Military Review

Georgia under the "yoke of the empire." Reflections of the historian on the eve of the 230 anniversary of the accession of the Georgian state to Russia

Georgia under the "yoke of the empire." Reflections of the historian on the eve of the 230 anniversary of the accession of the Georgian state to Russia

Visiting from time to time on Tishinskaya Square in Moscow, I can never get rid of the strange feeling of feeling some kind of loss. And the point is not that the famous Tishinsky market with its “collapses” and trade in seedlings has long been away here. Another thing is nostalgic: a monument in the center of the square. The monument is called "Friendship Forever," erected for the bicentennial of Georgia's accession to Russia. In August of this year, this event will be 230 years old.

Actually, the countdown is from the date of the signing of the famous Treaty of St. George - 4 of August (July 24 old style) 1783 of the year. It is quite possible that this year this anniversary will not attract much attention: politicians and experts have August, the month of traditional vacations. Although in Georgia there will surely be characters who will not fail to take advantage of the jubilee in order to once again pamper their hearts, accusing Russia of all mortal sins. The Lord is their judge, of course, but why the neighboring Orthodox state chose such a fate for itself is worth it to figure out.

It is clear that in modern Georgia, as, incidentally, almost everywhere in the new independent states - the former Soviet republics, today mythologized, rewritten to please the national elites of their own, stories. As a rule, black in them became white, good - evil and vice versa.

The centuries-old history of Georgia is shown as a succession of national genius, and joining Russia is a tragedy, the result of the treacherous machinations of the northern power.

Georgia has almost always been a peripheral region of rival major powers in its history. Western empires were consistently represented by Rome, Byzantium, and Turkey. The personification of the eastern empires was Persia (Iran). Later the northern empire - Russia entered the historical arena. Territories passed constantly from hand to hand. At the same time, periods of independence, of course, also existed, but for the sake of objectivity, it should be recognized that most often they were not long. Especially if you take a period closer to our time. In the century preceding the entry of Georgia into Russia, the Georgian principalities of Imeretia, Megrelia, and Abkhazia belonged to or were the dominance zone of Turkey, and Kartli and Kakheti - Persia.

In general, the current borders of all the states of the South Caucasus are the merit of Russia, because Georgia itself was part of the Russian Empire in parts, since it was not a centralized state by that time.

Turning to history provides the key to understanding modern processes. An unbiased look into the past unequivocally shows that it was during the period when these states were located under the auspices of the northern power (i.e. Russia) that many problems, including the security and socio-economic well-being of the majority of the population, were provided more efficiently than during periods when countries became dependent on their southern neighbors.

In principle, any empire seeks to maintain order in its provinces. This, in particular, is the political and legal peculiarity of the imperial form of organization of power. In our case, the Western and Eastern empires did not stop at nothing to support the power of the central government.

Only the movements of peoples during the times of the Persian Shah Abbas are worth something! For example, as a result of the campaigns of Shah Abbas to Georgia at the beginning of the 17th century, he only captured about 200 thousands of Georgians, and the losses of those killed amounted to 100 thousands.

Naturally, these Asian-based empires tried to rule out any force-majeure troubles unprofitable for their interests in their border peripheral zone. Moreover, this did not at all mean that the Asian southern empires thus established a strict order in the internal security sphere of their provinces in the Caucasus. Far from it: the predatory raids of the North Caucasian ethnic groups on Georgia were then quite common.

However, the problem is not limited to security. Georgia was also a periphery in the economic sense for these empires. In fact, what could Georgia offer in the empire markets in the past? Agricultural products. But after all, this product was abundant in other provinces of both Western and Eastern empires. And not just in abundance, but also of better quality. How could Georgian mandarins compare with Mediterranean peaches or Iranian pistachios ?! Georgia also could not offer any special original handicraft and industrial products to the markets. There were no rich deposits of natural raw materials, the development and operation of which would have been possible at that level of development of engineering and technology, in Georgia. Yes, Georgia gave such a valuable commodity as slaves to the southern empires, but this is just evidence of its negative periphery. By the way, it should be noted that the local political elites themselves often supplied slaves to the southern empires. And it was not always a "tribute by blood" in the spirit of the myths of the Greeks. The same Georgian princes were cynically enriched through the trade of their compatriots. Alas, there was simply no other “liquid” goods at their disposal.

