In 2013, the “Mongol-Tatar” invasion was already discussed in detail in a series of articles on the Military Review. Russian land before the Batu invasion. The problem of the "Mongol" invasion of Russia. In this work it was concluded that the traditional presentation of the "Tatar-Mongol" invasion is a myth and deception, extremely beneficial to Russia's geopolitical rivals in the West and the East. A more reasonable and politically advantageous Russia is the hypothesis of supporters of the “Scythian” (Indo-European) origin of the “Tatars”. Proponents of this theory argue that Russia as a civilization and geopolitical reality existed almost always and within the borders of Northern Eurasia. Our direct ancestors entered the world history under different names - Aryans, Cimmerians, Scythians, Wends, Sarmatians, Roksolans, Dews, Rasens, Varangians, Rugs, "Mughals" ("Powerful"), etc. In the territory of Northern Eurasia - from the Pacific Ocean and North China to Central Europe and the Black Sea anthropological, cultural and often political unity can be traced from the times of the Neolithic and Bronze Age (this time of the Proto-Indo-Europeans and Aryans) to the Middle Ages. The Russian people (Ruses) did not come from anywhere to the territory of the present settlement, as we are told, he originally lived here. Although no one denies migrations of individual clans and tribal unions.
It is clear that a single empire from the Pacific to the Carpathians did not exist. But from time to time our ancestors created huge state formations that existed during the life of one great ruler, or several generations. The Northern Empire had a huge impact on the whole history of mankind. Migrants from it created the Indian and Iranian civilizations. And in India, many traditions were mothballed up to the present, when in the north they were already forgotten or they were deliberately destroyed. Great Scythia also had a huge impact on the Middle East, the formation of the Western world and Chinese statehood.
Belonging to the same civilization did not exclude serious military conflicts between different lands, tribal unions and state entities. This is not surprising - look at the modern relations of the Russian Federation and Ukraine, both states populate the descendants of the Rus, with a common language, culture and faith (with minor local features), but this does not prevent them from conflicting with each other. We see the same conflict in the 13 century, when the heirs of the great northern civilization - Scythia, who inhabited the territories of the Southern Urals and Southern Siberia, modern Mongolia (the “Scythho-Siberian world”) experienced a passionate surge and included Turkic tribes in their movement and created a huge empire. It was these “Scythians” that came to Vladimir-Suzdal and Kievan Rus. They were the only real fighting force capable of crushing China, Khorezm, dozens of state formations. The semi-wild Mongolian shepherds would never have been able to create an empire, for this we need a serious cultural, economic foundation. Anthropologically and genetically, these late Scythians were the same Rus (“white, bright”), like the Russians of Ryazan and Kiev. They differed in the form of clothing - the “Scypho-Siberian bestial” style, with their dialect, preserved the traditional faith for the most part - were pagans (“unclean”). Therefore, the "Mongolian" yoke did not leave the slightest change in the anthropological image of the population of Russia, and the khans found common with most of the princes, became related to them, fraternized, and crushed the western knights together.
On the whole, there were few Rus- “Siberians”, they constituted the military-political elite of the created empire and were subsequently assimilated by the masses of Mongoloids and Turks. At the same time, they gave a passionate impulse to the Turks. The memory of them was preserved in the legends and tales of many nationalities, who considered their ancestors to be light-eyed and fair-haired giants. The “giants” were considered by the Russ to be more puny representatives of the Arab and Mongolian-Turkic world.
In addition, it is necessary to note the negative role of Islamization of the Horde. The consolidation processes of the Horde and Russia, which had gained strength, were cut short, and the Horde state began to rapidly deteriorate. In the future, the fragments of the empire began to collect Moscow.
This view of the "Tatar-Mongols" allows us to explain a lot of inconsistencies, "white spots" in the history of Russia. Russia does not need a myth made up in Rome and supported by the political elites of western and eastern countries. We must create a history of Russia that will go deep into the millennia, and not end at the place of the baptism of Russia.
