6 December 1967. We finished military service and, on orders from Moscow, left the patrol area, returning from the Mediterranean Sea to our home base in the Arctic.
By the end of the day 6 December got the "radio" (encrypted radiogram) snuggle up to Africa and skip the 6th armada fleet USA, marching across the Tunis Strait. On the morning of December 7th, we again received a “radio”: “Follow your course.” In front of the Strait of Tunisia, a naval exercise was held to combat survivability. At 14.20 on the ship, the first shift on alert No. 2 started to intercede. At 14.33, after the report to the commander on the interruption on the first shift ship on alert No. 1, the submarine (the submarine was differentiated at a depth of 2 meters, under the keel - 40 meters, speed "low speed" - 500 knots) at his order, I gave the command: "Move away from the seats" and sat in the chair of the watch engineer-mechanic (left shoulder to the bow of the ship). Behind were the navigational cabin, the vertical gangway to the conning tower and the metrist pilots. Commander 13nd-Class Captain Borisenko V.D. stood to my left between the fighting post "horizontal" (specialist managing horizontal submersible rudders) (boatswain's midshipman Ivanov) and the table of the watch engineer-mechanic. The commander of the warhead-5 engineer-captain 2 rank Polusmyak GP I did not feel well and had long since departed to my cabin in the 2 compartment. The understudy of our mechanic (due to the poor state of Gregory Pavlovich), engineer-captain of 3 rank N. N. Tkachev. I was sitting in the chair of the watch dosimetrist to my right. It was an experienced commander of the division of the warhead-5 184 backup crew, and therefore for me he was a great assistant and mentor. By the nature of Nicholas was easy, open and sociable. Duty watchkeeper (I don’t remember the names) and watch officer, Commander of the BCh-4, RTS (officer in whose headquarters there are acoustic, sonar, radar and radio equipment of the ship. In addition, he performs duties of the watch officer) Senior Lieutenant Blazhin E.M. stood behind my back closer to the stern - almost in the aisle ...
At that moment, the watchman with crazy eyes looked out of the underwater acoustical cabin - the head sailor - and shouted, like a shot: “Aim straight on the course!”. The commander did not have time to undertake anything, but his movement was towards the turbine telegraphs, which were located behind a vertical ladder into the conning tower. I did not have time to sit in the chair when there was a roar in the bow of the ship. The submarine was thrown up and to the right, and the commander was literally blown to the port side directly to the telegraphs. I was pressed into a chair and thrown back. There was the impression that the lanyard had come off the chair. I hit the backs of the hands on the door cutting metrist (burst glass of the clock). The next moment, I was thrown sharply and with the same force forward. The blow fell on the jaws of "Chestnut" (loud-speaking ship communication (GGS)). They say that while the sparks from the eyes fly. Not sparks - a flame!
Immediately, almost simultaneously, a sharp trim appeared on the stern and there was a dull blow in the stern near the keel. RDU broke away (regenerative respiratory installation) the vertical ladder and with a roar flew down to the stern, as in a pit. After a blunt strike in the stern and instantly appeared trim on the stern, it seemed that the strong hull of some of the stern compartments had burst. The end! For some reason, the thought appeared: "So this is how submariners died during the war!"
I feel that it is impossible to ascend. I know that it is necessary to give a command in the 1-th and 9-th compartments: "Look around in the compartment. Report the situation." (For efficiency, I decided to give the command to these two sections, where I heard the blows, and not to "circular" (command of the "Chestnut" (speakerphone) at the same time to all combat positions) in all compartments. Subsequently, the deputy military command of the Navy in combat training, Admiral G.M. agreed with me when parsing "flights"). But after hitting her chestnut with a jaw, she was stuck. I could not open my mouth.
I look around - the boatswain on the spot, by the depth gauge - 40 meters, the depth decreases sharply, the boat floats, and does not fall stone down. Miracles! Watch BP-35 (combat dive and ascent post) on the spot and frightened, the trimometer went off scale aft. In the chair of the dosimetrist, the understudy commander of the BCh-5 Nikolay Tkachev is sitting in an unusual posture: his legs are straight up, his back is covered with rep, and between his spread legs there are two round dazed eyes. Probably, I did not look better. I was sick of fear, squeezed my eyes from a sharp pain in my jaw ... It seems that an eternity has passed, and in fact it all lasted seconds 10 ... 15.
