Military Review

Look round! Evaluation of sights of domestic small arms

Look round! Evaluation of sights of domestic small arms

“Look at both!” - so they say to a person who requires the utmost attention when performing any work. And when firing against this advice, a person must close one eye, because, as a rule, it is impossible to aim otherwise.

Software scope 3,5x17,5 can be used on any weaponshaving a bar for mounting a night sight. The position of the sight in the bracket is adjustable

When using a mechanical sight, the shooter has certain inconveniences. Eyes get tired quickly. The slit of the aiming bar or the fly is visible vaguely, unsharply, because a person is not able to clearly observe the target, the fly and the slit at the same time, since they are not the same distance from him. The eye constantly rebuilds the visual effort to see these points clearly, gets tired, and tears appear. The slightest inaccuracy in aiming leads to poor shooting.

Optical sight perfect. It improves the accuracy of aiming due to the increased image and the exclusion of the re-accommodation of the eye - the image of the target and the aiming mark are combined in the focal plane of the lens of the optical system.

Optical sights have a number of features. In particular, the limited field of view (which makes it difficult to trace the target) and the constant diameter of the exit pupil. The dimensions of the latter should not be less than the size of the pupil of the eye, which, depending on the observation conditions, varies from 2 to 8 mm. In addition, when observing through an optical sight, the pupil of the eye must be combined with the exit pupil of the device, otherwise there may be errors in aiming.

The indicated disadvantages are deprived of collimator sights. They were used for firing anti-aircraft machine guns, and later began to be used for small arms and for the sights of BMP-3 paratroopers. Our magazine has already written about the collimator sight for small arms “Holodot”, the optical system of which is based on the principle of holography (A. Kantorovich. “Red Point”).

Using a laser target designator in conjunction with a collimator sight PK-01

At the exhibition of small arms held in the summer in Moscow, I managed to get acquainted with the BelOMO collimator sights (Minsk, Belarus). But one thing is to hold them in your hands and read advertisements, and quite another to try them out in shooting. Such an opportunity presented itself in a few months when, thanks to the mediation of the editorial staff of the magazine “Soldier of Fortune,” the chief designer of small arms sights of the BelOMO Valentin Koptev brought his products to the courses “Shot” for practical reference.

The fire course officers were presented PC-A, PC-01 collimator sights, optical software 3,5 х21П, software 3,5 × 17,5, ПСП-1, laser designators for combat automatic weapons and Makarov pistol, cold shooting equipment PCP for rifle weapons. BelOMO collimator sights are modern, lightweight, easy-to-use devices that are designed to quickly and accurately target any small arms that have a bar for attaching them.

The sight is an optical sight with a single magnification, in which a clear, constantly visible red dot is formed - the aiming mark. For firing, it should be aligned with the target without carefully positioning the device relative to the shooter’s eye. The optimum brightness of the aiming mark is set in the PC-01 automatically, in accordance with the luminance of the background of the target, and in PC-A - by means of step adjustment. This allows you to successfully use them both in day and night conditions. Precision snap alignment mechanism provides an adjustment of the aiming point when calibrating the instrument and bringing the weapon to normal combat.

Practical shooting was carried out day and night from AKMN and RPK-74Н. When calibrating the sight and bringing the weapon to a normal battle, a cold shooting device for small arms was used (PCP is intended for aligning the sight without firing and the device resembles a cold shooting pipe), so there were no difficulties. The aiming mark was set to the angular value corresponding to the installation of the sight = P = for a specific weapon sample.

The optical sight PSP-1 is proposed to be used instead of PSO-1 for firing from the SVD and PKMN

The test results were quite satisfactory. All noted that with the help of the red dot it is much more convenient to aim: it is not necessary to “catch” a flat front sight, look for a certain pupil at a certain distance and “adjust” the eye under it. As a result, shot time is shortened. Moreover, if for PC-A, the designers used the bracket for mounting to the bar, borrowed from PSO-1, then PC-01 provides for the possibility of “fitting” the sight to a specific person. PC-01 in the mounting bracket can move along the axis of the barrel, bringing closer or removing the eyepiece, so the height, length of the arms and width of the shooter do not play a role.

Many of those who took part in the tests had combat experience and knew the price of the first shot. It was noted that it is very convenient to shoot with a collimator sight offhand - the first accurate shot is made much faster and more accurately.

