I hope this does not happen. However, if they are delivered to Syria, we know how to proceed.
- Israeli Defense Minister Moshe Ya'alon
The ingenious designers of the S-300 family of anti-aircraft systems were a quarter of a century ahead of time - until now the “XNUMXth” guard of heaven is the most advanced anti-aircraft missile system in the world, before which the entire combat aviation NATO.
Time has confirmed the correctness of the technical solutions incorporated in C-300: the design of the complex turned out to be perfect, in terms of real combat conditions. Our scientists were the first to guess to place missiles in TPK (transport-launch containers) - sealed “cans”, in which ammunition (anti-aircraft missile + launch gas generator) can be stored for decades, ready to launch at any minute. "The key to start" - and the rocket leaves TPK, rushing up to meet its inevitable death; in a minute it will become a flash of blinding light, disappearing from the radar screens along with the enemy aircraft.
The second ingenious "trick" from the creators of the C-300 is a vertical launch: the anti-aircraft missile turns itself in the air and lies on the combat course. This scheme allows you to place the launcher on any suitable "patch" in the folds of the landscape, between buildings, in narrow gorges and hollows, protected from the effects of shock waves and means of destruction of the enemy. Unlike the C-300, the American Patriot anti-aircraft missile system has to lose valuable time by deploying a heavy launcher in the direction of the target. Due to the inclined launch, “Patriot” needs space and open spaces - the launcher is hampered by nearby houses, hills and trees.
The creators of the C-300 initially worked for the future, given the progress in countering air defense systems. It is no secret that radar signals are emitted with side branches - “lobes”. In modern electronic warfare, the enemy always tries to catch the “side lobes” of the main radio beam, thereby recognizing the frequency and mode of operation of the radar. Having received this information, it does not cost anything to “hammer” the radar by interference in the desired wavelength range.
The creators of the C-300 have foreseen this threat - the “side lobes” of the C-300 beam are minimized, which makes it extremely difficult to detect and classify the radar with a “three hundredth” anti-aircraft missile system. In addition, the C-300 had serious potential for adapting to jamming conditions and suppressing "Doppler noise." In the work of C-300, noise-resistant communication lines with automatic frequency tuning are used, there are “collective” work modes in which data obtained from different radars flow to a single command center of an anti-aircraft missile division. No matter how hard the enemy tries to jam the anti-aircraft defense, anti-aircraft gunners in any case will get a clear idea of the air situation, summarizing the fragmentary information from several radars.
It is possible to work in the mode of triangulation - simultaneous highlighting of the target with two radars; Knowing the exact distance (base) between the radar and the angles / azimuths at which they observe the target, you can build a triangle at the base of which is the base, at the apex there is a spotted target. After a moment, the computer will accurately determine the coordinates of the target. A very ancient and reliable way to calculate, for example, the location of the jammer.
As for the means of destruction C-300 - the topic is beaten and obvious. Meeting with a rocket that cuts the sky at six speeds of sound is a guaranteed end for any aerodynamic object created by human hands. Finally, the C-300 family of anti-aircraft missile systems is a whole set of detection tools, mobile launchers on wheeled and tracked chassis (not counting shipboard C-300F), Kung with auxiliary equipment and modules for maintaining combat duty.
The choice - two dozen samples of rocket ammunition medium, long and very long range; with conventional and "special" combat units, with active and semi-active homing heads.
Disadvantages? They have any system. The list of deficiencies of C-300 usually consists of two factors:
The first is the bulkiness of the complex. There are complaints about its element base. As the old joke says: our microchips are the biggest microchips in the world!
The second drawback is in no way connected with the design of the air defense missile system - this is a common problem of all modern anti-aircraft missile systems associated with the fundamental laws of nature. Radio waves propagate in a strictly rectilinear way, and this causes problems with the detection of low-flying objects. For example, formidable claims about destroying targets at a distance of 400 km for the C-400 “Triumph” air defense system concern only targets in the upper stratosphere. At the same time, any “corncob”, flying over the very tops of the trees, can safely sneak up to the C-400 positions at a distance of a couple of tens of kilometers, while remaining invisible and completely invulnerable to the anti-aircraft missile complex (super-refraction and other rare atmospheric phenomena that increase the radar detection range, we will not consider).
