Military Review

Continuous earth-moving machines of the engineering troops of the USSR

38
Continuous earth-moving machines of the engineering troops of the USSR

The high-speed trenching machine BTM is intended for fragments of trenches and lines of communication in soils up to category III, inclusive, with a dump of excavated soil on both sides of the trench being torn off. As the working equipment applied rotor ...


Multi-bucket excavators (continuous)

Continuous excavators are earth-moving machines that develop and transport soil continuously. In this case, both operations - digging and transportation of soil - is performed simultaneously. Unlike single-bucket excavators, continuous excavation provides higher output, however, the main drawback of continuous machines is their low versatility. Each digger, whether chain or bucket wheel trenchers, excavators - drenoukladchiki, rotary snow and two-rotor backhoe kanalokopateli, reclamation, multi-bucket excavator cross-digging, and even more so - the major career multi-bucket excavators - they are designed to perform specific operations and can not be used on other works.

High-speed trenching machines BTM

The high-speed trenching machine BTM is intended for fragments of trenches and lines of communication in soils up to category III, inclusive, with a dump of excavated soil on both sides of the trench being torn off. As a working equipment, a rotor with 8 th buckets with a capacity of 160 l was used.

Maximum machine capacity with a trench width at the top of 1,1 m, at the bottom - 0,6 m and at a depth of 1,5 m - 800 m / h. The machine was developed on the basis of the 409U Product, or, alternatively, a heavy artillery tractor AT-T, designed by the Kharkov machine-building plant named after Malyshev under the guidance of the famous Soviet tank builder A.A. Morozov (AT-Ts were produced from 1950 to 1979). On the tractor is a diesel engine A-401 power 415 hp, allowing you to reach the transport speed to 35 km / h. The fuel reserve is enough for 500 km or 10-12 operating hours in the ground. The cabin is sealed, equipped with a filter-ventilation installation, the crew - human 2. Machine weight - 26,5 t.


Production of trenching machines BTM started with 1957 in the Dmitrovsky excavator plant. The rotor was raised and lowered by a troso-block system using a U-shaped frame. Buckets were closed, which affected the performance of the machine: when working on clay and wet soils, buckets were clogged with earth and were not cleaned in an upright position, so it was necessary to clean them manually. Presumably, this disadvantage is eliminated on the modification of the machine BTM-2, which used buckets with chain bottoms. On a further modification of the BTM-3, the mechanism for raising and lowering the rotor was changed, and such machines were produced until the end of the 70s.

Machine BTM-4 - a prototype; The AT-T tractor was used as the base. Later a new MT-T multi-purpose tracked tractor was used. Serial production under the index BTM-4M.

Trench high-speed machines BTM entered service with the engineering troops of the USSR Armed Forces. For national purposes, the BTM-TMG (rotary) and BTM-TMG-2 (chain) machines were developed and produced.





High-speed trenching vehicle BTM based on the AT-T tractor. The machine is installed on a pedestal near the Ministry of Emergency Situations of Ukraine. Photos made RIO1.


The high-speed trenching vehicle BTM-3 on the basis of the AT-T tractor in the transport position is under test. Photo from the archive of the Kharkov Morozov Design Bureau.


High-speed trenching machine BTM-3 based on the AT-T tractor in operation. Photo from the archive of the author's website techstory ru.


High-speed trenching vehicle BTM-3 based on AT-T tractor. Photos were taken on the basis of the Emergencies Ministry Madzhivka in the Leningrad region F. Shilnikov.




BTM-3 machines. Photos from the archive of the author's website techstory ru.


High-speed trenching machine based on the MT-T tractor (prototype 1978). Photo from the archive of the author's website techstory ru.

TMK trenching machines

The trenching machine TMK is a wheeled tractor MAZ-538, on which a working body for fragments of trenches and dozer equipment are mounted. The machine allows the passage of trenches in soils up to category IV, inclusive. The separation of trenches in thawed grounds at a depth of 1,5 m is carried out at a speed of 700 m / h, in frozen soils 210 m / h.

