Military Review

Captivity as an assessment of behavior

49
Brave, courageous and disciplined warriors and in captivity remain soldiers


The next anniversary of the Great Victory gave rise to new discussions and revived the old regarding various events and aspects of the war, be it the figures of casualties of the parties, different views on the course of operations, discussion of certain decisions of the generals, etc. In this material we suggest to talk about the moral and fighting spirit of the allies Germany, caught in Soviet captivity.

Why precisely allies and why precisely about moral and their fighting spirit? The theme of Soviet and German prisoners of war is too multifaceted and extensive for a small newspaper article. As for the second question, the eminent German military theorist Karl von Clausewitz answered him exhaustively in his time: “The moral values ​​in the war occupy the most important place. These moral values ​​pervade through the entire military element ... "

Romanians always and everywhere beaten

Early in the morning of June 22, along with the Germans, Romanian soldiers entered the Soviet land - their leader (conductor) Marshal Ion Antonescu was the most loyal ally of the Reich. However, this loyalty did not find reciprocity on the part of Hitler, a week before the attack on the USSR in a narrow circle stated: "You can not count on Romania, the Romanian formations do not have offensive force."

Captivity as an assessment of behaviorWhat made one of the poorest countries in Europe to go to war with such a powerful neighbor as the Soviet Union? It seems that Antonescu's personality played a decisive role here. A charismatic leader, he did not enjoy the sympathy of King Carol II, who removed him from the post of minister of defense, after which he gave part of the Romanian territory of Bulgaria, Hungary and the USSR (Bessarabia).

This caused public discontent and protest, on the wave of which Antonescu became the dictator of Romania in 1940. But the lost territories could only be returned in alliance with Germany and at the expense of the Soviet Union, for Hungary and Bulgaria were also satellites of the Reich. Therefore, the Romanians - mainly the officer corps - entered the war with enthusiasm, believing that they were fighting for the liberation of their land: Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina.

However, the enthusiasm quickly faded away, for the words of Hitler quoted above about the low combat capability of the Romanian troops confirmed the very first days of the war. And the Red Army retreated from the Soviet-Romanian border only because of the general unfavorable situation prevailing in the summer of 1941 in the South-West direction.

It had nothing to do with the actions of the Romanian troops, beaten always and everywhere, especially at Stalingrad (then 200 of thousands of soldiers and officers of Antonescu were in captivity). In the unheated camp barracks, shaking out the lice from a long unwashed outfit, they suddenly realized that they did not want to fight the USSR. In an interview with an American journalist, a Romanian prisoner said: “We never wanted to fight against the Russians. This officers and corrupt government forced us. Now the war does not please even the officers. At home, the Germans rule our country, at the front they command our army. ”

The prisoner conveyed the mood of many of his colleagues: Romanian peasants from somewhere near Timisoara also wanted to fight for the liberation of Bessarabia, like the Russian peasants from around Tambov to fight for Galicia in World War I.

Romanian and German prisoners of war were kept together. For obvious reasons, the camp administration treated the former better than the latter. For example, Romanians were put on chores and even at the wardens, which allowed them to eat better and sometimes settle scores with their former allies. According to the historian Maxim Kustov, the Germans recalled that the whole Romanian mafia was in the camps of theirs.

All this, of course, in no way testifies to the high morale of the Romanians, but speaks of their adaptability to the difficult conditions of captivity and the ability to survive, in general, in any conditions that are characteristic of poor peasants. For them, because life is in captivity, that in a poor village there were no significant differences in everyday life.

Survive - so the whole world can be at the expense of others. So the Romanians did, because the mortality among them was relatively low. Note that many Romanians joined the anti-fascist 1-th Romanian volunteer division for reasons of very pragmatic: there is better fed and no lice.

Cruel Magyars

By 1941, the fragment of the once great Habsburg Empire - Hungary had already been 23, a small and poor landlocked country, but with Admiral Milos Horthy's ruler. Neither the government nor the people had by this time eliminated imperial ambitions, partly justified, because after World War I, the territory of Hungary decreased from 283 to 93 thousand square kilometers and accordingly the population decreased from 18,2 to 7,6 million people.

Hungarians who became citizens of Romania and Czechoslovakia treated with contempt their new compatriots, because the poor and poorly cultured in the eyes of the Hungarians the Romanians had long been ruled by Turkey, and the Slavs occupied a subordinate position in the Hapsburg Empire. And the Hungarians remembered it.

Russian Magyars also hated - after all, a hundred years had not passed since the army suppressed Nicholas I of the Hungarian anti-Austrian uprising.