When the commander was thrown on the telegraphs, he put his hands forward to protect his face from the blow, but still he vented decently on his own hands, which fell on the handles of the turbine telegraphs. By involuntarily pressing the telegraph "switches", he moved their handles to the "smallest forward." The buzzer triggered everyone out of their stupor. The first was the voice of the commander: "Purge the ballast! Look around in the compartments!" I with a sharp crash and a sharp pain in my jaw that knocked out tears, opened my mouth and ordered the watchman BP-35: "Purge the ballast!" and in the 1 th and 9 th compartments: "Look around in the compartments, report back on the situation!". The watch BP-35 reported: "I blow through!" And then reports came from the 1-th and 9-th compartments: "A blow in the 14-th frame. No water intake. The compartment is inspected, no comments", "A blow in the 114-th-frame. Water intake is not. The compartment is inspected , no comments. "
After this, the "circular" command to the remaining compartments and reported to the commander about the reports from the 1-th and 9-th compartments.
Then the boat jumped out of the water like a cork. The trim immediately leveled off, and the ship rocked on the wave began. At the moment when the commander of the warhead-5 Polusmyak GP rushed from the 2-th compartment to the central post, a combat alarm was played, and already Grigory Pavlovich received reports from the compartments about the inspection and the absence of comments in them. Then they began to scrupulously check the material part in all combat units, services and divisions. Before leaving for the control panel GEM (main (nuclear) power plant) After the commander and assistant commander of Lieutenant Commander Dmitry Kasper-Yust, I looked at the horizon at periscope out of curiosity. The clouds were 5 points, there was a large swell at sea, and far away on the horizon the silhouette of a civilian vessel was barely visible (it seemed to us, but in fact it was a reconnaissance vessel). Visibility was great. We live! A military man quickly moves away from stress ...
Following on to the power plant control panel, I walked around the energy compartments. Make sure that everything is in order. On the GEM console, according to the reports from the combat posts of the 1 division and the reports of the operators, the GEM clarified that everything is fine in the division, except for the fact that the emergency protection signals of the reactors from the instruments are disconnected. There are only buttons for resetting the emergency protection of reactors and keys for resetting the protection of running turbines.
The reason, by the way, is old here, since the beginning of combat service. The fact is that after each combat service (I was in four, and this was the second) we went to Polyarny to the ship repair plant SRZ No. 10 (the so-called royal company "Tip-top"). Because of the still small experience of repairing nuclear submarines, repair was always not very high quality, and strict maintenance was needed for the repair personnel, which could not always be ensured, especially at the end of the repair, when the workers sat for days in the compartments of the ship on top of each other. This was especially true in the divisions of warheads 5. So, after the repair that followed the first combat service, two weeks later we found that the emergency protection of both reactors spontaneously triggered by the maximum temperature of the 1 circuit, the maximum pressure of the 1 circuit, and the flow rate of the 1 circuit: the arrows of the recorders jumped up to the stop and then same returned to normal. But the dirty trick is done - emergency protection of the reactor below! Replaced devices. Everything stabilized. Out on combat service. In the course of her checked the shot devices - they were in the ranks! And after two or three weeks it all started again. They did what they did to determine the cause, but to no avail. As a result, they decided to block the signals from the recorders by opening the instrument covers, guided by the main thing: to perform the task assigned to the crew. Nevertheless, there was also a positive result of this malfunction - the operators of the GEM control panel clearly trained to restore the mode after resetting the emergency protection of the reactor according to a false signal and were no longer psychologically afraid of the roarist accompanying the resetting of the emergency protection of the reactor (even inexperienced lieutenants). Although there was a big minus, because Technologically, there is a limitation of reactor protection discharges. After a thorough inspection of the ship and a report on this, the commander "shed tears": the isolation of the cables of the submarine demagnetizing devices dropped to zero; Hydroacoustic station "Arktika" is completely out of order; three torpedo tubes were filled with water, and what is more, with combat torpedoes, only God knows.
They looked around and began to carefully dive, taking reports from the compartments every 10 meters. At the previous rotations of the screws (before the collision), the speed decreased significantly and instead of 13 nodes became 11,5. Now, before arriving at the base, we had an undesirable opportunity to blow up on the sea bottom of World War II, accidentally left after trawling in any area along the course of our journey to the base.
The watch again stood on alert # 2 - underwater (under the keel - 500 m, dive depth - 40 m, travel speed - 11,5 nodes, move "MP" (small forward)). The commander of the warhead-4, RTS Eugene Blazhin reported to the captain that, in accordance with the instructions and the requirement of the governing document, it is necessary to give a "radio" about the collision. The commander has forbidden to give "radio", citing the fact that we have completed the combat mission, we are returning to the base, and it is not yet known what we are facing, we need to think about this question.