Something similar can be said about resorts. The Mediterranean coast is still objectively better in this respect than the Black Sea. Therefore, in the historical writings of Greek, Roman and Byzantine historians we can find information, for example, on the Greek colonies on the coast of Colchis, but we will not find evidence that the metropolis knew to prefer to spend their holidays in these places. Economic comparisons of the income that the metropolis had from these parts of the empire, with other analogues, for example, Egypt or Syria, show precisely the relative underdevelopment of the provincial economies located in the South Caucasus.

In other words, in the composition of the eastern and western empires, Georgia was objectively doomed to rather unenviable stagnation in comparison with the rest of the provinces. The preservation of interest in this region from the central authorities of the empires was caused mainly by foreign policy factors. Georgia acted as a distant outpost of empires, a kind of potential battlefield with external enemies, and on such fields, of course, no one seriously and tried to organize a highly productive economy, because the risk of losing invested funds in the flames of new wars was too great.

Now let's see how the situation has changed after the region became part of the northern empire. Georgia remained the periphery. But what! In the markets of northern Russia, the products of the Caucasus agriculture were in the best demand.

And when, during the existence of the Soviet Union, the Bolsheviks also established the Iron Curtain, then similar protectionism in general made the same Georgian mandarins an exquisite delicacy of Soviet citizens. During the summer agricultural season, people made fortunes growing and selling their products on the markets of the Russian Non-Black Earth Region. And what profits did the holiday season bring? It was all in our memory. As a result, Georgia, precisely because of its peripherality in the composition of the northern power, the power of which guaranteed development security, turned into a prosperous province. So the current myths about the "yoke of the empire", "the prison of nations" will be left on the conscience of their authors.

In this sense - how good was the course of the political elites of Georgia, who wished to sharply break away from the northern power, to sever the integration ties with it? The rejection of the “humiliating” status of peripherality from their point of view turned out to be the loss of those undoubted advantages that were inherent in such a situation.

So maybe Georgia will successfully find its place in the new regional configuration? After all, Georgian historians claim that the Georgian nobility was able to embed their interests in the scheme of a strong patron, which Iran had been in the region for centuries. Some Persian rulers married Georgian princes, Persians, in turn, happened to marry Georgian princes. Georgian military leaders served faithfully under the banner of the Persian shahs, it suffices to recall the legendary George Saakadze.

However, we will not be in a hurry and let us remember what happened later, especially since this directly concerns the conclusion of the Treaty of St. George. When Safavid Iran began to weaken, especially during the rule of the Zenda dynasty in Persia (1750-1794), which did not rely on a powerful tribal basis, the rulers of Georgia showed their true face. King Heraclius II, the “ruler” of Kartli and Kakheti, therefore appealed to Russia to take him under the patronage, because he felt the decline of Persia. He didn’t understand this, because he lived for a long time at the court of Nadir Shah and even served in his army. It was for services to the Persians that the latter made him (after the death of his father Teimuraz) the king of the united kingdoms. But it was Irakli II who concluded the St. George treatise with Russia in 1783, that is, he practically recognized himself as a vassal of the Russian imperial court (article 1 treatise), which, among other things, meant the refusal of Georgians from an independent foreign policy (article 4). But, having received the promised military support from Russia, the Georgian king began to dabble and “abuse trust”: he arbitrarily started a war in the east, trying to seize the Persian provinces in the Caucasus, who also tried to get rid of the Persian dominion. And then - more. Irakli II, in violation of the St. George Treaty, already in 1786, separately concludes a non-aggression agreement with the Turkish Suleiman Pasha. It was a direct blow to the interests of Russia, because it was not from altruism that concluded the Treaty of St. George. The latter was supposed to guarantee the alliance of the Georgian elite in case of wars. Russia only in 1774 ended the war with Turkey with Kyuchuk-Kaynardzhsky peace, and in 1787, a new war broke out. And here is a betrayal! However, the rulers of Georgia soon paid for it.