In a word, Horthy tried to recover the lost lands. Partly with the support of Hitler, he succeeded through the Vienna Arbitrations: in 1938, Hungary received 12 thousand square kilometers of southern Slovakia and parts of Transcarpathia. Two years later, Budapest acquired northern Transylvania with a total area of ​​43,5 thousands of square kilometers.

However, despite the imperial ambitions, the admiral led a cautious policy: he refused to support Germany during her attack on Poland. But Hungary had to fight against Yugoslavia, Prime Minister Pal Teleki, who disagreed with this, shot himself to death.

When Hitler launched a war against the USSR, Horthy took a wait-and-see attitude, but not for long. 26 June, the Germans organized a provocation: allegedly Soviet aircraft bombed the country. And then most of the military insisted on joining the Reich in its "crusade against Bolshevism."

And the Hungarian troops went to Russia, where they showed monstrous cruelty. Archival documents show: the Magyars did not spare either the elderly, or women, or children, including infants. No less sadistic was their attitude toward Soviet prisoners of war: when you familiarize yourself with the materials, now published and accessible to a wide circle of readers, it seems that the spirit of the ancient Ugric nomadic peoples woke up in externally civilized Hungarians, turned into nonhumans on Soviet soil.

The crimes committed by the Hungarians did not put them outside the Geneva Convention - many prisoners of the Magyars did not deserve human relations at all ...

Over thousands of 400 turned them into Soviet captivity. The Hungarians could not realize their savage cruelty in the camps, but they retained their hatred for the USSR: unlike the Romanians, they categorically refused to join the anti-Hitler formations, which, it must be admitted, testifies to their unbroken fighting spirit.

Uninvited Italians

February 1943 of the year turned out to be cold and windy, the frost tightly grabbed a wide Don with ice, only in some places blackened with polynyas. They were seen through the beating blizzard in the face and flooded sleet dark and exhausted people, and, despite the shouts of the guards, they rushed to drink. They fell right on the ice, in some places it could not withstand the gravity of the bodies and the icy Don took the unwelcome guests to the bottom.

How are the peaceful Italians, who failed to conquer Greece and defeated by insignificant forces of the British in North Africa, who were on the verge of defeat in France already defeated by the Wehrmacht, how did they get to faraway Russia?

The answer in the memoirs of the head of the office of the Italian Foreign Minister and Mussolini’s father-in-law, Ciano Filippo Anfuso: use Italian troops against Russia. “He cannot wait to make scabies in Russia,” he commented on his father-in-law, Ciano. ”

Yes, the duce could not wait to “get scabies in Russia”: in a personal letter to Hitler and in pathos in the fascist press Mussolini declared Italy’s readiness to join the Reich in his “crusade against communism”.

However, despite the external eccentricity, the duce was an experienced politician and was aware that the Italian army was not ready for a big war. Understood this, and Hitler, who hoped to participate in the plan "Barbarossa" Finns, Romanians and Hungarians, but not Italians. And not only because of their low combat capability — the Mussolini divisions needed the Fuhrer in North Africa.

Duce was afraid that the USSR would be defeated even before the arrival of his troops in Russia and Italy would not take part in sharing the huge Russian pie. In the end, Hitler agreed to send a minor Italians to the Eastern Front. And this decision of the Fuhrer, as well as the warlike enthusiasm of the Duce, became a tragedy for tens of thousands of Italian guys, part of the fallen, and partly captured in the boundless southern Russian steppes, where they fought as part of the 8 Italian Army.

After the Battle of Stalingrad, which resulted in the defeat of Italian divisions, among others, about 50 of thousands of Mussolini soldiers and officers were taken prisoner. After the war, just over 10 thousands returned home.

Why did such high mortality prevail among the Italians who were in captivity? There are several reasons. One of them, and perhaps the most weighty one, is despondency, the reasons for which our hapless enemies had been numerous. This is a shock experienced by the inhabitants of the close Apennine villages and ancient, almost toy cities from the huge, steppe expanses of Russia previously unseen by them, and the terrible impression of a heavy defeat, especially against the background of the initially low fighting spirit of the Italians.

Why are we here?

It seems that for many of them, as well as for Romanians with Hungarians, the clank of caterpillars crawling through the Russian blizzard became a nightmare for life tanks, the piercing roar of attack aircraft and the "Stalinist organ" - a volley of famous Katyushas. All this horror experienced, imposed on the difficult conditions of captivity, caused apathy among Italians unprepared psychologically and, as a result, low resistance of the body to the diseases that prevailed in Soviet prison camps, for example typhus.