After the “council in Fili” of the commander with the special person (lieutenant commander), the “high sides” came to the conclusion that the collision happened with the mudslip, say, the gallery, which was announced to the personnel. Probably, in the "council" they remembered history of the ancient world, when the waters of the Mediterranean sea plied the diers, triremes and galleys of the Egyptians, Phoenicians, Assyrians, Jews, Greeks, Romans, Arabs ...
A serious situation developed on the control panel of the GEM with the beginning of the collision of the submarine and with further developments. At this time, the engineer-captain-lieutenant Boris Zadorin and the senior engineer lieutenant Valery Shaposhnikov carried the watch on the control panel of the GEM. When a big trim appeared on the stern after a collision, they disrupted the condensate pumps *, which supported the feed pumps *. Warm boxes * began to dry out quickly, which threatened to automatically reset the emergency protection of both reactors and even in emergency situations and under water. Loss of travel in the case of negative buoyancy of the ship - inevitable death! (They also thought that during the second thud, the strong hull of the aft compartment burst, the compartment quickly filled with water, and therefore there was a sharp trim on the stern). Immediate report to the central post. But the trim was leveled in time after an emergency ascent of a submarine. The operation of the pumps, and in the future, and the power plant of both sides stabilized. I received this alarming report after the ascent of the submarine.
After the stabilization of the modes of installation, there is time to look around. Valery Shaposhnikov, looking at Boris with amazed round eyes, blurted out: "Boris, what's wrong with you, you feel bad? After all, you have no face, you are all white!" Boris, smiling, replied: "No, everything is fine. You would have looked at yourself - not better!". Both burst out laughing, that everything turned out after such "flips". But, as determined in the dock, before the frontal collision with torpedo tubes, only centimeters of 10 ... 15 were not enough. Not the first time it was confirmed that the Almighty does not forget us.
Tragicomic situation has developed in the stern. In a collision in the cabins of the 8 compartment and in the cabin of the 9 compartment, almost all of the personnel were dropped from their beds. The bulkhead between the 8 and 9 compartments was initially open. Duty 9 compartment on the anxious question of sailors: "Depth !?" frightened blurted out: "400 meters!" (with actual depth 40 meters). Everyone began to grab hold of individual breathing apparatus (IDA). In the cabin on the right side of the 8 compartment, he frantically searched for a spare IDA, assigned officer - operator of the GEM control panel - lieutenant engineer Gaevoy. Engineer-Captain-Lieutenant Yevgeny Vasyukov, calmly sitting on his bed, asked him: "What are you rushing about?". And the following dialogue took place:
- I’m looking for a spare IDA, suddenly I won’t get it!
- And what is the depth?
- 400 meters!
“So why do you need him?” LVD scores (icewater case) you need a new one, stupid! After all, even with spare cans, you can get out of a depth of no more than 120 meters!
- Well, all the same, just in case ...
The stress was removed from the personnel after the arrival of my team “Look around in the compartment. Report the situation”, jumping the boat to the surface and instantly disappearing the trim. In the central are alive. So everything is in order! Well, it got the same watch 9 compartment for false information about the depth. And then they all laughed at their comrades and themselves and counted the bruises. All is well that ends well! Interestingly, the bulkhead between the 9 and 8 compartments was battened down by themselves, and then they followed the closing of the bulkhead door strictly.
More or less freed from the watch and checking the material part of the division, I went to bed before going to bed. Having washed my face, I saw in the mirror that I didn’t wash the soap at the temples (we used very soft distilled water in the sea, which we used to cook from seawater for technical and domestic needs using a water desalination plant). Abundantly washed the whiskey, but they are still bright. He wiped his head almost dry, put it under the blower ventilation ... And only now I realized that the whiskey had turned gray. "Wow!" - I think. After all, I was only 28 years. And yet, why was there such a sharp trim on the stern after the collision?
The fact is that the boatswain Ivanov, after a collision at such a speed of the ship (13 nodes), transferred the completely nasal horizontal rudders to ascend without orders from the commander, and the aft horizontal rudders did not remove to keep the trim increase. But in the course of a collision the course has sharply decreased. Under a negative set of circumstances (loss of travel, water inflow into a robust hull, etc.), a sudden deceleration of the nose of the ship and a rapid increase in the emergency trim at the stern could lead to the loss of the longitudinal stability boat. That's when we could roll over and really “gurgle”, ending our earthly existence on an odd number of dives and ascents.