Empress Catherine the Great withdraws her troops from Georgia. A new dynasty came to power in Persia - the Qajars, whose shahs came, incidentally, from the very Eastern Caucasian provinces to which Irakli II had so carelessly fought (Kajars are an ethnic group of Turkic origin).

Shah Aga-Mohammed immediately in the 1795 year went to war against Georgia and easily defeated hastily assembled Georgian army on the outskirts of Tiflis. Several tens of thousands of Georgians paid dearly for the “diplomatic throwing” of their ruler.
Heracli II also suffered a political defeat: he was retiring from power, handing it over to his son George XII. He once again appeals to Russia, and the sent Russian troops drive out the Persians. The new Georgian king, trying to make up for his father’s mistakes, no longer requests the protection of Russia, but its entry into its structure. After that, those “two hundred years of friendship”, immortalized in the monument on Tishinskaya Square, came.

The Georgievsk treatise saved Georgia, but did not save its rulers from the pernicious habit of playing with the fate of their people. It is this habit and led to the current sad consequences.
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  1. aszzz888
    aszzz888 25 May 2013 07: 34 New
    He will remove the people of Georgia Saakashvili (God grant him not long left) and relations will improve.
    There is no division and redistribution between peoples.
    1. apro
      apro 25 May 2013 07: 53 New
      What does Saakashvili have to do with it, if as soon as Russia is weakening, the Georgians are persistently looking for new masters, it was after the revolution that these manifestations were in the war. In general, look for how Georgia was leaving entertaining reading space from Persia.
      1. Agent.
        Agent. 25 May 2013 13: 49 New
        With allies such as Georgia and enemies are not needed. So what for nafig, pragmatic cooperation is nothing more. They already have a museum “300 years of Russian occupation” and the new authorities have not touched it.
      2. AndreyAB
        AndreyAB 26 May 2013 16: 31 New
        Betrayed time, sell later. And any manifestation of friendship and help by gentlemen from Georgia is considered as weakness - these are not friends and not enemies and fraternal peoples, we will certainly not become, at best, just neighbors, and not good, because for Georgians who give a freebie, that and a friend, and whoever offers to pay is the enemy.
      3. Agent.
        Agent. 26 May 2013 21: 21 New
        Quote: apro
        what does Saakashvili have to do with it, if as soon as Russia is weakening, the Georgians are persistently looking for new masters, it was after the revolution, these manifestations were in the war
        in WWII? heard about the Chechens about the Georgians no?
      4. Mourners
        Mourners 13 June 2013 01: 17 New
        In 1785, the sultan, referring to the Kyuchuk-Kainadzhirsky world, demanded that Irakli II immediately terminate the Georgievsky treatise. Heraclius II, not at all doubting the August benevolence, completely refused this. Then Akhaltsikhe Pasha Suleiman, fearing the sulennago tract of joining his pashalyk to Georgia, first prompted the Khan of Avarsk Omar to attack Kartalinіya, and then he invaded Imereti. Despite the treaty concluded, Irakli had to fight back alone. The war ended in a ceasefire between Iraq and Suleiman, which was a natural outcome of the war until the youngest Bush campaign in Iraq. The mentioned eastern provinces never belonged to Georgia and were supposed to return to it along the route either by Russian weapons and diplomacy or by Georgian forces themselves. It is not the fault of either the Russian or Georgian side that, at the conclusion of the treatise, they could not be considered as the limits of the once-emerging union republic.
    2. Larus
      Larus 25 May 2013 11: 07 New
      You should review rallies of friendly Georgians
    3. vaddy72
      vaddy72 25 May 2013 12: 29 New
      Will not work out. I live near the Caucasus - there are many different Caucasians here. And I communicate with Georgians, by the way, of middle and old age, who lived in the USSR. So their hostility towards Russia may not be the strongest, but the most persistent - that's for sure. The fact is that they consider themselves the most civilized in the Caucasus (and it is), and they have developed a complex of greatness. The Russians, in their opinion, did not allow them to realize themselves, to build Great Georgia. And they have long forgotten that they were saved from destruction. Everything is simple