The same Romanians, noted above, showed greater survival in captivity, the Italians did not. Why? And the relatively high level of civilization, and comfortable living conditions adversely affected the Italians in extreme conditions of captivity.

In this regard, the memoirs of the American General Omar Bradley about the surrender of the German-Italian troops in May 1943 in North Africa are very interesting. Only in this case he describes not depressed, but on the contrary, the high spirits of the Italians from the prospects, as Bradley put it, of a free trip to the States: “Soon the festive mood reigned in the Italian camp, the prisoners squatted around fires and sang to the accompaniment of accordions brought from by myself.

The opposite was observed in the Germans. These were busy setting up the camp. Non-commissioned officers gave orders, and soon the quarters of tents from camouflage raincoats grew up in the desert. The soldiers were put into companies, latrines were dug, kitchen areas were allotted, and normal water supply was established. ”

In other words, the Germans continued to recognize themselves as soldiers, and therefore maintained their fighting spirit. Romanians lost morale, but managed to unite in a camp. Hungarians helped hate Russians to survive. The Italians had neither hatred nor cohesion necessary for survival.

Another well-known fact testifies to their apathy and unwillingness to undertake any serious efforts for survival - the Germans carried out a mass execution of soldiers and officers of yesterday’s allies, who suddenly turned into prisoners of war on the Aegean islands of Kefalonia and Kos, in Lviv, in the Balkans and in Poland. These tragic events occurred after the overthrow of Mussolini and Italy’s withdrawal from the 8 war on September 1943.

Before they shot their former allies, the Nazis had previously disarmed them, and almost nowhere, with the exception of the islands named, the Italians did not resist.

Of course, among pedantic German soldiers who did not lose their bearing, the crowd rejoicing over the Allied captivity did not arouse anything but contempt, which in distant Russia took on other, more rigid forms.

According to the German military historian and philosopher Gerhard Schreiber, the hatred of all Italian could not be explained only by a truce between the allies and Rome. Indeed, it is not a truce, but a difference of mentalities and, if I may say so, the fighting spirit of the Germans and Italians.

What did it mean? Schreiber responds to this question with the following example: “In northern Italy, already in March 1943, a strike movement emerged that swept up to 300 thousands of workers ... Of course, there were also workers in Germany who were dissatisfied with the regime, but it did not reach strikes here.” Moreover: “In the concrete situation of the summer of the year 1943, with all its immediacy, the determination of the majority of Germans was shown to hold on to the so-called bitter end. Therefore, they lacked the understanding that in the minds of many Italians they had their own idea of ​​the relationship between struggle and victory. Most of the people south of the Alps considered the struggle senseless, because for the Axis powers, victory had long been unattainable. ”

By the way, there was no strike movement not only in Germany, but also in Romania - the power of Antonescu was too firm and merciless, and in Hungary - the Magyars were too loyal to the Reich.

An understanding of the meaninglessness of the struggle gave rise to an understanding of the meaninglessness of captivity in general. “Why are we here?” - Many Italians asked a similar question in the Soviet camps. And they could hardly find an answer that could inspire them to fight for survival and even to preserve the human form.

The senseless and incomprehensible war, the harsh conditions of captivity, poor nutrition and medical care were aggravated by one more factor. The fact is that of the actually Italian camps for prisoners of war stationed in the USSR 116 there were only four. In the rest, former allies and even Poles became their cellmates. And all of them, without exception, in one form or another blamed Mussolini's soldiers.

Finnish capable

Finally, the Finns. They turned out to be the most efficient allies of Germany - namely allies, not satellites, like the Hungarians, Romanians and Italians. And nothing like the tragedy of the latter, after leaving the war en masse shot by the Nazis, with the Finns simply could not be - they would not let themselves be disarmed.

Moreover, in his book Psychology of War in the XNUMXth Century - historical the experience of Russia, Professor Elena Sinyavskaya writes: "According to many testimonies, the combat effectiveness of the Finnish units, as a rule, was significantly higher than the German."

The high fighting spirit, as well as the military professionalism of the Finnish troops, is evidenced by the fact that in the period from 1939 to 1944, only three thousand soldiers and officers of Field Marshal Gustav Mannerheim were captured.

The Finns fought cruelly. In his book, Sinyavskaya notes: “In particular, the facts of the destruction by Finnish sabotage groups of Soviet military hospitals along with the wounded and medical personnel were well known.”

