Military Review

The first clashes of former allies

26
War we begin! But it is necessary to create a pretext for an attack so that it has a valid reason ...
General W. Roberts, Senior US Military Advisor to South Korea



At the end of 1940's Korea, divided by the 38 parallel to the “zones of influence” of the USSR and the USA, “balanced on the edge of a foul”. In June, 1949 Seoul planned to deploy active hostilities against Pyongyang, for which the concentration of South Korean troops began along the demarcation line (in 1949, there were about 30 thousand people). Not only intelligence officers, but other facts also spoke about the intentions of Seoul - a large number of sabotage operations undertaken by South Koreans in the 38 area parallels, tough militaristic statements by President Lee Seung Ma-na about being ready to hit the communists, etc. Why aren't these plans were implemented by Seoul, remains a mystery.

The same goal - to unite Korea by force, set before him and the head of the pro-communist government of North Korea, Kim Il Sung. However, he was more determined. His plan, developed at the beginning of 1950, envisaged the occupation of Seoul in just three days. It was assumed that after his capture, Lee Seung Man capitulates. At the end of the entire "lightning" campaign was given only a month. They did not care about reserves, counting on a popular uprising in the South and support for partisan detachments in the rear of the South Korean troops. True, unlike Lee Seung Man, who openly called for an invasion of the North, the DPRK leader concealed his intentions. So wars here were equally thirsty both in the North and in the South.

25 June 1950 The “northerners” unexpectedly for the “southerners” crossed the demarcation line and deployed battles with the use of all types weapons. On this day, the world could witness the appearance of new Hiroshima, since the US Air Force command in South Korea received an order to prepare for the use of nuclear weapons, but its use could have caused the mass transfer of Russian troops in Poland, Hungary and Germany to a general offensive, which would have caused world war.

It is not hard to guess that the USSR and China were on the side of North Korea, while South Korea enjoyed the protection of the United States. It was in the Korean War that China for the first time declared itself as a key link in the area and a geopolitical player on a global scale.

Contrary to the prevailing image of I. Stalin as a person located to exclusively forceful methods of solving international problems, he was initially categorically against the invasion of North Koreans in the south of the peninsula. When Kim Il Sung arrived at 1948 with such a plan, Stalin refused to approve it, believing that the North Korean army was too weak for such an operation, and the advance of the southerners was unlikely. Therefore, on that visit, Kim Il Sung received "good" only for a counterattack if an attack from the "southerners" followed.

However, he did not abandon hopes to convince the USSR of the feasibility of this plan and during the 1949 he met three times with the Chinese leader Mao Zedong. Tom liked the idea, but, busy with his own problems - fighting with Chai Kai-shek, Mao offered to suffer a little.

In directives to the Soviet ambassador in Pyongyang, sent in September 1949, Moscow categorically opposes any military actions of the North against the South. According to the Soviet leadership, this would inevitably entail the entry of the United States into the war under the UN flag, the permanent occupation of the South by them and the perpetuation of the section of the peninsula. As subsequent events showed, Moscow’s forecast turned out to be absolutely accurate. In addition, in the fall of 1949, the USSR eliminated its naval base and military commandant's offices in North Korea.

But after only a month of 4 in view of the “changed international situation”, I. Stalin suddenly gave “good” to the plan developed by Kim Il Sung if agreed with China. It is hard to say why such a change in positions occurred. Perhaps this was due to the presence of a nuclear bomb in the USSR (successful tests of which were held in the USSR in August 1949), as well as the defeat of Chiang Kai-shek in the fight against Mao Zedong. But the Soviet leader categorically refused to send his troops into North Korea, limiting himself to the supply of the Korean-Chinese army and continuing to keep the lion’s share of the Soviet army in the western direction.

Light tank М24 "Chaffee" of the 25 Infantry Division. July 1950


Tank МХNUMXАЗ of the 4 Tank Battalion of the US Marine Corps in ambush. September 1


Perhaps this was due to the fact that April 4 1949 12 countries, including the United States, Britain and France, signed a pact on the creation of a NATO bloc. Each state that joined the bloc assumed the obligation to ensure the security of all members of the bloc by political and military measures. Despite the seemingly defensive doctrine, the anti-Soviet orientation of the bloc was visible to the naked eye, and the Soviet leadership was very concerned about this.