The next day, on December 8, 12.00, my shift (first) again took over the watch. The commander in a cheerful mood went into the central post (3 compartment) and stated: "Comrades submariners, dash - North Sea, dash - swan geese, almost a day we go home and, I think, without further incident."
Here comes the central post SPSovets (special radio), transmits the decrypted radiogram to the commander. He took it, read it and changed its face. In the central post all calmed down. It was like a famous scene from the play "The Inspector". And in the radiogram it was neither more nor less, but ... "Report the condition of the ship and personnel." Surely the commander thought: "How is it known in Moscow !?". Later, when we found out the exact content of the radiogram (not a state secret), we also thought: “How!? Where!!”. As we later learned, the commander of the American SSBN proved to be more disciplined than our commander. He reported at the instance of his command in the United States about the collision with the "Rashn - Submarine" that the boat surfaced, looked around, plunged and went on its own. The Americans informed the government of the Soviet Union through a diplomatic channel. All this came to the USSR Ministry of Defense, then - to the Navy Civil Code, and the end result was a radiogram addressed to us. I believe that in Moscow they gave the opportunity to the commander to honestly answer what happened. However, the commander gave a radiogram that collided with the notorious "trash", personnel in the ranks, no injuries. It is because of this radiogram - the answer we lost and the first side of the medal.
When we were called ahead of time from vacation (I didn’t catch up on 34 days) after the death of 39 crew members of the K-3 (Lenin Komsomol) PLA crew, who were returning from combat service, one of the representatives of the Northern Fleet command escorted us to unscheduled combat service (autonomy), said before the formation: "In the first combat service, you earned one side of the coin. Go for the second!". Although we believed that we both earned and with interest.
And the first side of the medal, as the admiral put it, was really earned in the first combat service. The fact is that in this combat service (May - July 1967 g. - 71 day) we, through the fault of the commander, starved 47 days - this is a special conversation that requires a lot of narration in the faces, and besides, we quickly localized the radioactive leak of the stuffing box gate sections of the steam generators of the right side, removed the right-side PPU emergency, until the end of combat service using the mixed mode GEM - left-side PPU on the steam-turbine installation of both sides. Carbon dioxide in the compartments was under 3% (blood from the nose, headache, lethargy, etc.) - they saved the regeneration, because it was also not enough. In short, came from the sea dystrophic. Even my classmates did not immediately recognize us (me and engineer-lieutenant Vadim Muzhetsky). Personally, despite the fact that 12 for the day we returned home, we normally fed and breathed tolerable air (we loaded Alexandria on the return trip at night), 14 lacked kilograms of weight from the original 62. Upon arrival, the entire staff was sent to various motels, and then officers, midshipmen and sailors and sergeants of distinguished service in the sea on vacation. But from vacation we were called ahead of time, due to the reason I mentioned above.
And yet, why are we confronted?
The statement of the commander that hydrology has failed is absurd. The fact is that often this red head sailor (underwater acoustics) is commander, and chief officer (captain 3 of the rank Khramtsov V.M.) and assistant commander (captain-lieutenant Dmitry Kasper-Yust) were caught falling asleep at the post, and about not punished. But hydroacoustics are the ship’s “ears”! And our “ears” were useless. Two “watchdogs” - hydroacoustics during the exercise for the struggle for survivability in front of the entrance to the Strait of Tunisia were engaged in the bulkhead of spare parts, removing the headphones. Here it is, the real cause of the collision, which almost ended in tragedy. After all, as it turned out later, we caught up with the American submarine from the side of the propellers and "flipped" it along the wheelhouse, bending its retractable devices. The relative speed was the 2 ... 3 node. And if faced on a collision course? In this case, the “kiss” rate would be within the 23 ... 24 nodes. And this is a lot! The consequences would be unpredictable.
On the base (the town of Zapadnaya Litsa), false information was leaked on the OBS radio (“one woman said”) that the K-52 submarine collided in the Mediterranean with an American nuclear submarine under water. At the same time, in accordance with the data of this "radio", almost the entire light hull was torn off; the boat cannot and will be stranded in Motovka Bay. There are victims. You can imagine the state of our wives!