The high morale and cohesion of the Finns as a whole were kept in captivity. In the Soviet camps, the percentages of Finnish prisoners of war died to 32 - mainly from disease, malnutrition and overwork due to excessive production standards.

A relatively low figure, due to the fact that the conditions of detention, as well as the attitude of the Soviet administration to the Finns, were more loyal than the Germans.

But these are living conditions, but what was the moral state of the Finns in captivity? According to Professor Viktor Konasov: “The behavior of the Finns in the POW camps was fundamentally different from the behavior of, for example, German soldiers and officers. As the observations of the operatives and the camp administration showed, they were very hardworking, disciplined, kept apart from prisoners of war of other nationalities, communicated, as a rule, only among themselves. They didn’t sympathize with the Germans for their arrogant, instructive tone in behavior with others and a light, scornful attitude towards women, remembered from the times of German troops in Finland quartering ... Finns are characterized by self-esteem, strict morality. ”

These lines are not evidence of the high morale of the Finns in captivity? Add to this that from the Soviet captivity the Finns, unlike, say, the same Italians returned as heroes.

More than half a century has passed since the day when the volleys of the Second World War died down. Italians have not seen Russian enemies for a long time, the Romanians, in general, also, with Finns and Hungarians, is becoming more and more difficult. But that is another story.
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  1. xetai9977
    xetai9977 31 May 2013 08: 15 New
    +9
    Припоминаю слова нашего покойного преподавателя-фронтовика,который говорил,что на фронте "мы радовались,когда обнаруживали,что напротив нас расположились румыны, а немцы и финны дрались жестко, как будто родились с оружием в руках".
  2. Gato
    Gato 31 May 2013 10: 59 New
    10
    And my grandfather told me about the Italians:
    "Осень 1943, где-то под нынешним Донецком, идет колонна артполка. На перекрестке наблюдаем такую картину - огромный крестьянский воз с сеном, в него цугом запряжены шесть тощих чернявых мужиков явно не пенсионного возраста. Всеми этими "вороными" погоняет украинская баба с немецким карабином. Прибежал особист выяснять "кто такие, почему не в армии". Оказалось - дезертиры-итальянцы, что-то лопочут, плачут, с трудом удалось понять, что умоляют взять их в плен. Комполка послал их нах - мол, не хватало еще кормить этих дармоедов, да и вся дивизия ржать будет - гы-гы, герои-артиллеристы итальянцев в плен взяли. Вообще, передовые части итальянцев в плен не брали. Эсэсовцев тоже не брали- кончали на месте, да те и сдавались редко. А у итальянцев просто отбирали оружие и гнали в шею - пусть ими тыловые занимаются, а нам в наступлении самим жрать нечего."
  3. Gato
    Gato 31 May 2013 11: 30 New
    +5
    Вообще, сколько бы итальянцы не корчили из себя "наследников Вечного Рима", во Вторую мировую их били все, кому не лень: греки, югославы, французы, англичане, американцы, русские, бывшие союзники немцы и даже собственная сицилийская мафия. С переменным успехом им удавалось воевать только с дикими абиссинцами.
    Хотя нет. Были все-таки у них и боеспособные части - "Дечима МАС" князя Боргезе. Диверсанты х...вы.
  4. Gari
    Gari 31 May 2013 11: 51 New
    +4
    Quote: Gato
    Prince Borghese. Saboteurs x ... you.

    Prince Valerio Borghese, nicknamed the Black Prince, so they were the only warriors, and there is suspicion on October 28, 1955, the explosion of the battleship Novorossiysk, which was shaken on the internal raid of Sevastopol,
    The battleship Novorossiysk - the Italian battleship Giuseppe Cesare (Julius Caesar) was handed over to the Soviet Union for reparation among other ships. Borghese publicly vowed the golden sword presented to him by the king (incidentally, for successful sabotage against the British): the submariners would not allow the "Italian flagship to serve the Soviets" and would blow it up at all costs.
    At the end of 1949, the prince ordered his frogmen to sink the “Giuseppe Cesare” in the waters of the Aegean Sea (he went to the USSR from the Albanian port of Valona), promising the performers a fabulous fee. In the Soviet Union, information was received about such an insidious plan, and the battleship began to be guarded by submarines together with swimmers from the top-secret unit of Barracuda. The saboteurs involved in this operation were soon destroyed, and Giuseppe Cesare came to Sevastopol. In the same 1949, after modernization, the battleship was given the name Novorossiysk
    1. Vladimirets
      Vladimirets 31 May 2013 11: 57 New
      +6
      Quote: Gari
      Giuseppe Cesare

      Только "Джулио Чезаре" («Giulio Cesare»).
      1. xetai9977
        xetai9977 31 May 2013 15: 51 New
        +2
        Giulio Cesare- в переводе "Юлий Цезарь".Только итальянцы вместе с латинским языком утратили и их боевой дух.
        1. Gato
          Gato 31 May 2013 17: 46 New
          +6
          Well, the Italians have nothing to do with the Romans. They are the descendants of the barbarians who plundered Rome (and Rome conquered completely different barbarians). In the same way as the Romanians, who do not understand from what hangover consider themselves descendants of the Romans.