In 1206, Temuchin was elected the great Khan, the supreme leader of the "Mongols". He received a new name - Genghis Khan. Temujin was able in many wars to unite most of the "Mongol" genera. In 1207, the tribes living to the north of the Selenga and the upper reaches of the Yenisei, the Tangut state Si-Xia, were included in the powers. 1209, the "Mongols" subjugated the country to the Uighurs and land in southern and central Siberia. In 1211, a large-scale offensive against China began, and in the third year Temujin’s warriors took Peking. In the 1219-1221 years, the lands of Central Asia were subordinated. According to the Persian historian Rashid-ad-Din, Genghis Khan ordered his eldest son, Jochi, to "conquer all the regions of the North, that is, Ibir-Sibir, Bular, Desht-i-Kipchak, Bashkird, Russia and Circassian." But during the life of Genghis Khan, this broad aggressive program was not implemented - the main armies were fighting in China and Central Asia.
In Eastern Europe, a reconnaissance campaign was undertaken by only one detachment. In 1220, the Great Khan received news that Mohammed Khorezmshah was assembling an army on the banks of the Amu Darya. To clarify the situation and defeat the forces of the ruler of Khorezm, he corrected three tumens (“darkness” - 10-thousand cavalry corps) under the command of his best generals - Jebe (Zhebe), Subedei (Subudai) and Tokhuchara. Subsequently, the Tohuchara Corps was recalled. The search for Khorezmshah poured into a long hike. 30-thousand army (it was replenished with various mining seekers) passed Northern Iran, plundered the lands of Azerbaijan and invaded Georgia. The Georgians gathered an army and fought, but the “Mongols” ambushed them, surrounded and destroyed their army. The Georgians continued to resist in the mountainous areas, Subudei and Chebe did not linger to capture the mountain strongholds and moved towards Derbent. Applying a trick, they broke into the lands of the North Caucasus.
Alan tribes called for help Polovtsy, their combined army withstood the onslaught of the "Mongols". Then the "Mongols" again went to the military trick. They turned to the Polovtsy: "We and you are one people and from one tribe, but Alans are strangers to us." Polovtsi were also the heirs of the Scythian-Sarmatian state - direct descendants of the Siberian Scythians. They, like the Russians, had a "Scythian" anthropological appearance - they were blond Caucasian. The Polovtsy were offered to conclude a peace treaty and give them gold and “dresses, how much your soul desires.” The "Mongols" did convey a lot of good to the Polovtsy, and they left the Allies, the Alans. This mistake cost them dearly. The Polovtsian elite will be defeated by the "Mongols", while the ordinary Polovtsians will constitute the majority of the population of the Horde.
The "Mongolian" army defeated the Alans, and then set to the Polovtsy. In the fierce battle on the Don, the Polovtsian army was defeated - the princes Yuri Konchakovich and Danila Kobyakovi fell in battle. The remnants of their troops fled to the west, where they joined forces with Kotyan Sutoyevich, who roamed between the Dnieper and the Dniester. At the beginning of 1223, the troops of Sudubei and Chebe appeared in the Black Sea region. They invaded the Crimean peninsula and ravaged it, the city of Sudak (Surozh).
Russian princes hike
Polovtsian Khan Kotyan, who was a relative of the Galician prince Mstislav, “came with a bow from the Polovtsian princes to Galich to Prince Mstislav, to his son-in-law, and to all Russian princes, and many gifts were made by horses, camels, girls, and gave the princes of the Russians, and said so: “Our land was taken away today, and yours will be taken tomorrow, defend us, if you don’t help us, we will be cut now, and you will be cut tomorrow!” I must say that the Polovtsi were not only rivals of Russia in the south, but also the allies of various Russian princes, often supported by their Roads tvennikov, in various internecine conflicts or wars with external enemies. Prince Mstislav Mstislavich Boldly in the spring of 1221, with the help of the Polovtsian troops, beat off Galich from the Hungarians. Besides. Russian and Polovtsian were tied by the dynastic marriages of the ruling elites, trade relations.
