Military Review

For the good of the Fatherland

16
For the good of the FatherlandThe development of the Russian state after the adoption of Christianity was inseparably linked with the creation of monasteries that were interested in strengthening the power of the country. The charters of Orthodox monasteries strictly defined the activities of the monks. In accordance with the Charter, the goal of monasticism in Russia was the closest union with God and the attainment of the highest spiritual perfection. All this is based on the voluntary implementation of the Christian commandments. If you touch these commandments, the sixth commandment reads “Do not kill.” How could our compatriots in the distant past to resist in the monasteries invasion of enemies?


The XVI century, after the concentration of power in his hands by Tsar Ivan IV, became a period when Russia tried to expand the borders of the state and go to the seas to develop trade. Long before this, the Novgorodians in the north had already mastered and occupied the Kola Peninsula, as well as the coast of the White Sea. At the same time, they constantly had with varying success to repel the raids of “Murmans”, who not only plundered settlements of Novgorod, but also tried to push our ancestors from the shores of the northern seas, so that the Russians could not trade with European countries. "Murmans" appeared on the White Sea, detachments from 500 and more warriors on the stitches, holding up to 10 armed men. Regardless of the weather and time of day, Novgorod, wise with military experience, constantly had outposts that warned of the appearance of enemies. Russian combat units entered the battle, and the inhabitants of the settlements, who did not participate in the battles, took refuge in the forests. There were no prisoners in such fights, and the Murmans knew this very well. The appearance of a new gunshot weaponswhich equalized the forces of a physically strong trained warrior, an old man and a young fighter, could lead to the victory of the Novgorodians or their complete destruction by the Murmans in this territory. To strengthen their positions on the White Sea, already in the 30 of the 15th century, immigrants from Novgorod, who later became saints, Savatiy, Zosima and Herman laid a monastery on the islands, which in 1552 was called the Solovetsky Monastery. Every year the number of German and Swedish ships on the White Sea increased. These were not trade visits, but military raids in order to eliminate all the settlements of Novgorod. Therefore, in 1571, the abbot of the Solovki monastery, Barlaam asked Tsar Ivan IV for protection. And this defense was rendered without delay, voivode Mikhail Ozerov arrived with a detachment of archers and artillery to the monastery. The provision of the detachment was attributed to exercise through the governor of the nearby jails. The preparation of the monks and the locals in the possession of firearms began, but there was not enough time for this preparation and the formation of detachments in the volosts. Therefore, in the clashes with the invading numerous detachments of the Kayan Germans, the archers and the voivode of the Lakes arrived. The news of this defeat quickly reached Moscow and Novgorod. Immediately a reinforced detachment led by commander Andrey Zagryazsky was sent to the monastery. The fighting with the Kayan Germans and the Swedes turned around with a new force. In winter, under the leadership of the governor Kipriyan Onichkov, as a result of defensive-offensive actions, the mixed Russian units defeated the three thousandth Swedes invading Kem parish. The whole of this victory reached the Russian Sovereign, the governor, in addition to gratitude, was instructed to bring to death all the enemy spies and prisoners captured in battles. The enemy must know what punishment will be waiting for him during the invasion of the Russian lands. There will be no mercy. In 1582, the governor Onichkov was replaced by voivode Ivan Okuchin, and a year later the construction of the port of Arkhangelsk began, through which the Russian state intended to conduct permanent trade with all European countries. Arkhangelsk reliably covered the enemies of Vologda and the Solovki monastery from attack, the strengthening of which became a special concern of the Russian Tsar. In accordance with the tsar's letters, the monastery was granted individual parishes in the north of the country; it was granted the right to transport strategic cargo along Dvina, to collect taxes, taxes and duties to receive funds for the development and maintenance of military units. Since the end of the XVI century, the rulers of the Scandinavian countries began to recognize the abbot of the Solovetsky Monastery as the only commander in the north of Russia. This monastery became a strategic center for the protection of the northern regions of the Fatherland, his troops first met the enemy and fought him until the main forces approached. The abbot of the monastery owned the "cross and sword." After the death of Ivan IV, Sweden began a war with Russia over the tearing away of Russian territories and closing the possibility of the exit of the Russian state to the sea borders. The monarch gave the Swedish army an order: “to burn and devastate the Russian lands, population, livestock and prey to deliver to Sweden”. Such a war was aimed at the enslavement and extermination of the Russians in the North. The voivods of Yakhontov, Yurenev, Khaletsky, the Volkonsky brothers, who arrived from Moscow, not only defended the Solovetsky Monastery, Arkhangelsk, but also cleared the Swedes of the seaside northern volosts. The last Moscow commander who defended the monastery was Timofey Krapivin.