          I'm a fan of the Roman Empire to some extent, so I don’t perceive Italians on an emotional level.
          1. xetai9977
            xetai9977 31 May 2013 18: 34 New
            +4
            Сами румыны к римлянам абсолютно никакого отношения не имеют.Они потомки даков.Римляне перебили их почти подчистую.А название страны-ROMANIA ,"земля римлян",означает,что там выделяли землю отставным солдатам,зажиточному плебсу,и отличившимся варварам на римской службе.
    2. Gato
      Gato 31 May 2013 12: 35 New
      +2
      Ну, это одна из версий причин гибели "Новороссийска". Хотя, на мой взгляд не самая вероятная. Я не специалист в области военно-морских диверсий, но как-то с трудом представляются технические подробности такой акции.
      How did these diver fans infiltrate the well-guarded internal raid of Sevastopol’s naval base, and even carry a charge with them?
      One can hardly believe in the remote swim of Italian ichthyander from the territory of Turkey.
      The disembarkation of conspiracy agents from our territory is also unlikely - 1955 is not 1945, the coast was closely monitored by border guards, and their GB would not have snapped.
      So it should have been some kind of base vessel, such as a foreign merchant, but as far as I know from Internet materials, this was not found during the investigation.
      Minisubmarines? But they, too, must somehow be dragged into the Black Sea, and could they have made their way to Sevastopol?
      In general - the story is dark.

      In general, battleships exploded quite often:
      http://navycollection.narod.ru/weapons/Mutsu/Mutsu.htm
      Judging by the tablet, the main reasons are:
      1. Crew sloppiness
      2. Diversion
      3. Spontaneous combustion of gunpowder (after the First World War it was no longer noted)

      1. Gari
        Gari 31 May 2013 14: 02 New
        0
        Quote: Gato
        Ну, это одна из версий причин гибели "Новороссийска". Хотя, на мой взгляд не самая вероятная

        In 1978, after the death of the Black Prince, a book by his biographer entitled Valerio Borghese was published. My Secret War ”, in which the diversion against the battleship was described. Moreover, she was immediately banned in England, the USA and Canada, after which she was not reprinted.
        1. nikmih54
          nikmih54 1 June 2013 14: 42 New
          0
          You know, waiting 10 years is ridiculous. There is another version that during the development of underwater mining by our saboteurs, due to sloppiness, they loaded military warheads onto the battleship.
    3. paunch
      paunch 31 May 2013 18: 06 New
      0
      Giulio Cesare. sorry.
  5. Hort
    Hort 31 May 2013 11: 59 New
    +3
    а мой дед про румын рассказывал - целыми ротами сдавались, с оружием в руках. Тупо спрашивали "где плен?", наши им примерно рукой направление покажут и топали. Ну, потом разоружали их естественно
    1. Vladimirets
      Vladimirets 31 May 2013 12: 09 New
      +3
      Quote: hort
      Тупо спрашивали "где плен?", наши им примерно рукой направление покажут и топали.

      According to the memoirs of the Germans, the French surrendered to them like that, themselves, in their own country, were captured.
  6. omsbon
    omsbon 31 May 2013 12: 01 New
    +4
    My grandfather, a front-line soldier, called Romanians exclusively looters and talking about the war, spoke about them very contemptuously.
  7. Sirius-2
    Sirius-2 31 May 2013 12: 28 New
    +6
    Italians have not seen Russian enemies for a long time, the Romanians, in general, also, with Finns and Hungarians, is becoming more and more difficult. But that's another story.

