Military Review

People are nothing without fighting spirit

29
Due to human losses, fewer battles are lost than due to the loss of spiritual strength.


The Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation, approved by Decree of the President of the Russian Federation No. 146 of February 5 of 2010, states that a large-scale war will require the mobilization of all available material resources and spiritual forces of the participating States. In the course of mobilization, a complex of measures is being taken to transfer the economy, state authorities, local self-government bodies and organizations to work in wartime conditions, and the Armed Forces - to the organization and composition of wartime.

The whole population of the country participates in the mobilization process. The quality and organizational capabilities of the authorities depend on its spiritual and moral condition, along with other factors.

Russian public figure Lev Tikhomirov, speaking of the development of the nation, writes: “... the nation must be able to develop all the spiritual and material strength available to it. The basis and driving force of development in the nation, as well as in man, is at the same time its spiritual strength. ”

Spiritual strengths in the war years, when the state mechanism as a whole and every person is under tremendous physical and psychological stress, acquire particular importance.

People are nothing without fighting spiritThe highest tests went to Russia during the two world wars. To varying degrees, they showed how the state was able to mobilize spiritual forces and withstand the difficulties of wartime.

By the beginning of the First World War, the Russian empire approached with impressive successes in the economy and the social sphere. The country has increased its vitality through natural population growth. In terms of the growth of industrial production and labor productivity, Russia came out on top in the world; it was almost independent of imports.

However, the growth of material well-being was not accompanied by a noticeable spiritual growth of society and the spiritual schism between the upper intelligentsia and the people deepened in it.

The beginning of the war was perceived by the majority of the people in the countryside in silence and with dignity, as the fulfillment of their civic duty to the Fatherland, and the townspeople in the large cities - by violent enthusiasm and patriotic demonstrations. It would seem that here it is the union of the intelligentsia and the people, so necessary for the mobilization of the spiritual forces of the state. But the rapture was quickly replaced by a different mood.

As a result, a revolution was chosen precisely at the moment when the country was militarily and economically ready to end the war with a victory over an exhausted opponent who was already searching for peace.

Thus, the spiritual forces of the state turned out to be incapable of becoming the driving force of all the material resources accumulated for the victory and of bringing the war with the external enemy to complete victory. The lack of national unity, deepened during the war, became the internal enemy that turned out to be smarter and more cunning than the external.

To a large extent, this state of affairs was already promoted during the First World War by the absence of some restrictions characteristic of the imposition of martial law, that is, the organizational resource was not fully utilized.

First, it refers to the system of state power, which has not undergone significant changes associated with the transition to work in wartime conditions.

The executive branch has managed to mobilize the country's economy, strengthen state regulation and, without a radical breakdown of economic relations, achieve rapid growth in military production indicators.

The contribution of representative power to the cause of war is characterized differently.

In the State Duma, during the war years, the situation changed dramatically, from calls for rallying “around the sovereign leader” at the beginning of the war to slander and disobedience. At an emergency meeting of 26 on July 1914, the bills on financial matters during wartime that were necessary for warfare were adopted, but already then the slogan “War to War” sounded shyly.

Subsequently, as the situation on the front deteriorated in the Duma, anti-government sentiments began to prevail. In August, the Progressive Bloc was created within its walls of 1915, the purpose of which was to fight the government, which led to the commission of a coup d'état.

In the summer session of 1916, the representatives of the bloc proposed a number of bills on Zemstvo reform, on societies and unions, on the Zemstvo and city All-Russian unions, and this clearly indicates their inopportuneness for the belligerent country.

1 November 1916, at the Duma meeting, there are already threats against the government, statements are made with accusations of treason. After the dissolution of 26 in February of 1917, she creates the Provisional Committee of the State Duma, which forms the Provisional Government, which turned out to be incapable of either waging a war or engaging in economics, unlike the one that was overthrown.

Thus, the representative body became the center from which actions proceeded, leading not to the consolidation of society for victory over an external enemy, but to arousing it to fight with the executive branch.