      1. Simon
        Simon 25 May 2013 18: 50 New
        Well, the Russians gave them the opportunity to realize themselves. They began to build their great Georgia and this civilized people attacked South Ossetia and Abkhazia, began to force them to become Georgians, well, as a result, they stepped on an old rake, didn’t build a great Georgia and got on the forehead from a northern neighbor who stood up for the people of Abkhazia and South Ossetia.
        1. Agent.
          Agent. 26 May 2013 13: 31 New
          Civilized Georgians only in comparison with other peoples of the Caucasus
      2. carbofo
        carbofo 25 May 2013 21: 24 New
        This is called narcissism, well, we’ll live with them, without Borjomi and wines, tangerines are not a first aid hawk, let them haw.
        No one really needed, little nosy.
        1. Agent.
          Agent. 26 May 2013 13: 30 New
          Great Georgia is generally a laugh! it has never been and never will be. What can Georgians do besides PR? Tangerines, wine, barge and ?? Irazmer has nothing to do with it, the same Israel and drones and medicine and tanks ...
          1. carbofo
            carbofo 26 May 2013 17: 11 New
            well, in principle, a lot of things Georgians can do, for example, sing Vakh Genatsvale, make faces with eyebrows, run away from Russian tanks - without even realizing that they were their tanks :).
            what else ? : chew ties, run from the plane guarding the stoves, scream that they were attacked, pre-firing rockets at the city, shooting the UN peacekeepers post, and receiving maps of the region in very good quality from the United States.
      3. Agent.
        Agent. 26 May 2013 13: 41 New
        What kind of civilized people will choose for their presidency a hysteric eating ties under the cameras ?! Yes, and choose more than once.
    4. Mourners
      Mourners 13 June 2013 01: 14 New
      In 1785, the sultan, referring to the Kyuchuk-Kainadzhirsky world, demanded that Irakli II immediately terminate the Georgievsky treatise. Heraclius II, not at all doubting the August benevolence, completely refused this. Then Akhaltsikhe Pasha Suleiman, fearing the sulennago tract of joining his pashalyk to Georgia, first prompted the Khan of Avarsk Omar to attack Kartalinіya, and then he invaded Imereti. Despite the treaty concluded, Irakli had to fight back alone. The war ended in a ceasefire between Iraq and Suleiman, which was a natural outcome of the war until the youngest Bush campaign in Iraq. The mentioned eastern provinces never belonged to Georgia and were supposed to return to it along the route either by Russian weapons and diplomacy or by Georgian forces themselves. It is not the fault of either the Russian or Georgian side that, at the conclusion of the treatise, they could not be considered as the limits of the once-emerging union republic.
  2. apro
    apro 25 May 2013 07: 35 New
    Do not do good evil you will not know. The inclusion of a foreign element in the body always leads to rejection and septis. The Georgians did not want to become part of our people, God is their judge and we have another lesson how many wolves do not feed everything in Europe ...
    1. omsbon
      omsbon 25 May 2013 09: 33 New
      Quote: apro
      us another lesson how many wolves do not feed everything in Europe looks ...

      Georgians are wolves? The image of the wolf was never associated with a roguish, thieving, sneaky type, who could betray at any moment.
      But in the geyropa Georgians are not expected. The fate of any gasket is one, it is thrown away.
      1. carbofo
        carbofo 26 May 2013 17: 13 New
        There are so many of their Papuans that the firing squads can’t cope, we also have problems for them.
  3. scorpido
    scorpido 25 May 2013 07: 58 New
    For a long time after the separation of Georgia from Russia, I could not understand who works for them in factories there. This is how the standard has become so ingrained in the USSR: Georgians did not physically work and earned only on pleasure: trade in sweets: barbecue, wine, cognac and citruses.
  4. fenix57
    fenix57 25 May 2013 08: 12 New
    Quote: aszzz888
    He will remove the people of Georgia Saakashvili (God grant him not long left) and relations will improve.