In Kiev, the council was assembled South Russian princes. The elders on it were the prince of Kiev Mstislav Romanovich, the galician prince of Mstislav Mstislavich and the Chernigov prince of Mstislav Svyatoslavich. After much wrangling, generous gifts and persuasion Kotyan and Mstislav Galitsky decided: "If we do not help them ... then the Polovtsi will stick to enemies, and their strength will become greater." Began to collect troops to march in the steppe.
In the middle of May, 1223, on the Dnieper, near Oleshya, were assembled Russian squads. In the campaign took part up to 20 princes with the squads. The most significant forces exhibited Kiev and Chernigov grand dukes with assistant princes, they had infantry. A strong squad was at the Galician prince Mstislav, under his own command was the Volyn prince Daniel Romanovich. Polovtsi also submitted to him - their squad was led by the Galician prince Yarun. 400 warriors arrived from Smolensk. The squads from Kursk, Trubchevsk, Kozelsk, Turov and other cities arrived. The exact number of the Russian-Polovtsian army is unknown. It is estimated at 80-100 thousand soldiers, from one-third to half of the troops were Polovtsy. But apparently, the more real number is 40-50 thousand soldiers. South Russia has not collected such rati. Volyn-Galician army went down the Dniester into the Black Sea, and then up the Dnieper to the island of Khortytsya at the rapids, where it connected with the main forces.
The main weakness of this army was the lack of a unified command. The princes could not agree on unity of command and a general plan of action. Princely squads, even when assembled together, were not a single force. This predetermined defeat, despite the superiority in numbers. In fact, there were three ratios. The Kiev army was headed by the Grand Duke of Kiev Mstislav Romanovich, the formal leader of the campaign. This corps included the Kiev militia (infantry), the guards of the Grand Duke and his son Vsevolod Mstislavsky, son-in-law of the Kiev Prince — Turov Prince Andrey Ivanovich, Svyatoslav Ingvarevicha Shumsky, Yuriy Yaropkovych Ostravsky, ovoryan Dubrovitsky, ostrov ogravichsky ostrovsky ostrovsky ostrovsky ostrovsky ostrovsky ostrovsky ostrovskyy The Chernihiv-Smolensk army under the command of Mstislav Svyatoslavich: the squads of Mikhail Vsevolodovich Pereyaslavsky, Oleg Svyatoslavich Kursk, Izyaslav Vladimirovich Putivl, Svyatoslav Vsevolodovich Trubchevsky, Dmitry (Vasilko) Mstislavich Kozelsky (the eldest son of the Chernigov prince) The third party - Galician-Volyn-Polovtsy, was under the authority of the initiator of the campaign of the Galician prince Mstislav the Remote (or Udatny). His corps included the Galician brigade, the Volyn brigade of Daniil Romanovich, the brigade of Mstislav Yaroslavich Mute Lutsk, Izyaslav Ingvarevich Dorogobuzh, Polovtsy Yarun.
The number of "Tatars" is also unknown. The core of the "Mongolian" troops were two "darkness" Sudubei and Chebe - about 20-30 thousand soldiers. In addition, along the way they were joined by a number of different adventurers and prey hunters, brigands from different nationalities, including Russian vagrants, who some researchers consider to be precursors of the Cossacks.
The “Mongolian” command, before the start of the Russian campaign, sent an embassy that offered peace - “we did not touch your land, neither your cities, nor your villages; they did not come to you, but they came, by the will of God, to slaves and grooms of the Polovtsy. " Polovtsev in the Russian lands offered to expel and take away their property. The princes thought it was a hoax and ordered to kill all the messengers. The Mongols sent a second embassy, already with a declaration of war: “You listened to the Polovtsy and killed our ambassadors; now come at us, well, go; we did not touch you: God is above us all. ”
The Kiev prince Mstislav Romanovich Old proposed to give the battle to the "Tatars" on the Dnieper, to choose defensive tactics. Given the lack of unity in the troops, this was the right proposal. The Russian command practically knew nothing about the enemy - its strength, combat tactics, fighting spirit. Mstislav Udaray insisted on the offensive, offered to strike at the enemy himself, to move to the steppe. The Chernigov prince Mstislav Svyatoslavich waited, not supporting either the proposal of the Galician or the Kiev prince.