The working body is rotary, free-flow type. The working equipment includes a mechanical transmission drive and a hydraulic mechanism for raising and lowering the working body. On the frame of the working body are installed retractors of the passive type, ensuring the formation of inclined trench walls. The soil raised from the trench is thrown by throwers on both sides of the trench.

Installed auxiliary dozer equipment with a blade width of 3,3 m allows land leveling, backfilling of holes, ditches, digging of pits, etc.

The basic all-wheel drive wheeled tractor MAZ-538 is equipped with the D-12А-375А engine with the HP 375 power.

TMK machines were manufactured from 1975, at the Dmitrovsky Excavator Plant. Later on the TSKT-538DC wheeled tractor produced a modernized trenching machine TMK-2.



Trench machine TMK-2 on the basis of all-wheel drive tractor КККТ-538ДК. Photos taken by E. Bernikov.


Trench machine TMK-2 based on KZKT-538DC 1982 tractor unit. Photo from the archive of the author's website techstory ru.

Pit cars MDK and MKM

With the transfer of production in 1946 to the T-54 tank, the designers of the Kharkov Design Bureau named after A.A. Morozov, under the leadership of M.N. Shchukin and A.I. Avtomonov, began to develop the tractor ed.401 based on this tank. These works were carried out on the instructions of GAU and TsAVTU. The tractor was successfully tested, and in 1953 the first production samples of the AT-T (heavy artillery tractor) were released.

The MDK-2 excavation machine (MDK-2m) is an earthmoving machine based on the heavy artillery AT-T tractor (produced from 1950 to 1979 in Kharkov. Malyshev Machine Building Plant) and is intended for excerpts of pits of 3,5 X 3,5 size and any length various soils up to category IV inclusive. The dozer equipment available on the machine allows to plan the site before the fragment of the excavation, to clean and level the bottom of the excavation, to fill holes, ditches, trenches and excavations and so on.

With a passage of excavations, the excavated soil is laid in one direction to the right of the excavation in the form of a parapet at a distance of 10 m. In one pass, the recess is 30-40, see. Type of tool - milling cutter with a thrower; technical performance - 300 m3 / h; vehicle transport speed - 35,5 km / h.

The digging machine MDK-3 (the first, prototype) is intended for extracts of excavations with a width of 3,5 m and a depth of up to 5 m for hiding equipment. The basic tractor is an AT-T tractor with an additional power unit, with the result that the installed engine power reaches the HP 1115 !!! Machine productivity on grounds II - III categories - 1000 - 1200 м3 / h. Machine weight - 34 t.

The MDK-3 excavation machine (late, serial version) is a further development of the MDK-2м machine and is intended for extracts of trenches and shelters for equipment, excavations for fortifications. The base machine is a multipurpose heavy tracked carrier conveyor MT-T, developed by the Kharkov Design Bureau named after. A.A. Morozov and graduated from 1976 to 1991. Kharkov machine-building plant them. Malyshev.

When digging pits, the developed soil is laid in one direction to the left of the pit in the form of a parapet. In contrast to MDK-2, the pit excavation machine MDK-3, with a passage excavation, moves backward, tearing the excavation depth to 1,75 m in one pass. The auxiliary equipment is powerful dozer equipment and a ripper for frozen soils, which significantly increased the capabilities of the machine compared to the previous one. Technical performance of the machine - 500 - 600 m3 / h; transport speed - 65 km / h.


Experienced excavation machine MKM based on the AT-T tracked tractor in the transport position. Photo from the archive of the author's website techstory ru.


Boiler MDK-2 on the basis of the AT-T tracked tractor in the transport position. Photo from the archive of the author's website techstory ru.


Extract of the pit machine MDK-2. Photo from the archive of the author's website techstory ru.


Boiler MDK-2m on the AT-T tracked tractor in the transport position. Photo from the archive of the author's website techstory ru.


Boiler MDK-3 on the basis of the AT-T tracked tractor in the transport position, front view. Prototype. Photo from the archive of the author's website techstory ru.


The pit mine MDK-3, front view. Prototype. Photo from the archive of the author's website techstory ru.


Excerpt boiler machine MDK-3. Photo from the archive of the author's website techstory ru.