1 December around 22 hours we were already in Motovka Bay. We received a go-ahead to the base and began to go into narrowness near the island of Jug. The fog was such that no retractable devices were visible from the bridge in the aft cabin. I had no idea before what could be such a thick fog - milk! Truly trouble does not like to walk alone. In narrowness, everything consistently failed, which can determine the coast and depth (locator, echo-sounder, etc.). I had to give "SOS". Half an hour later, the sea tug came up to us with a powerful searchlight, "pouukal" us with a whistle, walked around the stern and to top it off turned us on the side the upper extremity of the vertical feed stabilizer. But there was such a beautiful "tail"! After the diplomatic talks between the captain of the tug and our commander, where they were finding out for a long time who was sleeping with which mother, the "high" parties agreed that a searchlight would be included in the stern of the tug in our direction. So we went to Bolshaya Lopatka (Bolshaya Lopatkina Bay) behind the white “sausage” of the searchlight. And there was no fog in the bay.
When moored at the pier and announced it on the "circular" GGS, in all compartments thundered: "Hooray-aaa!". The next odyssey was over, but the "debriefing" was still ahead. Learned "pleasant" news: we came to congratulate and imprison us in the "friendly" embrace of the representatives of the General Staff of the USSR Ministry of Defense.
In the end, the watch stepped on the mooring, and everyone went home. Then the watch left, shifting their duties to the duty officer of the ship. I was in charge of the withdrawal of power plants from the operation and the placement of steam generators for storage, issuing an inconceivable number of circuit samples for analysis. Having settled my affairs and instructed the watch service for the GEM and the ship as a whole, I finally finally drove home on foot 5 December on 19 in the morning (one and a half days without sleep and 4,5 kilometers into the town and uphill after the combat service!). Snowstorm. The legs are ducked, and they are all sweating from weakness. Of course, at home I fell as if I were killed, and slept until 20.00, until my wife woke me up, announcing the arrival of the messenger. I learned from him no less "joyful" news that I was invited by the deputy headquarters of the Navy GC, Admiral G. M. It invites! “A Jesuit reception,” I thought, “Our bosses are always summoned and urgent. It invites you to a friendly intimate conversation, where I will play the role of a geisha.” If such bosses are invited, then we must hurry! The chest was bursting with "happiness", flew, as on wings. Along the way, he feverishly wondered what questions the admiral would ask, and how I should answer them.
Admiral G. M. admitted me. really friendly, invited to sit down and congratulated on his return from military service. I will not describe in detail the questions and answers. I set them out above. But some will stop. It turned out that Admiral G.M. very perceptive. Questions asked on the merits. For example:
- Why did they give the command "look around in the compartments" and not announce an emergency alarm?
- Comrade Admiral, and what emergency alarm? Water intake or fire? Make a mistake in the true accident, I could aggravate the situation.
- It is reasonable.
- Why did not they give a command on the "circular", but in the beginning only in two compartments?
- For efficiency, mainly, since I was confident of striking precisely in the area of these compartments. First, the lack of time - ten seconds, and secondly, there are boys, and the central post - experienced submariners. Faster recovered. Yes, and a penny to us the price, if from the compartments requested the central post, what happened.
- You are the commander of the movement division. How did the installations behave?
“Perfectly.” Condensate pumps were disrupted during long-term emergency trim on the stern, but the emergency protection of the reactors did not work on either side.
Smile, jokingly added:
- Probably installations like their master. (He sinned with conscience, since he did not tell him that all the AZ signals on both sides were blocked during this period. Yes, he probably didn’t need to know that).
- Not self-confidence about love?
- No - experience. And the personnel of the battalion from the sailor to the officer are mostly real cool specialists. In my fighters, I'm sure.
- How is the commander?
- Normal. No complaints.
- Why is it so cold about the commander?
- Why is it cold? Is healthy I serve, after all, to the Motherland, and not to a specific person. Commanders are changing. Homeland is one.
- Well, your answers are satisfied. I wish you success in your future service.
He stood up and, making it clear that the audience was over, shook my hand warmly.
We broke up with the admiral around 24.00. I have previously been about Admiral G. M. I heard a lot of positive things, and after this conversation I became convinced of this myself and imbued with deep respect for him.
By the way, in 1972, a new “Instruction on the struggle for survivability” (NBJ-71) was released. In one of the articles there it is said that in the event of a submarine collision under water, to announce by the "GMS" circular ":" Emergency alarm. Look around in the compartments. " A new wording for the emergency alarm has appeared, the author of the second phrase of which I am.