The formula for calculating the horizon range (radio horizon), taking into account the height of the observer and the height of the observed object
The problem of radio horizon has two solutions:
The first is the issuance of target designation using external means of detection (airborne early warning aircraft, spacecraft), followed by firing anti-aircraft missiles on active homing. Alas, none of the modern air defense systems have such fantastic modes of operation.
The second solution is to increase the height of the antenna. To expand the "visibility zone" of the C-300 radar, a universal mobile tower 25 m in height has been created, transported by vehicle MAZ-537, as well as 39-meter two-section tower 40ВХNUMXМ, which, despite the enormous height, can be mounted on an unequipped position within two hours .
The combat capabilities of the complex are exceptionally great - it is no coincidence that our “Western partners” are so ragged about the mention of C-300. Nonetheless, it is naive to believe that the NATO members have been sitting with all their arms "with folded arms." There is a problem - there must be a solution. The American military industrial complex frantically sought a way out of the current situation, and proposed a number of very significant and effective means.
I invite readers to get acquainted with the NATO Air Force recruitment to overcome the powerful echelon air defense systems and make a prediction: does C-300 have a chance to protect the Syrian sky?
About this plane is not to speak out loud. Let Discovery and Impact Force discuss the next fifth-generation fighter, but the existence of the Rivit Joint RC-135W should be hidden from the eyes of the general public. This is the secret of the US Air Force, the American trump card, without which it would be impossible to conduct modern wars.
So, get acquainted: Boeing RC-135W “Rivit Joint” is an aircraft of the SIGINT system (signal intelligence - radio intelligence), a key factor in overcoming enemy air defense. Barraging in the airspace of Turkey, Iraq and Israel, the RC-135W carefully “gropes” Syrian territory with its side antennas, identifying the sources of radio signals and their belonging to different systems. It is the long-nosed, unsightly plane “Rivit Joint” that will draw the radio engineering map of the enemy air defense system, will find in it weak spots and vulnerabilities - corridors through which the air defense suppression groups will go.
Peleng ... radar of Damascus International Airport ... azimuth 03, an unknown source of radiation, we launch a program to find compliance ... oh shit! This is a tin shield * of the Russian C-300 complex !!!
tin shield - the general designation of the radar for detecting targets at low and extremely low altitudes, adopted in NATO countries
RC-135 is based on the KC-135 air tanker, which, in turn, is based on the Boeing 707 airliner. The RC-135 reconnaissance family has been for more than half a century now. The RC-135W version of the Rivit Joint is currently in use - the entire 22 of the aircraft in the United States Air Force + three reconnaissance aircraft of the United Kingdom.
Also, for the electronic reconnaissance and identification of the positions of enemy air defense missiles, naval aircraft EP-3C "Aries" (a modification of the famous "Orion") and a number of special vehicles with indices "U", "R" and "E" can be involved. Combined with space reconnaissance satellites, the NATO command is able to obtain complete information about the state of the enemy’s air defense system.
Positions ZRK swaddled, what's next?
The “jammers” come into play. For example, EC-130H Compass Call - clumsy interference generator based on the Hercules C-130 military transport aircraft.
“Compass Call” does not even try to climb into the zone of action of enemy air defense, patrolling at a low altitude of a hundred kilometers from the air defense system positions, while regularly “breaking” the air with squalls of electronic discharges. The actions of the EU-130H adversely affect the work of the enemy’s electronic equipment - interference clog the communication lines, disrupting the coordination of enemy forces and creating additional problems for enemy air defense.
The number of EU-130H "Compass Call" in the ranks of the US Air Force - 14 units.
The location and type of air defense missile system has been established, the management is partially disorganized. It is time for a powerful strike on the enemy's air defense system.