    I would like to believe, but Ivanishvili is unlikely to abandon the pro-Western course of Tbilisi, rather try to balance, as Azerbaijan has been doing for many years.
    1. Corsair
      Corsair 25 May 2013 11: 40 New
      Quote: fenix57
      Tbilisi will rather try to balance, as Azerbaijan has been doing for many years.

      There is a bull-calf, swinging,
      sighing on the go
      Oh the board is ending
      Now I WILL FALL

      Everything will end sometime ...
      1. AndreyAB
        AndreyAB 26 May 2013 16: 33 New
        Balancing sooner or later will lead to a fall in one direction or another - you know the law of universal gravitation.
  5. Atlon
    Atlon 25 May 2013 08: 31 New
    The Georgievsk treatise saved Georgia, but did not save its rulers from the pernicious habit of playing with the fate of their people. It is this habit and led to the current sad consequences.

    Since its conclusion, the Treatise has been in force for 3-4 years without interference. However, then strong opposition from Turkey began. Under its influence, the raids of Lezghins and the Akhaltsikhe Pasha became more frequent. Russia expressed protests, but they did not have the proper impact. Moreover, Turkey demanded that Russia abolish the St. George Treaty and tear down the fortifications of Vladikavkaz. As a result, in 1787, Russian troops were withdrawn from Georgia.

    Georgia was the first to violate the treaty, having entered into separate negotiations with the Turks. In September 1786, Akhaltsi Suleiman Pasha sent a letter to the king of Georgia Herakli II with a proposal to conclude a separate peace treaty.

    From the report of Colonel Burnashev, Pavel Potemkin:
    His Highness ... intends to send the required in Akhaltsikhe Suleiman to a plow of amanats (hostages), apologizing for being forced by his subjects and the extreme need to get rid of the ruin of their lands on the Turkish side. To this I have the honor to report to His Highness that after the conclusion of the treatise of the 4th article with Georgia, in the case of sending emissaries or letters from neighbors, I must agree with the chief border chief, and moreover, all the circumstances that require diligent consideration. "

    - The attitude of S. Burnashev to the gene. P. Potemkin of December 29, 1786 [5].

    Thus, the king retreated from the treatise, having begun negotiations with the Turkish authorities. In December 1786, Heraclius wrote to Pavel Potemkin: “... and so that we do not get to this extreme, we send two princes to this pasha to approve the agreements” [6].

    Potemkin was extremely alarmed: “... it is extremely grieving that your Highness and the advice of your noblemen are willing to comply with the requirements of Soleiman Pasha of Akhaltsikhe ... humblely ask your Highness to consider all the requirements of Soleiman Pasha, the goal and all his relationships to you. From the very moment, when he began to have correspondence with your highness, his demands were as follows: 1. Seducing various apparent benefits to shake your loyalty to Russia; 2nd In order to withdraw Russian troops from Georgia and get rid of formidable defenders, to increase it from defense; for if our troops were not threatening them, if he didn’t need to seek their withdrawal from Georgia ... I advise you to convincingly ask you not to give the amanats to Pasha, for by doing so you will insult your dependency, you have sworn an oath and will harm your own kingdom. ”[7 ]

    But, despite the warnings of P. Potemkin, the terms of the 4th article of the St. George Treatise, Tsar Irakli concluded a treaty with Pasha, which was ratified by the Sultan in the summer of 1787 (just during the war between Russia and Turkey). From this moment, the St. George Treatise lost its force. Russian troops were supposed to leave Georgia; on October 26, 1787, Russian troops were already in Vladikavkaz.
  6. logik
    logik 25 May 2013 08: 36 New
    sooner or later Georgia will be rolled into a pancake. they have only one option - entering a country, because with such neighbors they won’t win in any war.
    1. Pilat2009
      Pilat2009 25 May 2013 15: 01 New
      Quote: logik
      sooner or later Georgia will be rolled into a pancake. they have one option