The pit mine MDK-3 on the MT-T tracked tractor in the transport position is under test. Photos from the archive of Kharkiv Design Bureau named after AA Morozov.




The pit mine MDK-3 on the MT-T tracked tractor in operation. Photos from the archives of the Kharkiv Design Bureau named after AA Morozov.


The pit mine MDK-3 on the MT-T tracked tractor. Author photo A.Kravets.

DZM and PZM earth-moving machines

The regimental digging machine PZM-2 refers to trench-trenched machines intended for fragments of trenches and ditches for fortifying equipment of positions, areas of troops and control points. In thawed ground, the machine provides a fragment of trenches and pits, in frozen ground - only trenches.

Working equipment of the machine - chain free-flow with rotary thrower. Technical performance with a pit excavation - 140 м3 / h, trenches - 180 м3 / h. The dimensions of the trench to be torn off: width 0,65 - 0,9 m, depth - 1,2 m; dimensions of pits: from 2,5 to 3,0 m to a depth of 3 m.

Bulldozer equipment can be used for backfilling trenches, ditches and holes, as well as for cleaning roads in winter. The winch with traction force 5 t is used for self-pulling and to provide the necessary tractive effort when extracting pits and trenches in frozen soils with a wetted surface.

The PZM-2 earthmoving machine is mounted on a T-155 tractor tractor of the Kharkov Tractor Plant. It is equipped with an SMD-62 engine with an 165 horsepower.

The divisional earthmoving machinery DZM is a prototype of a trailed trench-trench machine equipped with two chain-free working bodies. A wheeled MAZ-538 is used as a tractor.



The PZM-2 earth-moving machine based on the T-155 1991 tractor. Photos from the archive of the author's website techstory ru


The PZM-2 earth-moving machine based on the T-155 tractor. Photo from the archive of the author's website techstory ru.


Earthmoving machines PZM-2. The photo was taken in the city of N.Novgorod by O. Chkalov.


Earthmoving machine PZM-2. Photo from the archive of the author's website techstory ru.




Opening of the trench using the PZM-2 excavator. Photos provided by I. Drachev, Director of Bryansk Department of Mechanization of Special Equipment, Ltd.


PZM-2 earthmoving machine based on BOOM. Photo courtesy of I.Drachev, Director of Bryansk Department of Mechanization of Special Machines.


DZM earthmoving machine in transport position. Photo from the archive of the author's website techstory ru.

The author would appreciate any information and photos of these machines.
Originator:
http://alternathistory.org.ua/zemleroinye-mashiny-nepreryvnogo-deistviya-inzhenernykh-voisk-sssr
38 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must to register.

I have an account? Sign in

  1. engineer74
    engineer74 30 May 2013 08: 21 New
    15
    At school, he passed industrial practice at the Dmitrov excavator plant. At TMK-2 I saw enough in all forms, they were called "crocodiles" there. The author is huge +!
  2. Professor
    Professor 30 May 2013 08: 35 New
    23
    Great technique. In his youth, he witnessed the work of some of these machines. Impressions for life. I take off my hat to Soviet engineers. hi
  3. igor36
    igor36 30 May 2013 08: 46 New
    14
    Engineering support in the Soviet Army was head and shoulders higher than that of a likely adversary: ​​these were earth moving machines and pontoon bridge parks. Some samples are still no analogues in the world.
    1. neri73-r
      neri73-r 30 May 2013 15: 37 New
      +6
      Engineering support in the Soviet Army was head and shoulders higher than that of a likely adversary


      The experience of 1941-1945 was not in vain; they were preparing, even on their mistakes, but they were learning! And now .........., we have no enemies.
  4. Langeo
    Langeo 30 May 2013 09: 25 New
    +5
    BTM and MDK at the Ministry of Emergencies