Interesting fate also gave история another Russian monastery of Russia - Zaikonospassky, located in the very center of Moscow, near the Red Square. In coordination with Patriarch Iov, Tsar Boris Godunov completed the construction of the monastery in a short time, and in 1600 the church in the monastery was consecrated. At the initiative of Boris Godunov, an interesting program for the development of Russia was developed. In accordance with this program, foreign scientists attracted to the country, architects, began construction and expansion of Voronezh, Belgorod, Yelets, Samara, Tsaritsyn, Arkhangelsk, construction of the Smolensk fortress wall began. Military expeditions were sent to Siberia to develop new lands. Changes also occurred in Moscow. New fortifications were erected, the appearance of the White City inside the Boulevard Ring was transformed, a water supply system was put into operation in the Kremlin, and the bell tower of Ivan the Great was erected, which exceeded all buildings in Russia. The most talented young people began to go to study at foreign universities, opened schools in the capital, where learning to exact sciences required mastering foreign languages. Russia did everything to become a stronghold of the Orthodox Church and live according to the principle “Moscow is the third Rome”. The period of troubled times crossed out much of what had been achieved earlier in the expansion of the country's territory. With hard times it was finished with the arrival of Minin and Pozharsky. After the expulsion of the enemies to the Russian throne, Mikhail Romanov was elevated. The Zaikonospassky monastery gradually began to strengthen. Under Tsar Fedor Alekseevich, it was decided in this monastery to create a Slavic-Latin-Latin Academy in the development of science in Russia. Immediately, scientists from the Ukraine and Belarus began to represent their candidates for this educational institution, who preached at the Kiev-Mogilev Academy. However, on the recommendation of Patriarch Constantine Dionysius, the brothers Likhuda Joanikiy and Sofroniy were recommended to the tsar for organizing the first Academy in Russia in Zaikonospassky monastery. A week before the brothers arrived, Patriarch Joachim consecrated the Academy building, which was prepared for classes. There were many students at the Academy, young people were drawn to knowledge. According to the program of a higher educational institution, it was necessary to study: grammar, poetry, rhetoric, logic, physics, and mathematics. The brothers at the Academy conducted studies in Greek and Latin. Among the students of the Academy there were outstanding scientists: Fyodor Polikarpov, a Russian writer who learned to read more than one generation of citizens of Russia according to the primer, Leonty Magnitsky, the author of a textbook on mathematics and one of the founders of the Moscow navigation school, Pallady Rogovsky, in the world of Raev, the first Russian doctor of philosophy and theology, Mikhail Lomonosov was also a student of the Academy. After some time, the Academy became the basis for the creation of a university in Moscow. The Likhud brothers, in gratitude for the wise state policy pursued through the monastery, contemporaries erected a monument in Moscow. Currently Zaikonospassky monastery operates. His rector, Father Peter, pursues a policy of supporting universities and moral education in Moscow not only for the parishioners of the monastery church, but for residents of the whole country. The male choir of the monastery is widely known in many countries due to the amazing performance of patriotic songs. The monks and the abbot of this monastery in 1812 managed a few hours before the French entered Moscow, to warn the hussars, which were sent by the commander of the rear-guard of the Russian army, General MA. Miloradovich. Gusar rode into the monastery, jumped off his horse, crossed himself three times to the temple, and shouted loudly: "Father Sergius, an urgent message from General Miloradovich!" The rector came out of the temple, he crossed the hussar and said: "I listen, my son." "General Miloradovich asked you, the students of the Academy and the monks to leave, as soon as possible, to Tver." So the future Honorary Member of the Academy of Sciences of Russia, Governor-General of St. Petersburg MA. Miloradovich saved the Russian Slavic-Greek-Latin Academy from the barbarians.