At this time, the Dnieper advanced "Mongolian" hundreds. The first to be picked up by Mstislav Galitsky’s squad on the left bank of the Dnieper, he attacked the “Tatar” watchmen and overturned them. This first victory dispelled doubts. Most of the princes and boyars came out for offensive actions. The Chernigov prince stopped hesitating and supported Mstislav Galitsky. For the Galicians moved the rest of the troops. 23 May, the main forces crossed the river and moved into the steppes. Ahead went the troops of Mstislav the Remote, followed by the troops of the Chernigov prince, closed the column of forces of Mstislav the Old. The troops went joyfully, the enemy fled. They beat the captured cattle, feasted. They hoped to overtake the enemy and take away the booty that the "Mongols" had seized in the plundered lands. The feeling of victory and superiority over the enemy relaxed the warriors. The princes did not know that the "Mongols" used their usual tactics - luring the enemy to a place convenient for them.
The chase lasted 8 days. Princely squads stretched across the steppe, lost sight of each other. When 31 of May 1223 of the year behind the river Kalka was discovered by enemy forces ready for battle, the Russian army did not have all the forces that went on the march. Galician prince did not wait for the approach of other princes, and crossing the river, hit the first enemy line. With this he angered the Kiev and Chernigov princes. Mstislav of Kiev was cautious and ordered to build a fortified camp.
The most experienced "Mongolian" generals immediately used the adversary's mistake - the enemy allowed him to split his forces separately. The troops of Mstislav the Boldy pressed the enemy’s forward units, and then collided with the main forces of the enemy. The strike of the Russian-Polovtsian troops was stopped and then crushed by the Polovtsy. Their wave hit the still standing Russian squads. Chernihiv troops generally found themselves in a situation where advanced units had already entered the battle, while others had only forced the river. They did not have time to prepare for the battle, and were crushed. It was a disaster. The flight has become general. Separate squads that continued to resist or only approached the battlefield could no longer change the situation. The prince of Kiev with impotent fury watched the slaughter from his camp. Russian bogatyrs - the Rostov boyar Alexander (Olesha) Popovich and Dobrynya Ryazanich Zlat Belt (one of the prototypes of the epic Dobryni Nikitich) laid down their heads in this massacre. Some units did not participate in the battle, lagging behind the main forces. They joined the stream of runaways.
The Kiev army remained away from the first stage of the battle, so some researchers accuse Mstislav Romanovich Old of defeat. Like, if he supported the offensive of Mstislav the Remote, or joined the battle later, it was possible to turn the tide. But, most likely, this is a misconception. Galician-Volyn-Polovtsian and Chernigov troops were already defeated and fled, it was not possible to assemble them. Part of the "Mongolian" army pursued them, it was already a massacre, not a battle. Only a part of the Polovtsy, Mstislav Udalai, Daniel Romanovich and some other princes with small groups of warriors who had excellent horses could leave. The main "Mongolian" forces besieged the Kiev camp. For three days, the Kievans fought off enemy attacks. Take the strengthening of the Kiev prince did not work, then he was offered a life for something. Mstislav the Old and his assistants to the princes sent the chieftain of the wanderers Ploskinu. There was nothing surprising in this agreement. During the wars with the Polovtsy, the captured princes were not just released for ransom. The troops ran out of water, and the princes decided to go to this agreement. The "Mongols" were not going to let their enemies go: they tied up the princes and threw them under the platform on which they held a "feast on the bones", and the ordinary warriors, who laid down weaponinterrupted.
It was one of the worst defeats in Russian history. The chronicles report that nine of ten warriors died, including 12 princes and many boyars and warriors. Southern Russia was exsanguinated by the death of thousands of the best warriors and was unable to restore its military potential to the emergence of the Batu army. The "Mongolian" army, apparently, also suffered heavy losses, since it could not take advantage of the fruits of the victory. When rati from Vladimirskaya Russia appeared under the command of Vasilyk Rostovsky, who was late for the start of the march, the “Mongols” refused to strike at Kiev and left for the Volga. There they were defeated by the troops of the Volga Bulgars (Bulgarians).