      They will join NATO and nobody will roll them out. If you don’t bark at the USA, then with the help of American help they will live well, all the salaries of the ministers were paid to the USA
      1. Agent.
        Agent. 25 May 2013 16: 48 New
        roll them out and now 5sec, only what for they are not needed by anyone. What to occupy them and then feed them? !!?
      2. Simon
        Simon 25 May 2013 19: 05 New
        Well, they will join NATO and that NATO should buy weapons, but it will cost a pretty penny, money from the country's budget will flow abroad and will put a heavy burden on the Georgian people, and in Georgia there is almost no production except wine and citrus. Now they are asking for the Russian market to increase their budget, they are not needed in Europe, they have enough of their own wine, but Anishchenko is on guard, I think he will find some terrible bacteria in Georgian wine.
        1. Pilat2009
          Pilat2009 25 May 2013 19: 20 New
          Quote: Simon
          NATO weapons must be bought,

          And what kind of shisha then they used to buy weapons in the absence of a budget?
      3. Karlsonn
        Karlsonn 25 May 2013 20: 53 New
        Quote: Pilat2009
        They will join NATO and nobody will roll them out.

        A country with territorial problems cannot join NATO a priori, and since those territories that Georgia lost are already recognized by a number of countries as independent states, Georgia cannot be seen as a NATO member as its ears.
        1. Ruslan67
          Ruslan67 26 May 2013 02: 46 New
          Quote: Karlsonn
          A country with territorial problems cannot join NATO a priori,

          Hi Aleksey! hi Do you think if Nata crawls at the seams then they won’t start accepting anyone there just to get more? wassat
      4. AndreyAB
        AndreyAB 26 May 2013 16: 34 New
        But will they accept who they fucking need in NATO parasites - the states contain them because Russia is a shit, and NATO has already started talking about hurrying with the expansion, so the Georgians are not shining, and it’s unlikely that it will work, they started to count money in Europe and such freeloaders were remembered as the Baltic states and others like them.
  7. rinat1955
    rinat1955 25 May 2013 08: 38 New
    In the early 90s, I was in Adzharia on vacation for three days, the bus driver covered the clearing with our mechanic, (the carburetor was clogged with dirt), the guide was a hefty local man of about 40 years old.
  8. individual
    individual 25 May 2013 08: 57 New
    Browser Quote:
    "The St. George Treatise saved Georgia, but did not save its rulers from the addiction to play the fate of their people. It was this habit that led to the present sad consequences."