Particularly impressed with the exercise at night. According to the current rate of shooting in such conditions it is allowed to use self-luminous nozzles. On many landfills, therefore, they are equipping a special box with lamps, which is upholstered on the inside with foil or tin, into which weapons with nozzles are placed to “charge” the latter. In the worst cases, the commanders of the firing unit stock up with flashlights and with their help “charge” nozzles.

But they do it at the site. And how to be in battle? I know from my Afghan experience that no matter how much we put these nozzles under the burning southern sun, they could still be used at night for a very short time.

Instructions on small arms, training manuals and fire preparation posters for shooting at a target whose silhouette is visible against the sky, snow, etc., based on the covering size of the front sight (the enemy is located on 25 – 30 m) offer the same recommendations but aiming. Yes, at this distance you can shoot, if not with closed eyes, then without any aiming! But what if the target is not 25 – 30 m, and 250 – 300 or more?

Collimator sight for small arms PC-01 with automatic adjustment of the brightness of the luminous point

In such a situation, the collimator sight is simply irreplaceable! The shooter constantly monitors the battlefield with two eyes in real space. When a silhouette or a flash of a shot appears within the range of a direct shot, it induces a red dot on the target and opens fire, adjusting it along the routes of bullets.

That is what happened at night shooting with collimator sights. For the sake of experiment, we installed these devices at PKMN, AK-74H without prior reconciliation. And even when a red dot was visible in the dark, the silhouette of the target and the lines of the queues (cartridges with tracer bullets were equipped with 1: 3), it was possible to correct the shooting. With such a shooting, even if the target is not affected, the effectiveness of the enemy’s retaliatory fire decreases, and in combat it is important.

We note a number of drawbacks of the sight of Minsk divers. So, for PC-01, the time of continuous work without replacing the 50 power supply kit is h, for PC-A - 1000 hours. This is a fee for automatic brightness control. But from my own experience I know that units in battle were not always on time supplied with water, food, ammunition, not to mention the batteries for the sights. Therefore, a larger stock of work is preferable. It may be worthwhile to try to make the sight not with a constantly red dot. When power is off, it may be black. This will increase the lifespan of the power kit.

Each shooter has his own application to the weapon, but everyone is trying to attach his cheek to the butt. With such a fabrication, both I and my colleagues noted that the center line of the sight does not correspond to the line of the right eye. In the PC-01, it is shifted slightly upwards, and therefore it is necessary to lift the chin, while in PC-A it is located slightly to the left, that is, it is necessary to tear off the cheek.

When installing the sight on the sample and its alignment, the aiming mark is placed at a certain angle corresponding to the sight = P = this type of weapon. If the shooting is farther, there are no problems, and if it is longer? It seems to me that it is necessary to provide for the possibility of changing the position of the aiming mark for firing at long ranges and with different types of weapons, as is done, for example, in the NSPU.

Bipod for rifle with an optical sight software 3,5x17,5 - another attempt to increase the accuracy of shooting

The idea of ​​using riflescopes not only on a sniper rifle is not new. It was successfully implemented by the development of a sight for the gun NSV "Cliff", and. as noted by all who shot from it, the weapon only won. Later, the designers created a unified rifle scope USP-1 for the AK-74H assault rifle and the RPK-74Н and PKMN machine guns. The experience of combat operations in Afghanistan, Chechnya and other “hot spots” shows that the best-trained shooters (both soldiers and officers) tried to adjust any riflescopes to the “nightlights”. Hence, the need for them exists. What did the Minsk experts suggest instead of this initiative?

The optical sight PSP-1 is proposed to be used instead of the PSO-1 for firing from the SVD and from the PKMN. The features of this device are as follows. The remote scale is placed in an arc in the field of view along the periphery of the rim of the sight. It turns when rotating the handwheel of the drum located on the right of the body. The installation is read against the vertical line in the field of view. When the installation handwheel rotates, the installation of the range from 3 to 9 gradually changes and at the same time the sight increases from 3 to 9 and the angle of view from 6 ° 30 ″ to 2 ° 30 ″. It is much more convenient than in PSO-1, because you do not need to take your eyes off the sight. For firing it is necessary to establish a range determined to the target. The center sighting mark (TsPM) serves as a point of reference. For aiming at 1000, 1100, 1200 and 1300, additional sighting marks are used, located under the MTC when setting the sight to 9 division (as in PSO-1 there are marks for shooting at 1100, 1200 and 1300 m when installing the sight at 10).