    No! The story is the same! This is evident from the scandals with children from interethnic marriages, the hatred of the Finns and Hungarians. Were it my will: not a single Hungarian would return home!
  8. Gato
    Gato 31 May 2013 12: 57 New
    +2
    The respected author left behind Japanese prisoners of war - and there were more than 600 thousand of them.
    But the captured Finns (2377 carcasses) - even less than the captured Jews, Moldavians or Mongols. In general, the data on Wikipedia about the number of captured Moldovans, Jews, Mongols, Chinese, Koreans, Gypsies (!) Tore up my pattern! Where did these come from?
    Interestingly, were there Negro prisoners?
    1. Raiven
      Raiven 31 May 2013 13: 14 New
      -3
      The Japanese would rather die than surrender. Americans would definitely not give up in the DOS. If Amy climbed Yap. islands (amers) they would have huge losses
      1. Mikhail3
        Mikhail3 31 May 2013 19: 04 New
        +1
        Не читайте жалкую американскую пропаганду про "самурайский дух". Всю эту бредятину даже не японцы придумали... Вояки они совершенно никакие. Удачная пиар-стратегия по продвижению этого самого мошеннического "духа" замазала глаза многим. Просто изучите внимательно всю эту историю. Про камикадзе подумайте трезво, почитайте как японцы в атаку ходили...
        1. Raiven
          Raiven 22 June 2013 09: 23 New
          0
          you read the respected literature. The Japanese received military training almost the entire population once, phenomena such as kamikaze, the mass deaths of many Japanese soldiers and civilians in order not to surrender (not always of course) and a few more cases.
          Quote: Mikhail3
          Think soberly about kamikaze, read how the Japanese went on the attack ...

          like ours, in the bayonet
    2. Jipo
      Jipo 31 May 2013 16: 35 New
      +1
      There were a lot of Japanese in Kazakhstan. They built houses, objects are different, and they built very high quality, they still stand. In Karaganda, we have a monument to the Japanese who died in captivity, in Spassk.
      1. Zhaman-Urus
        Zhaman-Urus 31 May 2013 18: 56 New
        0
        Hello Karaganda from Temirtau! My grandfather guarded the ZK in Temirtau, mine, and the Japanese too. But they built houses that would last longer than those that are now being built, I myself was born into that. I'm not sure about the captive Negroes, but there were Tibetan prisoners))
    3. Aaron Zawi
      Aaron Zawi 1 June 2013 01: 31 New
      +1
      Quote: Gato
      . In general, the data on Wikipedia about the number of captured Moldovans, Jews, Mongols, Chinese, Koreans, Gypsies (!) Tore up my pattern! Where did these come from?

      Молдаван призывали в румынскую армию. Евреи и цыгане были в " строительных батальонах" венгерской армии. Это типа стройбата на передовой. В форме, но под охраной и без оружия. Монголы, китайцы и корейцы из армии Маньчжоу-Го, которая капитулировала вместе с японцами.
    4. tungus-meteorit
      tungus-meteorit 1 June 2013 03: 45 New
      0
      Jews, gypsies and Moldavians served in the armies of Romania, Hungary and Slovakia, as well as in the German Wehrmacht, oddly enough. There are also Yugoslavs on the list - these are Croatian units that fought in the Stalingrad direction, and no less cruel than the Germans and Hungarians. The Chinese, Koreans and Mongols (from the territories occupied by the Japanese) - were drafted into the Japanese Kwantung army, defeated by Soviet troops.
    5. tungus-meteorit
      tungus-meteorit 1 June 2013 03: 47 New
      0
      The Hindu volunteers (Pakistanis) and North African nationalities who fought in the Sahara against the Allied forces were still on the side of the fascists.
  9. Kovrovsky
    Kovrovsky 31 May 2013 13: 31 New
    +2
    Quote: Raiven
    The Japanese would rather die than surrender. Americans would definitely not give up in the DOS. If Amy climbed Yap. islands (amers) they would have huge losses