Secondly, with the good purpose of helping the front, public organizations — the All-Union Union and the Union of Cities (Zemgor), the Military Industrial Committee, besides their main activities, dealt with political issues, discrediting the government, although they worked for money only from the state budget. At the front and in the rear, they carried out propaganda against the government, strongly emphasized their usefulness and did not hesitate to present with their merit what was done by the executive branch.

The experience gained by the country in the First World War, including examples of the activities of representative bodies, public organizations and the press, was taken into account in the years of the Great Patriotic War.

In accordance with the Constitution of the USSR 1936, the supreme body of state power was the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. On the very first day of the war, the Presidium of the Supreme Council issued a decree On Martial Law, which imposed a number of restrictions, and on June 30, a joint resolution of the Presidium of the Supreme Council, Council of People’s Commissars and the Central Committee of the CPSU (B.) Was adopted by a joint resolution of the State Defense Committee (T-bills).

In this management body concentrated all the fullness of state power. Citizens, party, Soviet, Komsomol and military bodies were obliged to unconditionally implement the decisions and orders of the GKO.

The Supreme Council and the Presidium of the Supreme Council continued to function, but in fact all power was in place with a body specially created to ensure strict centralized leadership of the country during a period of martial law.

Even the very possibility for the activity of any opposition was excluded, if suddenly it appeared in a period of difficult situation at the front, in the conditions of the loss of vast territories, material resources and people.

Speaking about the state of society on the eve of the Great Patriotic War, some authors say: “In the USSR, there was a spirit of militancy, readiness for military and labor feats ...” (V.N. Zemskov). Others say exactly the opposite: “Soviet society approached the beginning of the war in a difficult spiritual state ...” (S. V. Bolotov).

However, it cannot be said that in the course of the war in the face of general danger, national unity was not achieved and the state failed to mobilize all the country's spiritual forces to achieve victory.

An example of this is the address of the Patriarch's locum tenens, Metropolitan Sergius (Stragorodsky), made on the first day of the war, even before officials turned to the people. "The miserable descendants of the enemies of Orthodox Christianity want to try again to put our people on their knees," he wrote and expressed the firm confidence of the Russian people in the upcoming victory: "With God's help, this time too, he will dispel the fascist enemy force."

These words did not go unnoticed by the leadership of the country. 3 July 1941, the chairman of the State Defense Committee Stalin made a radio address to the Soviet people to make it clear that one can win a war only in the unity of comrades, citizens, brothers and sisters and turning to the spiritual potential of Russia.

“Let the courageous image of our great ancestors — Alexander Nevsky, Dmitry Donskoy, Kuzma Minin, Dmitry Pozharsky, Alexander Suvorov, Mikhail Kutuzov — inspire you in this war ...” he said at the 7 military parade on November 1941 of the year.

The experience of two world wars clearly shows that the outcome of the war depends on the state of the spiritual forces of the state, which give the people unity, the ability to survive and win.