PS .: At the present time, it would be advisable to consider the possibility of creating, at certain monasteries, “Nursing Homes” for citizens of Russia, “Children's Homes” and aiming excursions to familiarize ourselves with the life of our Orthodox monasteries. In this case, the possibility of stealing funds for the care of the elderly, and bullying children who today have the misfortune to be in some “orphanages” would have been excluded.
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  1. GreatRussia
    GreatRussia 30 May 2013 08: 08
    +3
    All this is based on the voluntary fulfillment of Christian commandments. If you touch these commandments, the sixth commandment says - "do not kill." How could our compatriots in the distant past oppose the invasion of enemies in monasteries?

    Gospel of John
    "More than sowing love to anyone else, but whoever puts his soul for his own friends"

    “There is no longer that love, as if someone would lay down his soul for his friends.”


  2. Semurg
    Semurg 30 May 2013 09: 34
    0
    The monasteries in the north completed the tasks assigned to them. I always wondered why they could not christen the Golden Horde, because the Russian princes had good relations with the Horde khans, they took wives from whom they later baptized, some khans were Christians, maybe not Orthodox, but still Christians. Russia wasn’t near religion, the majority of the steppe inhabitants were still anemists or Tengrians. Maybe the priests were less passionate than the mullahs, or racial prejudices supposedly spoiled the Asians faith. Pro-Arabism is peculiar to proselytism why in this case there was a failure.
    1. lexe
      lexe 30 May 2013 12: 44
      0
      It was not accepted then to adopt faith from the weak. We paid tribute. And where there is strength there is truth - that was the philosophy. Duels gave an answer on which side the higher power was. And then the top is numerous at the Horde. Well, let's say one dominant part of Christianity has accepted, the other part will cut out new Christians and even go against the baptists in the "final" campaign. Did we need that?) Well, the economic prerequisites are emerging - the guests from the south could then probably offer more than Russian tribute. I think there were no clear tasks to baptize, the task was to chat and it was completed!) If the task was to baptize, they would baptize!)
      1. Semurg
        Semurg 30 May 2013 14: 43
        +1
        The Mongols also massacred Muslims in Middle Asia, Iran, the Middle East, and also levied tribute; they suggested that the economic centers of Muslims outside the Golden Horde were more likely to remain; the task of baptizing was not clear The most powerful state would become Orthodox, before Khan Berdibek for believing in the horde was not executed and not punished, which was written in the jasis of Genghis, all the more they didn’t go on a campaign. Here, the Byzantine priests went and preached in the Caucasus and Central Asia and the Far East and Russia converted many peoples to Christians. Maybe the main reason is your words (We needed this?) with these words, and there is a decline, when the drive falls, the majority of the people begin to reason like that, we needed it. Now, too, I often see a similar position on Russian sites, probably this is why the Russian Empire is falling.
        1. lexe
          lexe 30 May 2013 15: 31
          +1
          First of all, please call priests priests. I don’t know what you call yours there ... I’ll tell you one thing our spiritual fathers then (when then? When did they overthrow us on all sides) we knew our business and we fought alone with the crowd (we tried so it was) and the rest they let sand into the eyes so they kept the dagger in their scabbard. And one by one the chances are always higher. Our fall, don’t expect it. It’s ridiculous to hear from the new passionate neighbors.) Yes, we had so many passionate neighbors what not to count ..
          To baptize the Horde, it means that it was necessary to harness the regiments to the Horde showdown, and from the West there was ROME! Which does not need millions of new Orthodox enemies! -All that clear?