  5. Langeo
    Langeo 30 May 2013 09: 27 New
    +5
    You can also see the IMR
  6. The comment was deleted.
  7. avt
    avt 30 May 2013 09: 30 New
    +7
    Somehow, over the years, I began to be imbued with respect and admiration for such a technique good Thank you for the review! A plus
  8. Baron Wrangell
    Baron Wrangell 30 May 2013 10: 28 New
    +4
    At our factory there is MDK-2, in Soviet times they were made, in working condition! really wanted to sell the Ministry of Emergencies, repainted in white! If the author is interested, I can go take a picture and send it personally to the electronic one!
    1. Andriuha077
      Andriuha077 7 June 2013 11: 21 New
      0
      I am sure that the author and all readers will be happy. Coordinates:
      techstory.ru/autor.htm
      Thank you.
  9. Canep
    Canep 30 May 2013 10: 38 New
    +3
    All this equipment was developed in the 50-70s of the last century, and today it is morally obsolete. Although in the west there is practically no such equipment in the troops. Need to update the lineup.
    1. Mikhail3
      Mikhail3 30 May 2013 23: 33 New
      +4
      Morally muddy and outdated ... On the basis of AT T there is also a drilling unit. I saw how he drilled a well for us under artesian water. The impression was that it was not a drill, but some kind of corkscrew - three turns and can be pulled out. That is, no one had time to bark, but the well was ready ...
      He looked into the cockpit - all the appliances were broken. EVERYTHING. Not one indicator works ... I ask the ensign - what are you animals doing? And he says - for thirty years now there are no spare parts for it. These devices were broken when I was still in school. Only on performance such nonsense as the dashboard does not affect laughing The main thing is to fill in all the liquids, it will burst and it will always do its work ...
  10. white_f
    white_f 30 May 2013 10: 50 New
    +3
    This is a technique. The genius of engineering !!!
  11. Takashi
    Takashi 30 May 2013 11: 21 New
    +2
    this will go to the country.
  12. Aleks tv
    Aleks tv 30 May 2013 11: 39 New
    +7
    Always respected in the military engineering frequent.

    They have practically no differences - wartime or peace. Always plow like damned.
    I have seen how these "moles" work.

    Huge respect for sappers.
    Thanks sincerely to the author. It was very interesting to read and good photos.
  13. Dzerzhinets
    Dzerzhinets 30 May 2013 11: 45 New
    +5
    The newest trenching vehicle BTM-4M, on a modified chassis 2S7M (Malka), was adopted for service. The use of the chassis earlier by the engineering troops on the new T-64 hovercraft was a huge mistake, the consequences of which have not been overcome now. From wheeled shrews, a universal Ingoda is expected with a working body similar to the PZM-2 and in its replacement, developed by the Kirov plant on the basis of the K-701.
  14. Dzerzhinets
    Dzerzhinets 30 May 2013 11: 52 New
    +1
    The digging organs of continuous-duty vehicles of the engineering troops are represented by three types and their combinations: rotary bucket (BTM-3), milling (MDK-3), chain (PZM-2).
  15. tchack
    tchack 30 May 2013 12: 13 New
    +2
    So much earthmoving equipment is idle, and in Russia every spring it floods a bunch of settlements.
    That’s why you don’t take all these cars and dig up the ditches around them.
    1. Aleks tv
      Aleks tv 30 May 2013 13: 20 New
      +6
      Quote: tchack
      So much earthmoving equipment is idle, and in Russia every spring it floods a bunch of settlements.


      And they save at the TCP and the PMP crossings are induced during the flood. With IMRs and BATs, the rubble is being raked. BTM and MDK trenches and pits digging during fires. Water is transported, cleaned and desalinated if necessary.
      Not to mention direct duties.
      The military-engineering units have always done all this, and are doing it now, if the Ministry of Emergencies is unable to cope. On duty, I saw this more than once, and I myself had to take part with the fighters.

      Why ask with such displeasure? If you didn’t have to see the help of troops to the population, then you are lucky, i.e. such troubles passed by you.
      And using this technique is not a cheap activity. And to remove from preservation and put back - sincere sympathy for the peasants.
  16. datur
    datur 30 May 2013 13: 13 New
    +3
    tanks, thing !! but with them in general, a fairy tale !!! wink
  17. Lone gunman
    Lone gunman 30 May 2013 13: 25 New
    +5
    Article 100 +, powerful technology, Soviet engineering technology is power!
  18. wei
    wei 30 May 2013 13: 34 New
    +2
    article +
    this technique has always fascinated
    tons of steel muscles. The power of the military to build a wonderful paradox
  19. Dima190579
    Dima190579 30 May 2013 13: 37 New
    +4
    I liked the article very much. To my shame about such wonderful cars I only learned from the article. Thank you so much. What is called a century live a century learn to die a fool.
  20. kirgudu
    kirgudu 30 May 2013 14: 17 New
    +2
    Eh. To the country would be like that;)
    1. Cat man null
      Cat man null 12 November 2016 07: 48 New
      0
      Quote: kirgudu
      Eh. To the country would be like that;)