The optical sight software 3,5x21 P is used for firing machine guns and machine guns. It has a great angle of view - 12 hail

At night, to illuminate the aiming marks, the range scale, the dimensions for determining the distance, power is used from the ЗРЦ-53 (3 pcs.) Elements connected in one battery.

An interesting design solution was chosen for the range scale. It is made both for the chest (0,5 m) and for the growth figure (1,5 m) and is a rectangle located above a small dash. The shooter, finding a pectoral figure, places it in a rectangle, changing the multiplicity so that the target is exactly between the lower and upper edges. This sets the target range (ranging from 300 to 900 m). The height of the growth figure is determined in the same way, using the upper edge of the rectangle and the lower line below.
The drawbacks of the design, in my opinion, can be considered its considerable mass and dimensions, as well as some inconvenience of operation. This refers to the mounting of the sight on a special bracket designed for the NSPU. To eliminate the delay when firing it is necessary, removing the sight from the stopper, take it away from the center line of the machine gun to the side and only then open the lid of the receiver and raise the receiver.

Sight optical sniper PSO-1. besides regular use in many “hot spots” it is also used on automatic rifles and machine guns with a night sight mount

Designers propose to use the PSP-1 for firing from the SVD and SMP. In my opinion, its use can be expanded. Compare the aiming angles of the main types of small arms. When installing the PSP-1 on the SMP, the initial position of the center aiming mark changes. When aligning the sight, the initial aiming angle is entered: ALPHA corresponding to the range of 300 m, which is for PKMN = 4,4 thousand. Therefore, when installing this sight on another type of weapon, you must set the initial setting angle of the MPS corresponding to the range of 300 m from this weapon, which is for RPK74 = 2,8 thousand, and for AK74 = 3,6 thousand.

The table shows the magnitude of the increments of the aiming angles from the value corresponding to the range 300 m. It shows that the changes in increments for the SVD, PKM, AK-74. RPK-74 differ slightly. Therefore, the PSP-1 can be used on both RPK-74 and AK-74. But for shooting from AKM and PKK it is not suitable, since the difference in the aiming angles is too great.

Scope PK-A - the first collimator sight, designed for the troops. Continuous operation time –1000 h.

Optical sight software 3,5х21П designed specifically for the machine gun PCMN. The wide field of view of the device (12 °) allows you to monitor a large area of ​​the terrain, which reduces the time to detect the target. TsPM corresponds to the 4 sight. Below, on the center line, the marks are located through the unit: 5,6 ... 15 for firing, respectively, on 500, 600 ... 1500 m. To the right and left of the CPM is the scale of side corrections with an interval between divisions 0 – 01. The distance to the target is determined by the growth and chest figures with the help of appropriate rangefinder scales in the field of view of the sight.

It was noted by all the participants of the test that the abundance of strokes applied in the field of view of sight leads to the fact that the target, especially at long distances, is blocked by the marking. This makes it difficult to observe her and, as a result, shooting. In our opinion, two divisions of the lateral correction scale on either side of the MTC with the 0-04 interval — 0-05 — would be enough, and the point on the centerline corresponding to the 5 scope could be removed altogether.

The disadvantage, in our opinion, is that you cannot adjust the distance from the exit pupil to the shooter’s eye in the sight, as in the 3,5 × 17,5 software. Therefore, in the event of a delay in firing, the machine gunner needs more time to eliminate it due to the location of the 3,5 × 21П software on the folding bracket. And it is completely unacceptable that at night the reticle of the sight is not highlighted, that is, the shooter becomes blind.

The 3,5 × 17,5 software can be used on any type of weapon (machine gun, machine gun, rifle) that has a bar for attaching a night sight. In the field of view is only the central crosshair, which, when reconciled, is set to the position corresponding to the constant sight for this type of weapon. The position of the sight in the mounting bracket can be adjusted, thereby changing the distance from the exit pupil to the eye of the arrow. The advantages of the device include small dimensions and weight. However, there is no backlighting of the crosshair; a small field of view of the sight causes the shooter to “catch” the exit pupil, see a small piece of terrain, when shooting it shifts its head slightly to the left, that is, the axis of the sight is not on the line of the eye.