    The Japanese also gave up. Of course, not on such a scale, but to the Americans as well.
    1. Gato
      Gato 31 May 2013 13: 49 New
      +1
      Yes, although it is still necessary to add that the bulk of the Japanese prisoners surrendered after the emperor ordered to stop resistance.
  10. German
    German 31 May 2013 13: 53 New
    +2
    mother said: during the war in Dnepropetrovsk there were mainly Romanians and Italians. Germans were relatively few. Romanians and pasta were great at looting so the Germans even shot them. One Romanian was shot by a German officer from a patrol in front of my mother when he (Romanian) tried that something to pick up from a grandmother selling apples ... that's what I heard.
  11. Black
    Black 31 May 2013 13: 54 New
    0
    (по воспоминаниям родителей)В станицу после разгрома Паулюса пригнали около ста немцев и румын. Строили плотины для степных прудков.(кстати- плотины и отводные каналы живы до сих пор). Так вот к немцам отношение было лучше. Румыны "опустились" очень быстро, работали плохо, в отличии от немцев
  12. helix
    helix 31 May 2013 14: 19 New
    +2
    Interesting article. And it would be interesting to read some German comparison of prisoners from their German camps.
  13. ed65b
    ed65b 31 May 2013 15: 25 New
    0
    However, the Finns did not achieve much success in the war. Looks like they remembered how the whole thing ended a little earlier. Yes, and no matter what kind of warriors they were against our soldier they handed over.
  14. helix
    helix 31 May 2013 15: 37 New
    +2
    Финны себе изначально ставили задачу выйти на границы до войны 1939 года. Забрать те территории, которые считали своими, а на большее они и "не подписывались". Когда они этого достигли, то больше особого энтузиазма не проявляли.
  15. nnz226
    nnz226 31 May 2013 18: 39 New
    +5
    Насколько знаю, наши венгров старались в плен вообще не брать, так как видели их "художества" на оккупированных землях. Откуда их в плену аж 400 тысяч набралось? надо было энтих загнать на южный берег моря Лаптевых, чтоб никто из плена не вернулся. Чтоб русских не ненавидели, а боялись до жидкого поноса, когда русский на них только недобро посмотрит...
    1. The centurion
      The centurion 31 May 2013 19: 13 New
      +2
      Quote: nnz226
      Where did they get a prisoner of 400 thousands?

      During the Iasi-Kishinev Operation, which Marshal Malinovsky brilliantly conducted, the armies of Hungary and Romania were completely defeated and there were a lot of prisoners. But we must pay tribute to the Hungarians for a short time they created a new army and continued to resist. But the Romanians surrendered and joined the anti-Hitler kaolition. For this, after the war, the Allies gave them Transylvania (this is half of Hungary), and King Mihai received the Order of Victory. But the Hungarians did not forget this and are waiting in the wings to settle accounts with the Romanians. This is a bomb in the center of Europe sometime jerk.
  16. Eugene
    Eugene 31 May 2013 20: 29 New
    0
    And what about the statistics of escape from the camps? It seems that they didn’t run a lot ..
  17. The comment was deleted.
  18. Pushkar
    Pushkar 31 May 2013 23: 18 New
    0
    And where to run? Everywhere then ours were. In the Far East, they still talk about the shoots of Vlasovites. Not one of them ran far. And anyone would have surrendered these fighters or would have killed himself.
  19. GEO
    GEO 1 June 2013 01: 28 New
    0
    The Finns left the war in 44g and interned the German troops on their territory. In particular, I know about. Hogland (diving there on sunken ships) was a battle between the Finns and Germans in 44. The Finns, I think, were very lucky because of the personality of Karl-Gustav Mannerheim, who, loving Finland, did a lot to spoil as little as possible Of Russia. I think Stalin knew and appreciated it. By the way, Mannerheim’s wife was Russian. And 2 daughters. If not for the revolution, he would continue to faithfully serve Russia. He is a Finnish of Swedish descent.
    Hungarians are cattle.
    Romanians are gypsies, what to take from them ...
    The Italians ... well, you understand ...
    By the way, the Hungarians are relatives of the Finns, this is one Finno-Ugric group. Ugorsky - Hungari - Hungary.
    1. Denis
      Denis 1 June 2013 05: 44 New
      +1
      Quote: GEO
      Romanians are gypsies, what to take from them ...
      The company had the most terrible curse, and he knew 20 of their volumes, not from his mother, but Romanian unwashed
      This is all, it cannot be worse than a person
      1. berimor
        berimor 2 June 2013 17: 42 New
        0
        Father said that when during our war we entered Romania and saw Romanian officers from the rifled Romanian army, they were very shocked by their appearance: the nails were manicured, eyebrows and eyes were tinted, powdered and perfumed beyond measure. In short, not before the war they were somehow. When I served in the 8th Air Defense Army in Kiev, senior air defense officers from Romania, Hungary and Bulgaria were seconded to us on cooperation in the framework of the Warsaw Pact in the south-west direction. So most of all bothered Romanians. Constantly asked to allocate a car and an older one to ride and buy as much junk as possible and send to Romania. And the same reminded and made up. We suspected that he was probably blue.
    2. berimor
      berimor 2 June 2013 17: 25 New
      0
      Правильнее "угро-финская группа".
    3. Marat
      Marat 15 June 2013 14: 27 New
      0
      In fact, Mannerheim in Finland created an army based on the traditions of the Russian tsarist army (by the way, there were many Russian emigrants in it) —that is why the Finnish army is at a high level.
  20. GEO
    GEO 1 June 2013 01: 38 New
    0
    Quote: Gato
    Ну, это одна из версий причин гибели "Новороссийска". Хотя, на мой взгляд не самая вероятная. Я не специалист в области военно-морских диверсий, но как-то с трудом представляются технические подробности такой акции.
    How did these diver fans infiltrate the well-guarded internal raid of Sevastopol’s naval base, and even carry a charge with them?
    One can hardly believe in the remote swim of Italian ichthyander from the territory of Turkey.
    The disembarkation of conspiracy agents from our territory is also unlikely - 1955 is not 1945, the coast was closely monitored by border guards, and their GB would not have snapped.
    So it should have been some kind of base vessel, such as a foreign merchant, but as far as I know from Internet materials, this was not found during the investigation.
    Minisubmarines? But they, too, must somehow be dragged into the Black Sea, and could they have made their way to Sevastopol?
    In general - the story is dark.