Specialized electronic warfare aircraft EA-18G "Growler", created on the basis of the fighter-bomber F / A-18F "Super Hornet." The machine directly cover the air defense suppression groups.
The "growler" cruelly burns radio electronic noise, creating a fancy dance of winding lines and stripes on the screens of enemy radars. On board the EW aircraft, a complex of modern equipment capable of detecting and identifying sources of radio signals in real time mode, clogging the air with a continuous crack of electrical discharges.
But, no matter how cool the American EA-18G is, it’s too tough for him to “stick” into the C-300 air defense system. “Growler” prefers to do its dirty tricks at a distance, clogging the air with interference and firing at the identified positions of the air defense system with anti-radar AGM-88 HARM missiles.
Growler is an American aviation insurance policy. Without his support, it would be problematic to “crush” enemy air defense. Even after destroying the positions of the air defense missile system, flying over enemy territory is not complete without accompanying these machines - the EW complex and drop traps aboard the EA-18G can cover attack groups from any existing ground-to-air facilities - from the powerful C-300 to "Primitive" portable SAM "Igla" or "Stinger" in the entire frequency range of the wave spectrum.
EA-90G Growler 18 aircraft to date, all vehicles attributed to the Navy and Marine Corps.
In addition to the EW, rocket weapons air-to-air missiles and anti-radar missiles, the EA-18G is capable of carrying conventional strike weapons - if a frightened SA-NG operator turns off the radar, the “Growler” strikes with guided bombs.
Speaking of anti-radar missiles:
Wild Lasky. AGM-88 High-Speed Anti-Radar Missle
Actually, this is what all previous gestures were made for - the culmination of the scenario of suppressing the enemy air defense system. The case came rockets, targeting sources of radar radiation. The calculation is simple - using HARMs, radar detect and illuminate targets, after which the C-300 division will turn into a pile of useless iron.
Anti-radar missiles are not very selective. HARMs beat everything - from FM radio station antennas to microwaves and satellite phones. To achieve the desired effect, they are launched in volleys of several thousand pieces, literally “sowing” the area adjacent to the identified positions of the air defense missile system - as a result, several pieces will surely explode near the radar, disabling the anti-aircraft missile system.
AGM-88 HARM on the wing pole of the multipurpose fighter F / A-18C
HARM is dangerous and cunning - even if the operator, sensing something was wrong, will have time to turn off the radar installation, HARM will remember the last coordinates of the radiation source and continue on its way towards the target, being guided by onboard INS data.
When it came to launching HARMs, it was no time for jokes and any decency. Everyone who is capable of holding a weapon in their hands is involved in massive attacks: F / A-18 Hornet, EA-18G Growler, F-16 Fighting Falken, Tornado ... rockets are launched from the maximum possible distance, trying to the minimum appear on the eyes of the calculations of the air defense system. Entering the area of attack at extremely low altitude — a slide — shooting HARMs on homing — caring for a radio horizon, to a low altitude. The slightest delay threatens death.
Especially worth noting F-16CJ - A special modification of "Falken", going to the tip of the attack. F-16CJ are in service with the squadrons "Wild Lasky" - combat groups specializing in the suppression of air defense systems. It is these small, nimble (and cheap - not to be pitiful) cars, under the cover of the “Groolers”, are the first to intrude into the airspace of the country *, giving the calculations of the air defense system a rather dubious choice - to receive HARM as a gift or turn off the radar, turning into a target for bombs with laser guided. However, the Wild Laska themselves are no laughing matter - the guys are seriously at risk and can turn from hunters into game at any time, unexpectedly hit by an air defense missile system.
* first, after sea-based cruise missiles
F-16CJ of the unit "Wild Lasky"
In reality, the situation is much tougher - according to the US Air Force, the cost of one 360-kilogram HARM is overwhelming for $ 300 thousand - the thousands of volleys of such missiles can ruin the US budget by a billion dollars. Very expensive toy.