Optical sight 1P21 on the machine gun PKM
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  1. Fox
    Fox 30 May 2013 09: 11
    what old info ... is already full of newer and more advanced devices. it would be better to tell about them. I look forward to continuing.
  2. a.hamster55
    a.hamster55 30 May 2013 10: 06
    Maybe I'm not quite in the subject, but this is some kind of retro information. And where are such "devices" stored in the parts?
    Something I did not see in the arms of something like that. So somewhere to get, re-preserve, install, shoot ... What for then is that all?
  3. datur
    datur 30 May 2013 13: 17
    ancient article !!!! Already have new sights!
  4. Begemot
    Begemot 30 May 2013 14: 37
    Back in 1998, when buying a civilian version of SVD, I purchased PSO-1M, already then it was known that it was outdated, although for my tasks it is quite manageable, the coefficient of guaranteed destruction of 0,85 (hits even more) for different distances and conditions. must be provided to combat officers and soldiers who used them in real combat.
  5. alex-cn
    alex-cn 30 May 2013 15: 14
    The collimator sight on the machine is certainly useful, but still it’s a capricious thing, and you need to catch the eye, a deviation of 0,5 degrees and it is not visible. It is easily caught. the first American Quick point collimators were without electric backlight, the light was even twilight, the lens and the optical fiber were condensed. I did not hear more about such systems, everything else was electric. it is possible that for army sights such a system can be put as duplicate.
  6. uzer 13
    uzer 13 30 May 2013 20: 48
    Such sights are sold in hunting stores at a price of 7 to 10t.r. This means that they will never be purchased for the needs of the army, because. no budget can withstand such costs. At the same time, cheap hunting plastic sights for 300-500 rubles are sold. They do not have unnecessary calibrated handwheels for corrections. Instead, there are two simple screws for vertical and horizontal correction. Here you can take such a sight as a sample, To slightly modify the design in the direction of increasing strength and reliability, and distribute it to each infantryman. Due to the small mass, it is possible to mount it on an existing open automatic riflescope. If you organize mass production, the cost of the sight can be less than 500 rubles. This is for a simple collimator sight. since I want to repeat, every soldier should have a sight. In our time, it’s already somehow indecent to be poor.
    1. DuraLexSedLex.
      DuraLexSedLex. 30 May 2013 21: 38
      Emmmm ... 7-10 thousand rubles. for arimia is not enough ... well, well. Walkie-talkies for 220 thousand rubles. to buy in bulk is normal, but 7-10 is not enough ...
      1. PSih2097
        PSih2097 30 May 2013 23: 52
        Quote: DuraLexSedLex.
        Emmmm ... 7-10 thousand rubles. for arimia is not enough ... well, well. Walkie-talkies for 220 thousand rubles. to buy in bulk is normal, but 7-10 is not enough ...

        same ACOG costs 2 green raccoons (000 rubles), and replaces both the collimator and PSO-1, you can drive the combined (eotech) ...
        The design of advanced sights ACOG 4x32 ECOS in comparison with previous models has a number of features:
        - a small-sized open-type collimator sight is combined into a single complex with an optical sight;
        - changed the sighting mark type;
        - the sight is equipped with a new adapter for installation on the rail type rail.
        Optical sight ACOG 4x32 ECOS

        EOTech HHS1 (52 000 rubles)
        EOTech HHS1 - collimator sight and magnifier, EOTech HHS1G23FTS is a separate optical unit that is installed in front of the holographic (collimator) sight and allows you to get 3x magnification. The magnifier comes with a Flip-to-Side (FTS) mount that allows the magnifier to instantly "flip" to the side to aim just through the scope itself. Compatible with all EOTech models. Has a mount for Picatinny rail, Leica lenses, waterproof to a depth of 10 m. (USA)

        1. DuraLexSedLex.
          DuraLexSedLex. 31 May 2013 00: 17
          I know I swam ... EOtech has even more fun stuff.

          Elcan SpecterDR 1-4x CX5395 5.56 (108900 rub.)