          The elders saw and knew this. We knew that we would still be in the deserts and we were right! But the rush and explosive passionarism are sometimes harmful.
          1. Semurg
            Semurg 30 May 2013 19: 18
            0
            Pop is not a swearing or abusive word, I didn’t always think that priest was an Orthodox clergyman, like a Mullah Muslim clergyman. At the expense of Kazakhs’ passionarity, I’m not sure because there was no struggle for independence, which would be a manifestation of passionarity, we were more or less satisfied with life in empire. At the expense of the decline of the empire, look at the map of Russia in 1913 and compare it with the modern map of Russia. Of course you can start to boil and promise that you will still show mother Kuzkin, but so far the result is negative. I admit and I hope that Russia will find reserves for a revival, it’s interesting to know why the horde was not baptized if your answer was because the elders saw and knew and remember that you yourself don’t know the answer.
            1. lexe
              lexe 30 May 2013 20: 22
              +1
              Look at the map of England. And what are we small now?
              You want to say that after the baptism of the Horde, a radical change would have occurred in the world))). I recall Prince Vladimir after baptism, he contemplated strongly for his sins))) And you can be friends on business without intruding on a personal worldview. Of course, I I don’t know the answer to the question of what the elders thought and with such an interpretation of the question you are not there (sites) looking for an answer. If you are out of curiosity for the sake of, well, I just give the answer for curiosity and write down the answer)
              The Horde itself taught Russia a lot, the process of rapprochement was going on, but it was interrupted. Well, so answer yourselves the reverse question — why was it not Russia? And in my opinion we do not have the qualities that other Crusader Christians have, but there is another the quality we are Russian is reassuring for all passionaries - yes, here we are masters). But periodically there are outbreaks (Ermak for example) But then there wasn’t this active phase with Horde, you won’t erase words from the song. Many peoples survive the outbreak and die or become smaller. And we know how to defend ourselves when we are in phase 0. And we are waiting for phase 1. So, what we are in phase 0 now does not mean that we are not.
              1. Semurg
                Semurg 30 May 2013 21: 16
                0
                Quote: Lexi
                Look at the map of England. And what are we small now?
                You want to say that after the baptism of the Horde, a radical change would have occurred in the world))). I recall Prince Vladimir after baptism, he contemplated strongly for his sins))) And you can be friends on business without intruding on a personal worldview. Of course, I I don’t know the answer to the question of what the elders thought and with such an interpretation of the question you are not there (sites) looking for an answer. If you are out of curiosity for the sake of, well, I just give the answer for curiosity and write down the answer)
                The Horde itself taught Russia a lot, the process of rapprochement was going on, but it was interrupted. Well, so answer yourselves the reverse question — why was it not Russia? And in my opinion we do not have the qualities that other Crusader Christians have, but there is another the quality we are Russian is reassuring for all passionaries - yes, here we are masters). But periodically there are outbreaks (Ermak for example) But then there wasn’t this active phase with Horde, you won’t erase words from the song. Many peoples survive the outbreak and die or become smaller. And we know how to defend ourselves when we are in phase 0. And we are waiting for phase 1. So, what we are in phase 0 now does not mean that we are not.