After inspecting the underwater part of the ship by divers, we were given an emergency dock at the Polar Reach No. 10, where we and the ship departed under the rowing electric motors when powered by diesel generators. Before staging at the dock, he asked the commander of the BCh-5 and the commander of the ship to stay on shore and look at the "make-up" of our beautiful face as soon as the dock emerged. We loved our ship and were patriots of it. Power plants were dampened, and they gave me a go-ahead. I was looking forward to ascending the dock, setting the ladder on it and allowing the passage. In the group of representatives of the plant were two more naval officers - the captain of 2 rank and the captain of 3 rank. By the elusive strokes, demeanor and conversation, it was clear that these were the guys from the "secret order". Night, a searchlight on the nose of the ship and permission to pass. From a distance it was clear that the nose was not completely licked, there were some projections in the area of the lower torpedo tubes. But what I saw next shook deeply. One cover of the torpedo tube is open almost completely and the torpedo is visible. The lid itself is bent into the "eight". The covers of two more torpedo tubes were torn to open out of engagement at different angles, and one was slightly deformed. On the left side below the waterline, in the area of the nose fairing, there is a hole in the light body about 4 on 8 meters with torn metal at the edges. Inside this hole one can see the combed frames of the two lower torpedo tubes with an arrow of the arc of a segment of each frame 4 ... 5 centimeters (and maybe a few more), cut by a razor, demagnetizing devices. The metal burst sharply ended at the transverse bulkhead of the main ballast tank.
When the searchlight was lowered below, instead of the bulb of the antenna of the “Arctic” hydroacoustic station, which elegantly protruded under the nose fairing (such a beautiful drop of stainless steel on a black background of the ship) was an ugly cake that repeats the shape of a nose fairing. When they came closer to what was left of the "Arctic", they noticed on the stainless steel some kind of dark green, almost black, paint. Obviously not ours - because of the "hillock". In any case, the galleys in the ancient world did not paint with such paint. I reached out to try the paint with my finger, but behind my back there was a sharp “state” shout of one of the members of the “order”: “Do not touch, do not come near!”. Then we learned that the collision we had with US SSBN SSBN 627 "James Madison" (such as "Lafayette").
Let's go to the stern. There, the impression was much weaker. In the keel - around the beginning of the horizontal stabilizer - there was a dent, and quite impressive, with an arc of the 1,5 meter segment ... 2. But after what she saw in the forward part of the ship, she was not impressed.
Standing in the dock, it was difficult to imagine that such a pile of metal (the length of the 107 ship meters, height with a wheelhouse - with a five-story house) was thrown in a collision, like a matchbox in a road stream of water after a heavy rain.
In the morning, the workers joked: "What tavern did you visit? Where did the riot take place?" Indeed, the “lanterns” under the “eyes”, the “jaw” are folded, the rear part went and the “tail” on the side was turned for complete happiness. We laughed off: "For the beaten, two unbeaten are given." In general, the factory workers treated us with respect. However, we are to them too. Serious work was ahead for them.
The time has passed. With the help of the plant we “licked” the wounds and were ready for the next campaigns. And the fate of adventure has prepared for us more decently. After all, we are submariners, and the sea is constantly experiencing. But we were young, and youth seems to be ahead - forever. Seven feet under the keel!
* Condensate pump - a pump that supplies condensate (water formed during the condensation of steam used in a steam turbine) to the suction of the feed pump.
Feed pump - a pump that supplies working water to a steam generator, where this working water is converted into superheated steam going to the rotation of the steam running turbine. The steam spent in the turbine is discharged into a condenser, where it condenses and turns into working water (condensate). Condensate condensate pump is fed to the suction of the feed pump. The cycle is closed. This closed loop (loop) is called the second loop.
In the steam generating installation (PPU), water (coolant) is fed into the nuclear reactor by the main circulation pump, where it is heated to a high temperature at high pressure and fed to the steam generator. In the steam generator, the coolant through the walls of the pipelines gives off the working water of the secondary circuit and the main circulation pump is again fed into the nuclear reactor. The cycle is closed. This closed loop (contour) is called the first contour.
Warm box - make-up tank of the second circuit with a steam coil to reduce the oxygen content in the working water of the second circuit due to its heating. In the power plant of the PLA, the steam coil was removed (the oxygen content was reduced using the charge of ion-exchange filters), and the name “warm” remained. When a condensate pump disrupts, the feed pump sucks water from a warm box and drains it within minutes. There is a breakdown of water circulation, which leads to disruption of heat transfer in the steam generator. As a result, the reactor protection is triggered.
Conditions of service on post-war diesel submarines and submarines of the first generations of the Soviet Navy