    In general, battleships exploded quite often:
    http://navycollection.narod.ru/weapons/Mutsu/Mutsu.htm
    Judging by the tablet, the main reasons are:
    1. Crew sloppiness
    2. Diversion
    3. Spontaneous combustion of gunpowder (after the First World War it was no longer noted)

    Не знаю, не знаю... На тот момент они были лучшими в мире подводными диверсантами. Я бы, как человек, не чуждый водолазному делу, не стал бы сбрасывать эту версию со счетов. Люди Боргезе, в отличие от многих других итальянских "вояк", были патриотами и очень мужественными воинами. Кто ходил под воду знает, что это такое...
  21. Denis
    Denis 1 June 2013 05: 21 New
    +1
    many romanians joined the anti-fascist 1st romanian volunteer division
    yes, warriors, without them Hitler would not have defeated
    were always in the midst of battles
    Participation in
    Great Patriotic War

    Romanian operation
    Budapest operation
    East Carpathian operation
    Debrecen operation
    all that could be found
  22. anatoly57
    anatoly57 1 June 2013 21: 26 New
    0
    The Finns in 1944 fought quite fiercely with their yesterday's allies - the Germans, the so-called Lapland War. An article on our resource: http: //topwar.ru/18889-vyhod-finlyandii-iz-voyny-i-laplandskaya-voyna.ht
    ml
  23. skychnii
    skychnii 2 June 2013 05: 11 New
    0
    Forgot about the Spaniards with their blue division
  24. Nikolay K
    Nikolay K 4 June 2013 23: 04 New
    0
    The department’s political secretary told me: before the rush, he worked at the mine, there were two cemeteries - horse and German.
    The horse was lowered into the face and there he pulled for one year - he was dying. Also captured SS prisoners were lowered into the mine. The old men said: they didn’t litter on him, there were groceries, newspapers, a robe — the rate of coal in return. Discipline was supported by ourselves - there were no problems with them. For singing years all died out.
    1. Denis
      Denis 5 June 2013 00: 39 New
      +2
      Quote: Nikolai K
      For singing years all died out.
      For what they fought, they ran into it. If they won, did they not prepare their fate for us?
  25. brr7710
    brr7710 5 June 2013 18: 59 New
    0
    Quote: Gato
    I'm a fan of the Roman Empire to some extent, so I don’t perceive Italians on an emotional level.


    I don’t like the Roman Empire, but I agree with you about Italians ...
  26. Nikolay K
    Nikolay K 6 June 2013 02: 48 New
    0
    There was such an Ostrogozhsko-Rososhanskaya operation. They took to the ring of the retreating enemy. The Germans jumped out behind the Italians. The ring was closed under Nikolayevka (she is Livenka). The participant in the battles told: the frozen Italians stupidly wandered on his machine gun, they already did not care whether to live or die. The machine gun was already overheated and sailed with bullets, and they all wandered and wandered. Then the inhabitants collected corpses, poured into ravines, and covered with chalk on top.
  27. Marat
    Marat 15 June 2013 14: 37 New
    0
    У нас на Украине есть фраза:"Шо ты став,як пленый румын?"(намеренно написал на русско-украинском языке,чтобы всем было понятно).Адресуется человеку ,который не знает,что делать.Наверное,народ не с пальца высосал выражение))))
  28. Reklastik
    Reklastik 18 October 2016 22: 09 New
    0
    in no way testifies to the high morale of the Romanians, however, it speaks of their adaptability to difficult conditions of captivity and the ability to survive, in general, in any conditions that are typical of poor peasants
    - which favors external conditions, I think the Germans, put in the same conditions, would survive no worse than the Romanians)))))