However, the federal law “On Defense” is silent about them, although it would be quite expedient to define the state’s defense power, which is a combination of constantly existing material resources and spiritual forces, in this regulatory legal act.
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  1. Denis
    Denis 29 May 2013 06: 20 New
    +8
    Almost a flyer on this topic
    artists to finalize and will be what is needed
    1. pensioner
      pensioner 29 May 2013 08: 57 New
      +1
      No words ...
    2. IRBIS
      IRBIS 29 May 2013 10: 25 New
      -1
      I am also for the greatness of the spirit, but ... There are also harsh realities. Try chopping off the chicken's head with an ax while holding it in the air. The content of the leaflet is absolutely delusional, from the category of "soldier's tales". Campaign leaflets are not an indicator of fighting spirit, but just a call to it. And to mold these agitation into the Federal Law "On Defense", as the author suggests, is not worth it. Too often in the past, laws and orders in our country were in the nature of appeals and hats, the results are known and they are very sad.
      1. Denis
        Denis 29 May 2013 16: 53 New
        +1
        Quote: IRBIS
        sculpt these propaganda materials into the Federal Law "On Defense"
        Is it about the law?
        Just propaganda material (well, a phrase). Then from everything, books, paintings, sculptures and ... require perfect accuracy. It will be accurate, but gray
        Then A. Twardowski with his Vasily Terkin In Pests and hat-takers, planes from a rifle do not shoot down
        Or maybe he katana, which cuts a scarf falling on her, was armed
        Is moralism always needed?
  2. fenix57
    fenix57 29 May 2013 06: 54 New
    +6
    An excursion into history is normal, but "The highest trials went to Russia during the two world wars."I don’t agree! All tests of RUSSIA have come since 1985, tests by OUTDOOR TRIESTION ON THE PART OF THE STATE GUIDE ... sad
  3. Vladomir
    Vladomir 29 May 2013 07: 09 New
    +7
    Spirituality ALWAYS developed and moved the country, was the strongest weapon of defense of their Fatherland. Not attention to this issue comes from the lack of official Russian ideology, the absence of legislatively formulated historical Russian patriotism to please the West and under their pressure in the 90s. It is time to return to this issue in the new conditions. Russian President Putin raised questions of patriotic education in Krasnodar in 2012, but the media stubbornly avoids these issues, again because of its pro-Western orientation.
  4. Bort radist
    Bort radist 29 May 2013 07: 20 New
    +8
    Spirit - brought up for centuries in battles and trials, you can’t buy or upgrade. And many so want or buy, or compensate for the technical equipment.
    1. Alekseev
      Alekseev 29 May 2013 10: 49 New
      +4
      Quote: Bort Radist
      Spirit - brought up for centuries in battles and trials, you can’t buy or upgrade. And many so want or buy, or compensate for the technical equipment.

      Absolutely accurate definition! good
      The first problem of our Armed Forces is not even the lack of a sufficient amount of modern weapons, but the lack of order, discipline and, as a consequence of the general condition of Russia, fighting spirit.
      As correctly noted, neither buy it, nor compensate with technical equipment and cash allowance is impossible.
      Moreover, the fighting spirit is strengthened not only from agitation and propaganda.
      Here we need social justice, care for the family, a normal school, and the fight against corruption.
      Those. system. So far, that it is not visible.
  5. shamil
    shamil 29 May 2013 07: 43 New
    +3
    The peoples of Russia have a strong spirit slaughtered over hundreds of years of war on their territory and is transmitted already at the genetic level!
  6. Suhov
    Suhov 29 May 2013 08: 02 New
    11
    There is no bad mood in the army. There is cross and construction for this.
  7. fenix57
    fenix57 29 May 2013 08: 44 New
    +6
    Quote: Sukhov
    There is no bad mood in the army. There is cross and construction for this.