      - dig a garden? belay
      - You look at the characteristics - you will have one such whole area covered in trenches in an hour ... and then what do you plan to do with it?
  21. sys-1985
    sys-1985 30 May 2013 14: 29 New
    +5
    Technique beast! We had this on a collective farm, in my childhood I watched her work) It seems like she did land reclamation.
  22. roskaz
    roskaz 30 May 2013 16: 02 New
    +4
    Technique class !!! we would have such a road construction !!!!)))
    1. black_eagle
      black_eagle 30 May 2013 16: 54 New
      -2
      Such equipment will destroy all asphalt, especially MDK
      1. roskaz
        roskaz 30 May 2013 16: 57 New
        +4
        so on construction up to asphalt in the dugout a lot of work) MDK I saw on the trawl the military transported.
  23. leon-iv
    leon-iv 30 May 2013 17: 56 New
    +4
    it is especially sad to watch digging the foundation at the cottage in clay and loam.
  24. Jeber
    Jeber 30 May 2013 19: 43 New
    +3
    HA HA in Kazakhstan, these machines are slowly being removed from conservation and sold out :)
  25. griha988
    griha988 30 May 2013 19: 54 New
    +4
    He served in the Ministry of Emergency Situations on 06-08gg, he saw all this technique with his own eyes really impressive now and it's nice to remember))
  26. KIA
    KIA 30 May 2013 19: 58 New
    +4
    In 1972, when fighting fires, without BTM, our hands would fall off. Thanks to the designers and manufacturers of this machine.
  27. Kazanok
    Kazanok 6 June 2013 15: 34 New
    +2
    Thing!!!! Power !!!!
  28. Langeo
    Langeo 7 July 2013 13: 18 New
    +4
    By the way, here are the usual civilian ETZ-202 in military coloring.

  29. zhe602
    zhe602 3 November 2013 11: 31 New
    +1
    Wonderful technique - applicable to the civilian.
  30. Volga Cossack
    Volga Cossack 4 June 2015 22: 14 New
    +1
    powerful cars! beauty and pride!
  31. Arhipenko
    Arhipenko 9 March 2016 14: 34 New
    +2
    Short
    The BTM-2 machine did not exist.
    In 1969-1970, 10 were produced at the Dmitrov Excavator Plant
    BTM-TMG machines, in which 16 buckets were mounted on the rotor disks
    with grids (BTM-3 has 8 buckets) and a hydrostatic transmission was installed
    providing operating speeds from 0 to 1000 m / h required for digging
    trenches in frozen soils.
    The last BTM-3 machine came off the assembly line of the Dmitrov excavator
    factory in June 1980.
    A prototype machine BTM-4 based on the AT-T did not exist.
    In 1978, the Dmitrov Excavator Plant was manufactured
    the only prototype trench car (based on MT-T) with
    the bucket-free working body of the trench machine TMK-2.
    Note. TMK trench machine could not dig in frozen soils
    trenches. In frozen soils, a trench machine TMK-2 worked.
    The DZM machine shown in the photo did not exist in the metal.
    This is a photo montage made in 1970. Can't you see that with this
    the layout of the machine is not operational. This photo must be removed and not
    clouding people’s brains. There is a lot of nonsense on pit machines.
    It is necessary to use trusted sources, and not ...........
    Success in the study of technology.
  32. Volga Cossack
    Volga Cossack 12 November 2016 07: 07 New
    0
    Article plus! An engineer is Strength!
  33. Alexey R
    Alexey R 20 March 2018 10: 44 New
    0
    An interesting article, many thanks to the author.