          Dual purpose riflescope
          Instant switching optical / collimator sight
          Compatible with night vision devices
          Double field of view

          Product Code: DFOV14-C1
          Case: Anodized Aluminum
          Magnification ratio: 1-4x
          Lens Diameter: 32 mm
          Sighting mark: CX5395
          Working distance from the eyepiece to the eye (mm): 70mm
          Amendment input adjustment range @ 100 m (m): 120MOA
          The price of one division of the amendment entry mechanism: 1/2 MOA
          Sight Length (mm): 153 mm
          Weight: 660.00 g.

          The SpecterDR lx / 4x dual-purpose riflescope represents a revolution in the development of riflescopes. SpecterDR is the first truly dual-field combat optical sight in the world. It can be instantly switched from the position of the sight with a 4-fold increase in a single sight for close combat by simply moving the lever. Unlike traditional sights with variable magnification, SpecterDR offers optimized light transmission and constant removal of the exit pupil for both positions. Depending on the situation, the user can set either a highlighted crosshair or a bright red dot in the center. In the single zoom mode, SpecterDR has a field of view significantly greater than the field of view of other sights in the industry. In the 4x zoom mode, SpecterDR offers a large field of view, significant exit pupil removal and the legendary crystal clear ELCAN image. SpecterDR 1x / 4x offers the best unified solution for both close combat and mid-range combat, and is designed to withstand the harsh conditions of modern professional use.

          Magnification: 4x / 1x
          Length: 153 mm
          Width: 74 mm
          Height: 78 mm
          Weight: 660 gr
          Aiming reticle: double-thickness ballistic crosshairs with user-definable holographic reticle, VSOR range finder and 'area fire' circles
          Reticle Size: [email protected], 6MoA @ 1x
          Ballistic corrections:
          For DFOV14-C1 (5.56mm): CX5395 reticle: 100-600m for 5.56 carbine, 700-1000m for 5.56mm machine gun
          For DFOV14-C2 (7.62mm): reticle CX5396: 100-600m for 7.62 guns, 700-1000m for 7.62mm machine gun
          CQB offset from axis: <44mmm @ 60m
          Viewing angles:
          26 ° @ 1x, 6.5 ° @ 4x
          FoV @ 4x 11.4 m @ 100 m (34.2 ft @ 100 yds)
          FoV @ 1x 48.8 m @ 100 m (146.3 ft @ 100 yds)
          Backlight: Battery Powered LED
          Sight illumination: 5 settings, compatible with AN / PVS-22
          Holographic scope illumination: 5 settings, compatible with AN / PVS-22
          Eye to eyepiece distance: 70mm
          External Lens Diameter: 32mm
          Exit pupil diameter: 8mm
          Focal Length: 150m @ 4x, 70m @ 1x
          Focal length in the scope mode: from 20m to infinity
          Battery: DL1 / 3N (3v Lithium) <. Li>
          Operating time: at least 600, on average 3000 hours
          Outer Coating: Anodized Aluminum, Gray / Black
          Price for one division of the amendment mechanism: 0.5 MOA
          Adjustment Input Adjustment Range: 120 MOA
          Required Mounting Base: Mil-Std-1913 'Picatinny Rail "
          Mount: ARMS Levers
          Water resistant: 10 meters for 2 hours
          Impact protection: 450 g's
        2. DuraLexSedLex.
          DuraLexSedLex. 31 May 2013 00: 21
          There is a budget ....

          Aimpoint CompM3 Dot 2MOA ~ 25000 rub.

          Anti-reflective multi-layer coating
          Multipurpose Reflex Sight
          Waterproof up to 25 m. Operating temperature -30 - + 60C.
          10-position brightness adjustment rheostat
          Battery life (typical) 1000 - 10000 hours.
          Product code: 11408
          Case: Black high-strength extruded aluminum
          Magnification ratio: 1x
          Lens Diameter: 38 mm
          Sight sketch:
          Reticle: Dot 2 MOA
          Axial Tube Diameter: 30mm
          Working distance from the eyepiece to the eye (mm): optional
          The price of one division of the amendment input mechanism: 13 mm @ 100m
          Sight Length (mm): 165 mm
          Weight: 270.00 g.