In total, by the end of June 1950 the army of the "northerners" had up to 250 tanks T-34-85. The tank brigades were well trained by Soviet specialists and Korean officers who had experience of war from among the Red Army soldiers. The "South" could not boast of either such weapons or personnel, and therefore on June 25, 1950 it became for Seoul and American advisers about the same as it was on June 22, 1941 for the Soviet Union.

The South Korean army experienced a shortage of not only tanks, but also other weapons. The rout of the border formations and the taking of Seoul on the third day of the fighting were a shock for the Americans. But their reaction was quick. From Japan, where the US 8 units were stationed, tank units equipped with Chaffey M-24, Sherman MN-NXXAZ medium M-4, and the latest M-3 Pershing tanks were deployed by sea. Meanwhile, the US Air Force tried to slow the advance of the Northerners with air strikes.

The downside for the Americans and their allies was the fact that the tanks arrived in relatively small groups - companies that were immediately injected into the battle without training and equipment. This led to large losses of American light and medium tanks.

At the first stage of the battles, the ex-Soviet T-34-85 with Chinese crews caused panic not only in the ranks of the South Korean but also among the Americans. This happened from the lack of combat experience and the low effectiveness of the artillery available. The VET tools initially consisted of 37- and 57-mm guns and light bazookas of the 2,36 caliber of an inch. But the calculations, armed with powerful 3,5-inch bazookas, preferred to retire under the blows of tanks. Things reached the point that during the battles for Daejeon, the commander of the 24 Division, a veteran of World War II, General William Dean, was forced to stand in a trench next to the soldiers and practically show how to act with a bazooka against the tank.

The T-34-85 of the first North Korean tank brigade, shot down near the r. Naktong 1950


The first clashes of former allies
M-26 tanks guard the perimeter of the landing of American troops. 1950


The turning point began in August, when well-trained full-staff combat units landed in Korea with Pershing tanks, such as an expeditionary brigade of more than 6 thousands of people, armed with more than a hundred of their modern tanks. Together with the forces of the American Infantry Division 2 she was able to stop the North Koreans on the southern flank of the front.

Acting under the auspices of the UN (and, quite simply, taking control of the UN in their hands), the Americans organized a powerful counter-attack, landed troops in the rear of the northerners and, with overwhelming superiority in manpower and technology, launched an offensive on Pyongyang. The North Korean army was pressed to the border, and the American command hurried to announce the victorious conclusion of the war. But the USSR and China did not leave their allies. At the end of October 1950, the Chinese "volunteer" grouping crossed the border and dealt a crushing blow to the "UN troops".

The situation on the front changed in just a few hours, when up to 500 thousands of well-equipped and trained Chinese “volunteers” attacked the enemy. About a year after the start of the conflict, the front line stabilized in the 38 parallel, that is, where the war began. Subsequently, right up to the end of the 27 war of July 1953, the opponents conducted military operations mainly along the demarcation line and did not decide on large-scale offensive actions anymore.

The Korean War was the first in which the former allies, the USSR and the USA, clashed head-on and declared their claims to lead in the third world. The joint victory over Hitler, the remnants of the post-war euphoria over the future of Soviet-American relations were henceforth forgotten with overwhelming speed. The Korean War also became a point of reference for the armed confrontation between the two irreconcilable camps - NATO and the social camp (later formed in the ATS).

Tanks M46 "General Patton" 24-th Panzer Division near Yanpung. March 1951


Another North Korean T-34-85 with detonated ammunition set. 1950
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  1. apro
    apro 31 May 2013 08: 02 New
    +6
    We were not once allies, they were friends in trouble for us in our misfortune, all the more for money, because SGA as a result received more plus influence in the world. The Korean War as an unfinished play ended with the death of IVStalin and if he was alive the victory would have been for communists as in Vietnam.
    1. svp67
      svp67 1 June 2013 07: 11 New
      0
      Quote: apro
      We were never allies

      Come on, in the period from 1941 to 1945 our countries were ALLIES in the fight against Germany, since they had common goals and solved them jointly, otherwise our country would not have received the right to "Lend-Lease", and we did not provide to help them, in particular during the battles in the Ardennes ...
      1. apro
        apro 1 June 2013 08: 52 New
        +1
        Quote: apro
        they were friends in trouble for us in our trouble all the more for money