Blow from the sea. BGM-109 "Tomahawk"
Tactical cruise missile designed to destroy important ground targets (command centers, communications centers, radar stations and anti-aircraft missile systems, airfields, hangars and caponiers, military bases, warehouses, etc. strategic facilities) at a distance of up to 1600 km. Based on the facts of the use of the Topors, the massive launch of these flying suicide robots leads to a noticeable destabilization of the armed forces of the enemy.
The jokes about the subsonic flight speed of the BGM-109 usually go sideways to frivolous jokers - Tomahawk is really not too fast (the cruising speed is ≈ 850 km / h, with a slight increase in the last leg of the flight due to fuel production, see the Zhukovsky formula). This creates certain problems when planning operations - rockets take time to reach their targets. But this does not affect the vulnerability of air defense weapons - the "Ax", in any case, is too low to be in view of the radars of the air defense system. Stealth - the main "feature" of the cruise missile BGM-109.
Troubles can arise only when attacking well-defended targets, while overcoming the anti-aircraft frontiers of the Pantsirey and Tungusok. Well, here, as the map will fall ... Official statistics on the use of Tomahawks (NATO aggression against Yugoslavia, 1999 year) - 700 launched cruise missiles, shot down by 40 (less than 6%), another 17 missiles were obstructed.
Vertical launch installations on the American destroyer. In each can be "Tomahawk"
It is worth noting that the modern modification of Tomahawk Block IV was able to patrol in the air in standby mode and learned how to destroy moving targets.
Backstab. Helicopter AH-64D "Apache Longbow"
And where does this crank go ?! - the amazed reader will exclaim, and it will appear wrong.
In winter, 1991, during Operation Desert Storm, Apache helicopters, flying through the night mist and impenetrable smoke from burning oil wells, “laid” four corridors in the Iraqi air defense system overnight — from the border all the way to Baghdad.
Suppression of air defense systems is one of the main functions of the Apache. To do this, the rotary-wing machine has everything you need: ultra-low flight altitude, the ability to hide in the folds of the relief - the radar above the rotor hub allows you to hide behind any obstacle (hill, structure, forest belt), “exposing” only the radar antenna tip. Finally, four packs of guided Hellfire missiles on the underwing pylons are enough to turn the position of the air defense system into burning ruins.
Also, in addition to attack helicopters, the role of unmanned aerial vehicles. Slow, clumsy and weak - however, these "dragonflies" have one important feature - they are desperately brave. The drone, without blinking an eye, will pass there, where the bravest of the kamikaze will be afraid to go. The UAV has nothing to lose, it is able to shove "in the forehead" on the position of the air defense missile system, showing complete contempt for death. A good tool in combination with the other aspects listed above (Tomahawks, Growlers and others. Products gloomy American genius).
Finally, the threat sounded this week from the mouth of the Israeli Defense Minister: "If they are delivered to Syria, we know how to act."
Moshe Ya'alon is not bluffing. Israel is known for its tough actions for its own national security. Shacket special forces raid on an Egyptian airfield (1966 year), abduction of the Soviet radar (Operation Rooster-53, Egypt, 1969 year), bombing of the Iraqi nuclear center Ozirak (1981 year), bombing of a weapons factory in Sudan (October 2012) ), recent attacks on Syria ... Israel spits on all the norms of international law, unceremoniously invading the airspace of other states, and does not hesitate to use a weapon to kill.
It is possible that the Israelis will try to destroy Russian anti-aircraft missile systems even before they are deployed in combat positions.
The Battle of Titans
If all six ordered anti-aircraft missile systems are delivered to Syria, this will become a weak hope for a peaceful resolution of the Syrian conflict; NATO will falter and will not dare to launch a military invasion operation. The Pentagon has serious reasons to reflect on their behavior and once again weigh all possible risks in the attack on Syria. Even if the operation goes smoothly and the US Air Force’s air armada can crush six Syrian C-300s, with only a few casualties in the aircraft, even in this case, the Pentagon will have considerable financial difficulties associated with the monstrous overruns of HARM missiles and other ammunition needed to suppress the super-systems C-300.