          CompM3 is a worthy choice in any situation, and here's why:
          Includes over 30 years of internationally recognized Aimpoint development innovation; CompM3 contains the latest technology and is even more reliable than other Aimpoint sights

          CompM3 works with any generation of night vision devices based on the revolutionary Advanced Circuit Efficiency Technology (ACET) technology, which provides unprecedented battery life and ease of use. Designed for the armed forces and the police and able to withstand rough physical handling and the harshest weather conditions, CompM3 is also ideal for hunters and shooting athletes.

          CompM3 comes with a removable rubber outer cover that protects the lens from scratches and lowers visibility. The outside of the cover is also available in Dark Earth Brown, an ideal disguise for use in the desert and jungle.

          Unique CompM3 Features
          Compatibility with NVD of any generation
          ACET technology provides up to 50,000 hours of operation during daylight hours without changing batteries (set from 7 to 10)
          500,000 hours of use with NVD
          Incomparable light transmission
          Available with two reticle sizes (2 and 4 MOA)
          Waterproof to a depth of 45 meters (135 feet)
          It is completed with a removable rubber cover of black color
          The rubber cover is also available in Dark Earth Brown.

          General Features of All Aimpoint® Sights
          Unlimited review
          Lack of parallax effect and arbitrary distance to the eye
          Suitable for use in extreme weather conditions.
          Robust, rugged construction
          Does not contain hazardous materials
          There is no laser radiation that can damage your eyes
          Increased aiming accuracy
        3. DuraLexSedLex.
          DuraLexSedLex. 31 May 2013 00: 22
          But the fact is that we do not have this and are not expected.
          1. den_snou_den
            den_snou_den 4 July 2013 10: 56
            foreseen why ...
            in Alabino since last year have been testing
            PKM-Alpha. There is also a mount similar to Flip-to-Side.
            1. The comment was deleted.
  7. DuraLexSedLex.
    DuraLexSedLex. 30 May 2013 21: 33
    Normal, not to mention good, and I am silent about EXCELLENT optics, there is no and never will be in the troops. PSO-1 and its analogs are morally obsolete, but the bolt with moral obsolescence, the AK-47 is outdated but it works and gives a mess *** I am amers in Afghanistan until now. The quality of the lenses is wretched-cloudy lenses. PSP-1 / 1P21 (Minutka) is an analogue of the long-obsolete eyelids 3-9x42 ART-TEL (ART-I) (automatic rangefinding telescope), this is the guano of the mastodon. New blade type "Hyperona" is already guano by definition, as it is assembled on the same machines.
    There is optics as such. But there is no high-precision optics. They don’t want to develop it. They shout what is needed, but it’s easier to buy the same American NF somewhere than to push and develop your own again. It’s just a sniper rifle without optics ...
  8. akm8226
    akm8226 31 May 2013 00: 17
    All this is good ... but in my practice, after several night SPUs, I gave up the luminous attachments and for the remaining 2,5 years I shot only with a string. And all the time it was excellent. This is true, by the way. Now about the sights. Any simplification of aiming is a blessing. BUT this is in a resort environment. Now imagine pouring rain, night and wind - I had to shoot in such conditions many times. What will the shooter see in the optics? He won't see shit.
    So draw your own conclusions.
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. Andrey77
      Andrey77 2 June 2013 15: 52
      And we have already drawn conclusions. I have German bash and lomb.
  9. speron
    speron 31 May 2013 03: 52
    To date, the best Russian-made optical sights from the Daedalus company, the price is similar to Western classmates, it is alarming that the components may be of foreign production.
    1. Andrey77
      Andrey77 2 June 2013 15: 47
      Sights are not of Russian manufacture, but of Russian assembly. Options 100% import.
  10. Kazanok
    Kazanok 6 June 2013 15: 26
    Why write about this old trash ... all the more so, it’s all the Belarusian gauno ...
  11. den_snou_den
    den_snou_den 4 July 2013 11: 03
    Collimator sight PKM-Alpha
    Quote: Andrey77
    Sights are not of Russian manufacture, but of Russian assembly. Options 100% import.
    Find ten differences from Aimpoint fool
    1. vanaheym
      vanaheym 22 July 2013 04: 06
      Find ten differences from Aimpoint

      Probably drowning in the bathroom and the battery sits on the second day?
  12. The comment was deleted.
  13. den_snou_den
    den_snou_den 16 October 2013 15: 50
    Attention! You do not have permission to view hidden text.
    "To the side and back" - as a translation for Flip-to-Side, the most appropriate meaning.