        and they pursued goals not liberating but mercantile.
        1. Goryn
          Goryn 1 June 2013 13: 04 New
          -4
          Well, you give a man, it was Stalin who pursued liberation goals. The goals of all are the same in this world — to grab more, right now shed tears. Stalin's poor Poles, Czechs. Hungarians, etc., on their knees begged to release them. Communoid nonsense, they are all mercantile invaders and war-racers for the sake of their ambitions and only hide behind in loud words. and we will perish for them to please.
          1. Kazanok
            Kazanok 5 June 2013 16: 18 New
            0
            absolute truth ...
      2. Kazanok
        Kazanok 5 June 2013 16: 17 New
        0
        everything is correct .. only in the ardennes we did not help them ... they themselves broke the ridge there by the Hans ...
  2. avt
    avt 31 May 2013 09: 11 New
    +2
    It is very useful to recall this half-forgotten war, especially in the light of today's events.
  3. Tatar
    Tatar 31 May 2013 10: 10 New
    +6
    The Union, and now Russia has always been bad boys for the West, only now the current leadership is trying to look good, just what he would not do, Russia has always been and will be the axis of evil and the pole in the confrontation. then why bend, you need to become really the worst bad guy, and then the west will begin to really be afraid, and put the opinion of a handful of adversaries with an endangered population and a collapsing economy deep into the gang of homosexuals that roam free Europe ...
  4. Standard Oil
    Standard Oil 31 May 2013 10: 22 New
    +4
    During the war in Korea, for the first time, Americans used helicopters, in particular Sikorsky S-55, experience has shown that helicopters can be successfully used in military operations and used both for fire support of troops and as a transport.
  5. avt
    avt 31 May 2013 10: 58 New
    +2
    Quote: Standard Oil
    During the war in Korea, for the first time Americans used helicopters,

    Rather, they were massively used, for the first time they were used in the 41-45th war, single copies, we can certainly say that there were military tests, like the Germans had.
    1. smprofi
      smprofi 31 May 2013 12: 31 New
      +3
      Well, if you consider gyroplanes as a kind of forerunner of helicopters, then the Soviet Union used back in the Finnish war
      A gyroplane comes to the aid of a balloon. Attention to the construction of gyroplanes is insufficient, and the construction of gyroplanes needs to be developed. The use of gyroplanes and balloons gave a very positive result, if you deal closely with this matter, it will be of great benefit.

      © MEETING under the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks
      April 14-17, 1940, Transcript

      and in the Great Patriotic War, at the beginning of the war, there was a division of gyroplanes. for reconnaissance and combat use.
  6. smprofi
    smprofi 31 May 2013 12: 24 New
    +7
    The first clashes of former allies

    not quite the correct title for an article about the war in Korea.
    first skirmishes i.e. clashes occurred in the 45th in Europe. officially, of course, this was not advertised. heard back in the 70s from veterans.
  7. Denis_SF
    Denis_SF 31 May 2013 13: 40 New
    +2
    But the Soviet leader categorically refused to send his troops into North Korea, limiting himself to supplying the Korean-Chinese army and continuing to keep the lion's share of the Soviet army westward.

    Well, not quite so, or rather not at all. Our pilots then harshly poked at all "UN troops" (read American with plebeians), including even the Australians. And this in the printsrp then postponed the beginning of the 3rd world war.

    The Korean War was the first in which former allies, the USSR and the USA, clashed head-on and declared their claims for a leading role in the third world.

    "The pans are fighting, but the forelocks of the slaves are cracking"
  8. Kovrovsky
    Kovrovsky 31 May 2013 13: 45 New
    +4
    Quote: smprofi
    The first clashes of former allies

    not quite the correct title for an article about the war in Korea.
    first skirmishes i.e. clashes occurred in the 45th in Europe. officially, of course, this was not advertised. heard back in the 70s from veterans.

    In the article about I. Kozhedub this is well described.
  9. Fitter65
    Fitter65 31 May 2013 14: 01 New
    +1
    Quote: Kovrovsky
    In the article about I. Kozhedub this is well described.