                What is the argument about if you confirm my version that priests or Orthodox ministers turned out to be less passionate than mullahs or Muslim clergy (were in phase 0). The question is not an invasion of personal worldview, I did not write priests chuchmeki or kazly to which they were offended ( and passionarity is what they are born with) well, where you hear (the site) no one knows the reasoned answer everywhere you can meet both smart and fool. At the expense of the revival, I wrote above that it’s more common to live with Russians.
                1. lexe
                  lexe 30 May 2013 21: 50
                  0
                  Well, live. It turns out you are a genius since you give out such versions. "You don’t want to commit to the Nobel Committee? to fix the invention? I don’t understand the current topic Topic of the article For the good of the Fatherland. Do you think that our country is the Golden Horde? I don’t think so and the issues of Horde baptism are not important to me, well, I’m not a missionary and I’m a bastard. Create a separate topic and go ahead with evidence.
  3. avt
    avt 30 May 2013 10: 28
    +1
    Quote: Semurg
    I was always interested in the question of why they could not christen the Golden Horde, because the Russian princes had good relations with the Horde khans, they took wives from whom they later baptized, some khans were Christians, maybe not Orthodox, but still Christians.

    Why baptize her then? Read Plano de Carpini 1180-1252, a report about the Tatars of the Dominican Andre 1245, it directly says, the famous Chingiz ... went to war against the Uighurs. These people are Christians from the Nestorian sect, he conquered them. They accepted their letter, for they did not have writing, and now they have it and call the writing of the Mongols. "and also ,, .... there lived a certain shepherd [pastor} John, a powerful man who ruled over the nations called Naimans and belonging to Christians - Nestorians ..." this is already from Wilhelm de Rubruca about the country where Genghis reigned. So Islam was forcibly introduced into the Horde. These are concrete intelligence reports about the country and the people, and not Bodrov's films about Chingiz and the Horde.
    1. Semurg
      Semurg 30 May 2013 10: 56
      +1
      I know that they took Uyghur writing and most of the Uyghurs, Naiman, Kereites professed Nestorianism, but the majority were not Christians and why the priests lost to the mullahs (the reasons prompting the khan to accept Islam at the state level with executions of those who disagree, the reasons for rejecting tolerance in religion to the adoption of Islam as a state religion?)
  4. avt
    avt 30 May 2013 11: 21
    0
    Quote: Semurg
    the bulk were not Christians and why the priests lost to the mullahs (

    Well, Bon also does not differ from "classical" Christianity. request And why Zoroastrianism could not resist request ?
    Quote: Semurg
    (the reasons prompting the khan to convert to Islam at the state level with executions of those who disagree, the reasons for renouncing tolerance in religion to accept Islam as a state religion?

    In principle, your question has an answer. By the way, the first written publication of the Koran was published by the lifetime enemies of Muhammad - the Omeyads, they also decided to take as the state religion, and during their lifetime they did not even consider him a prophet. But what about Vladimir? Also, after all, Christianity adopted the Greek version as a state religion, for reasons it was known to him alone in accordance with the then state interests. And now in Europe, too, there is a planting of the corresponding cult, and quite aggressively, quite a renaissance of the Renaissance with satanic sects.
    1. Semurg
      Semurg 30 May 2013 14: 49
      +1
      I don’t know about Bon, but zoroostrism is not a proselytic religion and therefore disappeared that they could not convert to their religion. In general, it is clear that everything is not clear laughing
  5. avt
    avt 30 May 2013 15: 46
    0
    Quote: Semurg
    . In general, it’s clear that everything is not clear laughing

    Well, why, it’s a worldwide practice to adjust religion to your rule, remember how the Tudors in England introduced Anglicanism, the khans Uzbek and Berdibek with Islam are resting. By the way, I read the travel notes of the Patriarch of Antioch when he came to Russia since the time of Tsar Alexei Romanov, who also carried out the Nikon reform with blood, because he, an Arab by blood and a resident of present Syria, was amazed that local Muslims took blessings from Orthodox priests without hiding in crowded places. What is it ?! This is the question of what
    Quote: Semurg
    .Maybe the priests turned out to be less passionate than the mullahs, or the racial prejudice supposedly would corrupt the Asians. Abrahamic religions tend to proselytism, why in this case there was a failure.
    Zoroastrianism, by the way, has not disappeared, it has shrunk, but it is still quite alive in Iran and India.
    1. Semurg
      Semurg 30 May 2013 19: 41
      0
      I’m not a dock in religion, but the prophet Isa is respected in our country and I don’t want to offend your religion, it’s just that the Golden Horde became Muslim if you have a clear answer, like 1-khan was on a diet and forbade everyone to eat pork or 2 there was an allergy to alcohol and he forbade him, or 3 he loved his wife and she was a Muslim. I just need to argue why. Personally, I don’t know and asked a question about this, but about pasionality as an answer, if you have a reasoned answer thanks in advance, and then Lexey is already boiling up the branch, but in addition to the mythical elders who knew something, he writes nothing, but will soon begin to slide into grievances.
      1. lexe
        lexe 30 May 2013 20: 55
        0
        I don’t boil and respect you — I gave my vision of the essence of your question above. I am also not a guru and I do not pretend to be fully objective in the sphere of higher powers. It is rather a dispute of a different historical approach with an application of what they thought then and what we have (had not long ago) in fact.