    In the OZK! ... and in the norm ... yeah .. wink
  8. pensioner
    pensioner 29 May 2013 08: 55 New
    +7
    Spirit is spirit, but one must not forget about the body. How were the 41 draftees physically prepared, and how now? The question is rhetorical ... YES and improving the spirit does not interfere with the strengthening of physical strength. In the complex it is necessary, in the complex ...
    1. Sergey_K
      Sergey_K 29 May 2013 13: 53 New
      0
      And the Romans physically were even better. And the warriors of Kievan Rus had an even better physical. training. So what? Comrade, times are changing. In a thousand years, when we only have 3 teeth left, they will also write that during the 34th galactic soldiers were abruptly. And now some slobber ...
  9. sys-1985
    sys-1985 29 May 2013 09: 01 New
    +4
    Still, the spirit is primary, there will be no spirit and no physical strength.
  10. smershspy
    smershspy 29 May 2013 09: 11 New
    +7
    Gentlemen! Fighting spirit was always inherent in the army of the Russian Empire! My great-great-grandfather was a non-commissioned officer of the army of the Russian Empire! Even now, real campaigners - professionals in their field are full of fighting spirit and enthusiasm! I remember the words from the movie "OFFICERS": "... there is such a profession to serve the homeland platoon ...". "The Russian army is strong in its spirit, we cannot defeat it, we cannot break it .." (quote from a war film). I have the honor!
    1. folds
      folds 29 May 2013 12: 40 New
      -1
      Quote more precisely - "Defend the Motherland!"
      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Akfmklok81k
      1. albanech
        albanech 6 June 2013 11: 09 New
        +1
        plis!
        Do not carp at people if there is nothing to write sensible! The essence of the person conveyed correctly! And what do you have ..?
        Better to read the comments of others and create something of your own!
        For nitpicking +! But why earn a rating like that?
    2. albanech
      albanech 6 June 2013 11: 06 New
      +1
      smershspy!
      The essence is transferred correctly! Hit the point!
  11. Suhov
    Suhov 29 May 2013 09: 18 New
    +8
    Fighting spirit:
    The proposal of the commander to go on the attack soldiers accepted with a bang!
    1. albanech
      albanech 6 June 2013 11: 12 New
      +2
      Well said! Nice to read your comments! There will always be +!
  12. Uncle lee
    Uncle lee 29 May 2013 09: 30 New
    11
    "An unbreakable wall, a steel defense,
    We will crush, destroy the enemy !!! "
  13. fenix57
    fenix57 29 May 2013 10: 05 New
    +1
    Quote: smershspy
    The fighting spirit was always inherent in the army of the Russian Empire!

    And not only the ARMY ..... Someone can argue? ....
    1. Suhov
      Suhov 29 May 2013 10: 41 New
      +2
      Quote: fenix57
      And not only the ARMY ..... Someone can argue? ....