    In an article about I.N. Israel and plagiarists from China drag in ...
    1. Kovrovsky
      Kovrovsky 31 May 2013 15: 37 New
      +1
      Read the article carefully, not diagonally! Especially about the events of November 7, 1944. Pity the poor Americans at the same time!
      1. Fitter65
        Fitter65 1 June 2013 06: 14 New
        0
        I read about these events, and not only in this article, but also the authors are more respectable. From not deliberate mistakes, especially if you don’t know the situation in this area, no one is safe, because these incidents were possible. It’s just like sometimes the facts are presented - this is another matter.
  10. Genady1976
    Genady1976 31 May 2013 16: 02 New
    +5
    And why there are no pictures of wrecked American tanks
    Patton, shot down in Korea and captured by Chinese volunteers.
  11. Genady1976
    Genady1976 31 May 2013 16: 21 New
    +3
    ----------------
  12. Snoop
    Snoop 31 May 2013 21: 48 New
    +3
    Really .. why in such articles only photos of destroyed Soviet equipment? Shermans there also burned quite well.
    1. Genady1976
      Genady1976 31 May 2013 22: 14 New
      0
      I found the current here 2
    2. Fitter65
      Fitter65 1 June 2013 06: 23 New
      +2
      Probably because they aren’t killed? But on the other hand, it’s impossible to talk about great democrats and such, it can affect the psyche of the younger generation, and instead of going-carrying democracy on tanks tracks, they’ll start life and girls to love .
  13. cobalt
    cobalt 1 June 2013 08: 38 New
    +2
    I found something about tank battles in Korea

    The first armored unit of the US Army in Korea was Company A from the 78th Heavy Tank Battalion, equipped with M24 Chaffee tanks. The first tank battle between the T-34 and M24 took place on 10 July. Two "Chaffee" were hit, thirty-fours had no losses, although they received direct hits, but not a single shell pierced the armor. The next day, the Americans lost three more M24s, the North Koreans again did not lose a single tank. This beginning of a combat career demoralized the American tank crews. By the end of July, Company A had de facto ceased to exist: out of 14 tanks, two survived; during this time, the Yankees never recorded a single thirty-four at their own expense.
    The T-34 suffered the first significant losses after the US infantry began using 3,5-inch "superbazooks". For the first time this weapon was used in the battles for Daejeon on July 20, then it was possible to destroy two thirty-fours. Tankers of the 105th Brigade in the battles for Daejeon lost 15 T-34s, seven were set on fire by bazookas and five were hit by aircraft.
    On August 7, the thirty-fours, for the first time in the course of the Korean War, met a worthy enemy - the Pershing from the 1st Marine Brigade. The crews of the T-34 mistook the M26 for the well-known Chaffee and confidently rushed into battle, for which they paid - three tanks were knocked out from the 90-mm Pershing gun.
    By the end of 1950, American tank units had 1326 tanks: 138 M-24 Chaffee, 679 M4A3E8 Sherman, 309 M26 Pershing and 200 M46 Patton. Kim Il Sung's troops numbered approximately 300 T-34-85s.
  14. Larus
    Larus 1 June 2013 11: 36 New
    +4
    Modern films on this subject are such that the evil northerners attack the peacefully sleeping southerners ... good Americans release them and attack the north, then they face the masses of Chinese poorly armed and crush them in large numbers, but the bullets end and they have to retreat)) )))
    At the same time, the amers are still in every possible way silent about the mass executions of columns of civilians, pissing cowards and their other "feats".
  15. Muxauk
    Muxauk 2 June 2013 22: 53 New
    +1
    War is war. there are no good, no bad. This is before and after the war ... After the war, the winner is good, because they are not judged. Judging by this, the North Koreans stood against the South Koreans and Americans, on a limited number of our equipment, I think not ultra-modern.
  16. Snoop
    Snoop 7 June 2013 14: 07 New
    0
    Here nadybal on the Russian portal:
    Americans inspect the North Korean 45-ku M 42, which destroyed 3 M4 Sherman tanks.
  17. Marat
    Marat 15 June 2013 13: 46 New
    0
    It would be interesting how the war would have developed if the Soviet army had taken part in the battles. Surely the Americans would still have shouted about aggression against the peaceful South Korean people.
  18. Bobrovsky
    Bobrovsky 25 June 2013 19: 08 New
    0
    These skirmishes are not the first. Together with his father Viktor Ivanovich Chevychelov worked on the railway. In the war he was a senior lieutenant. He said that in May 1945, a meeting with the Americans was to happen on their sector of the front the next day. Both we and they knew that there were no Germans ahead. At about 22 p.m., the Americans began an intensive artillery bombardment of our positions. Their aircraft flew and bombed. The radio command tried to appease the allies, but in response, deathly silence. Quickly what was happening was reported upstairs. After a short time, an order came in - to respond from all types of weapons and forth. At half past four in the morning on the radio the heart-rending calls of the Americans to cease fire began - we are allies, you were wrong. Stopped. It turned out that during the night the Americans ran 72 kilometers. And he said that such incidents were on several sectors of the front. It was the most ordinary attempt to probe our power. And if our grandfathers gave slack, it is not known how it would all end.