and is used in special forces. An ordinary infantryman doesn’t need it, because he does not have NVD.
    1. Mitzhel
      Mitzhel 31 May 2013 14: 26 New
      0
      This is at different rogue garbage dumps soldiers without NVD. In the armies of developed countries, NVD has long been used by ordinary soldiers along with collimators, modern means of communication and other wonders of hostile technology
    2. Pimply
      Pimply 31 May 2013 15: 56 New
      0
      In the early 2000s, while serving in Tsakhal, most of those who went on a night mission had NVD
  8. Mikhail3
    Mikhail3 31 May 2013 14: 39 New
    +5
    Add a couple of amplification stages to the NVD, optionally, so that you can connect as needed. A problem for a fourth-year student of any industrial electronics institute or for a computer scientist. And the marks will become views per kilometer. Since the production is massive, you can even highlight the preferred wavelength range. Yes, the rest will differ worse. So what if the victims graciously put on bright targets? And by interrupting the stupid "lamplighters" the additional amplifier can be turned off. On the back? Well, let's stick the IR camera on a mound, establish communication, and at least roll out the fiber optic, since now it's inexpensive. And let's sit down to wait for the next helluva lot of smart wave of cyberwarfare ...
    Against the Papuans.
  9. specKFOR
    specKFOR 31 May 2013 17: 43 New
    0
    ACU uniform adversary soldiers have IK markers on their helmets, sleeve pockets and pants pockets. Sew on the pants themselves. Efficiency at short distances up to one hundred meters. An excellent means of friend or foe. But at the expense of the confrontation between us and the enemy of NATO, then this will not happen soon. By then something new will come up.
  10. uzer 13
    uzer 13 31 May 2013 19: 56 New
    +1
    The Americans use their technical superiority, but this is possible only in a war with an insufficiently equipped enemy. And if the enemy is no more stupid than them, what will he do first? Of course, he will fake these marks. The result can be imagined. Yes, and even any In mental development, a reconnaissance saboteur will try to get the clothes of the enemy, after which he will be able to move freely along the front edge and rear of the enemy. There should be another problem on the agenda - creating clothes for the night, which could not miss and reflect the infrared spectrum. This will already a different level of equipment compared to which reflective stripes seem like a child’s game.
  11. Truffoff
    Truffoff 31 May 2013 22: 48 New
    0
    The Americans are rampant out of the war to make Far Cry 3.
  12. Earnest
    Earnest 1 June 2013 09: 49 New
    +2
    The main purpose of the application is the mutual recognition of personnel BEFORE entry into a clash, that is, the distance is about 100 m at night on an intersection. The given examples are one-sided, because the "camouflage - identification" dilemma cannot be solved on a swoop. I always strived for maximum secrecy of the actions of the l / s, but here it is proposed to hang reflectors on the back.
  13. Matt eversmann
    Matt eversmann 2 June 2013 00: 41 New
    +1
    First of all, it is necessary to improve the system of training personnel, especially sergeants. If you look at large, the combat efficiency of the army is not too high, which is shown by sudden inspections and exercises. So the first thing to do is to train soldiers to behave competently in battle and use equipment. Whether we really need these marks or not is not a very important issue at the moment.
  14. KVB-76
    KVB-76 5 June 2013 13: 28 New
    +1
    This is all good if the probable opponent does not have NVD, and if so? He will also be great to see our fighters with a characteristic mark, shoot here ...
  15. mirag2
    mirag2 7 June 2013 08: 27 New
    0
    Quote: Pimply
    Have you seen these tags in reality? How do you imagine them - apparently, as the illuminated silhouette of a soldier or a brightly burning dot on the silhouette, right?

    Those who have not seen looking at the photo at the beginning of the article think that they, as brightly as those spots, also glow from a long range.
  16. Hauptam
    Hauptam 10 June 2013 22: 29 New
    0
    I bought a used ACU in Pskov there were no marks on the sleeves of the sporot. In the hunting scope Belomo "burns" like the eyes of a wild boar.
  17. pan grizian
    pan grizian 22 June 2013 15: 48 New
    +1
    The material of such a tag reflects only the infrared part of the spectrum, which makes it possible to observe a very bright point when using the NVD.


    Doesn’t it turn out that this very bright point will facilitate the task of an enemy sniper with a night sight?
  18. saygon66
    saygon66 28 July 2013 20: 50 New
    0
    Saw these things on the English desert uniform. The size is about 1x1 cm. Smooth, flexible plastic, silver color, inside you can see a mesh, like a honeycomb. Often comes across in a military "second-hand",
    1. Hauptam
      Hauptam 15 August 2013 22: 28 New
      0
      silver plastic works like a reflective reflective rays of the visible spectrum, the labels are black glossy, absorb visible light and the infrared rays reflect.
      1. saygon66
        saygon66 29 August 2013 16: 42 New
        0
        - Well, live a century - learn a century ... Is that it?