      It is unlikely that there will be anyone ...
      Speaking of terms:
      Hook is a blow that lacks the Russian letter "I" for full power.
      wassat
    2. Isk1984
      Isk1984 29 May 2013 13: 12 New
      0
      Why write like that, my great-grandfather, a veteran, a hero of the Great Patriotic War, told me that he was a communist, and fought for his homeland, that he was worse off, his mood did not depend on religion ... you can be draped from the enemy with prayer on his lips ...
    3. albanech
      albanech 6 June 2013 11: 16 New
      0
      So that you know Fedor Emelianenko, each other, of my friend Igor! So sport is a sport, and an army is an army! Do not confuse and do not mix!
  14. Valery-SPB
    Valery-SPB 29 May 2013 11: 54 New
    +1
    I was saddened, there was no spirituality among the people, therefore I could not stand the First World War.
    The spiritual and moral state, about which the author speaks, was high at the beginning of the war, the executive power managed ... etc., and the representative let us down.
    Since 1874, when a model of future wars began to take shape, with the adoption of the Law on General Military Duty, Russia formed a mobilization resource for a new type of war. The law was imperfect. It was suitable for peacetime and completely unsuitable for the military.
    It was the executive branch that did not initiate the amendment of the law, as a result of which justice was violated in the call of certain persons (the provision on the only son, for example).
    Russia had 52 million head of cattle (figures from memory). The annual consumption of 6 million heads. Growth of 6 million. Balance! They called men, not youngsters, feeding the whole army s, amounted to 9 million head of cattle, and the growth decreased (less feed). In the first months of the war, they chose livestock, which is closer to the front. There was cattle in Russia, but far from the front-line territories. How to get there? In winter, cattle were also stuffed in carcasses in wagons. In the summer? When mobilizing transportation on a single railway line from Siberia, carry livestock, plus live wagons (optional) with feed. Which way out? Canned foods were already known, in Russia there was only one factory.
    Question to the executive branch and Tsar Nicholas II. How many new factories for the production of canned goods and optimizing the supply of goods to the front were built in preparation, and, most importantly, when deciding (!) On the outbreak of war?
    The advance from the Western Front in the direction of East Prussia was considered strategically incorrect. Only strategic defense. The war began with the advance of the armies of Generals Samsonov and Rennenkampf in East Prussia, a disaster occurred. Why were they advancing? As directed by an ally! All free thinking in the Duma is still far away!
    “In order, perhaps, to weaken the destructive influence of this catastrophe on the spirit of the army and the people, the Headquarters took measures to hide its size and the conditions under which it occurred.
    But the high command itself was clearly aware of those alarming conclusions from this catastrophe, as bright lightning illuminated major shortcomings in the preparation of our army for war "- writes Rear Admiral Bubnov and is supported by General Golovin, who wrote the best book on material and conscription support for the army ...
    The spirit of the people during the war was changed and the whole executive power, led by Nikolai Romanov, was to blame.
    1. lexe
      lexe 29 May 2013 17: 01 New
      0
      Yes, under the tsar, Russia was not ready for war at all 100. But it went at full steam for this, and the enemies did not sleep. Well, we would have dashingly entered Berlin in 1914. and then what? Operation "Unthinkable" as the Allies started in 1945.? The tsar was dragging out the war giving the Europeans to drink their blood and exhaust their forces before the final division. With such losses against the Germans, France would not risk challenging the global leadership of Russia in the world after the victory of the Allies. Germany would be exhausted. .That's the tsar for you. Betrayed one step away from a grandiose victory. The Kaiser initially got involved in an unequal battle. And the emperor, for all his "backwardness", did not see the Germans at the walls of the third Rome!
  15. wax
    wax 29 May 2013 13: 38 New
    +1
    The spirit of the people in the war is rooted in the sense of justice of the war, which allows you to sacrifice your life for your friend. But, of course, in order to win, you need weapons and the material strength of the state.
    I think that Syria cannot be defeated by scum for any money if the Syrians have enough modern weapons.
  16. Vtel
    Vtel 29 May 2013 15: 09 New
    0
    The spirit of the Russian People is Orthodoxy, for over 1000 years! Thanks to the help of God and the intercession of the Mother of God, Russia is invincible to enemies visible and invisible. Tsar Nicholas II and all his family are Holy Martyrs for Russia and the Russian People, and whoever "rolls a barrel" on them is a friend of Svanidze, Nightingales-robbers, Gozmans and the like, It is time to cleanse the real (non-kasher) History of Russia from the dirt, which is diligently our enemies are pouring water from TV boxes and other media. Glory to Russia!
  17. Avenger711
    Avenger711 29 May 2013 15: 31 New
    +1
    By the beginning of World War I, the Russian Empire came up with impressive successes in the economy and social sphere.


    author, go teach history, maybe then you will find out how Russian soldiers who even lacked rifles were simply bombarded with shells with impunity, because the supposedly developed RI could not give them anything to answer. I advise you to think about what the fighting spirit of the Russian army was in such conditions, which fought for no reason, and why the whole country, which in 1914 was still angrily waving its fists, had already parted it into the "war to a victorious end" by 1917.

    You can laugh at the Americans as much as you like, and their fighting qualities are not too high, but according to the recollection of those who fought in Normandy when they saw all these stacks of weapons and supplies that the American industry tirelessly drove to the front, in victory did not arise.
    1. lexe
      lexe 29 May 2013 18: 09 New
      0
      but in 1941. we had everything. But in 1914-15 we were "buried" and dug up near Moscow / St. Petersburg or what? In RI, what do you call the country of our ancestors, everything was in order with the spirit, and shortcomings in ammunition / weapons by 1916-17 were completely overcome (and without massive female / child labor as in the Great Patriotic War). "It is not clear why" -that's with these words and the army was destroyed. Learn history.
      about amers with their stacks, there is a song gas sector moonshiners and drive \ drive \ drive)))
  18. lexe
    lexe 29 May 2013 18: 34 New
    0
    To the author-teacher of the commentary on the story under the nickname Avenger711.And what did the amers carry in their piles and what did their morale grow from? -Conditions \ chewing gums \ cola \ wine \ toilet paper rolls. Yes, even women have bras and women’s panties at the front there was nothing ... there was confidence that we would win! But in the tsarist army there were very few women and this is a plus.