    The periphery of Georgia’s location, which does not have its own development resource, except for the human one, has taught rulers to treat their own people as goods. And it is not for nothing that the historical chronicles of the Georgian tribes (Imereti, Megrelia, Kartli and Kakheti) are full of facts of the trade of their rulers by prince-rulers.
    The historical memory of living goods is present as atavism in the government in Georgia and allows you to manipulate the consciousness of the people as goods. The entry of their territories into the Russian Empire, and then the USSR was a pleasant exception.
    But the story "knows how to be thankful".
  9. Jurkovs
    Jurkovs 25 May 2013 09: 01 New
    Modern Russia recognized itself as the successor of the Soviet Union (UN, World War II, nuclear weapons, non-proliferation treaties), at the same time it was forced to recognize itself as the successor of the Russian Empire (forced to pay the royal debts of France). This is de facto. De jure it is not fixed anywhere. Russia's amorphous position on this issue is not clear. It is necessary in the Constitution to write down both sides of the succession of modern Russia. The Constitutional Court should give its interpretation on some controversial issues of succession, mainly related to the unilateral refusal of royal treaties. After that, many border conflicts around Russia will receive legal resolution. For example, the denunciation of the St. George Treatise defines the borders of Georgia and automatically recognizes the independence of Abkhazia and South Ossetia. Or am I wrong?
    1. tungus-meteorit
      tungus-meteorit 26 May 2013 01: 59 New
      Abkhazia and South Ossetia and other lands that Georgians now consider to be “their own” were part of Russia separately from the kingdom of Kartlia and Kakheti (Eastern Georgia), with which the George Treaty was concluded with Russia. Ossetia entered Russia earlier than Eastern Georgia and as a single state entity, without dividing it into North and South. Abkhazia also joined as a single state a bit later than Eastern Georgia. All of Western Georgia and Adjara during the 19th century were recaptured by the Russian troops from the Turks, so Georgia had nothing to do with it. The republics of Abkhazia, Adjara and the South Ossetian region were simply "presented" to Soviet Georgia by Comrade Stalin (as Khrushchev did later with Crimea, annexing it to Ukraine). If Georgia left the USSR, it should have returned to Russia (as the successor to the USSR) all Soviet “gifts”. So it should have been according to the Union Treaty of the USSR. Moreover, the majority of the population of these republics did not want to disconnect from the USSR together with Georgia. Referenda were held in these republics in 1991, which clearly showed the desire of their population to remain part of the USSR or their accession to Russia. But then the authorities in both Russia and Georgia were not to spit on the will of the peoples. Georgian nationalists began ethnic cleansing and the war with the "separatists", fratricidal bloodshed began for almost two decades. You know the results.
      1. Lukich
        Lukich 27 May 2013 20: 20 New
        Historical information The invasions of the Mongol-Tatars (from the end of the 30s of the 13th century) and Tamerlane (the end of the 14th century) forced the Ossetians to move to the mountain gorges of the Caucasus Range, from where they began to populate the southern slopes of the mountains. Ossetians, who initially occupied the highlands of Central Georgia, in the 17-18 centuries. spread in the foothills and lowlands. The main occupation of the population on the plains was agriculture, in the mountains - livestock. Until the 18th century There was a process of formation of the Ossetian nationality. Yu. O. was part of feudal Georgia; most of the South Ossetians lived in the Kartli kingdom, a smaller part - in Imereti. From the 13th century feudal relations developed in South O., but in the life of mountain (southern) Ossetians until the beginning of the 20th century. to a large extent, vestiges of the clan system were preserved (mutual assistance of the clan members, blood feud, exogamy, etc.). South Ossetians were serfs dependent on Georgian feudal lords. In 1801, Yu. O. as part of Georgia voluntarily joined the Russian Empire.

        In the 2nd half of the XNUMXth century, the Abkhaz throne was inherited by Bagrat III, and Abkhazia became part of a single Georgian state. In the coastal part of Abkhazia, agriculture was the leading one, and cattle breeding in the mountainous part. Coast trade with overseas countries grew.

        But in principle, without Russia, Georgia could not have remained an independent state. And even now, it will disintegrate in the European Union as a single state entity.
        1. tungus-meteorit
          tungus-meteorit 30 May 2013 00: 06 New
          Incorrect your reference and not historical. See my comment carefully and here is a link to this historical information:
  10. k220150
    k220150 25 May 2013 09: 16 New
    Today it is “Rotten Ponte”, Georgians, like all other peoples, are different, but they should not be worried, they themselves have chosen their own path. We need to deal with our problems and we do not need freeloaders. Only market relations, without sentiment and snot. The main product of their export is Thieves, nothing more, absolutely nothing. Do we need it?
    As one wise old Jew said, “More precisely, friendship is stronger”, it seems right.
  11. sichevik
    sichevik 25 May 2013 09: 34 New
    Yes, we do not need such friends !!! Better be enemies. Cheaper cost.
    They don’t want to work, and they don’t know how. They are useless, like a goat's milk.
    And from the experience of communicating with Georgians (two years urgent in the Soviet Army, and there were many Georgians there) I will say one thing - Georgians for the most part are sheer thieves and rare bastards.
  12. Yun Klob
    Yun Klob 25 May 2013 09: 36 New
    Saakashvili opened my eyes to Georgia. Before shaking hands with a Georgian, I thought that I was shaking hands with my brother and friend, but he turned out to shake my hand as a serf to the master. I do not need such a brother, nor friend, nor Georgia, nor her goods, I can manage.
    1. lewerlin53rus
      lewerlin53rus 25 May 2013 12: 36 New
      Quote: Yoon Clob
      neither Georgia nor its goods

      What goods? Borjomi? They lived for several years without Borjomi and nothing, the liver did not fall apart. We have our own mineral water, no less useful. Guilt? And what is worse than Krasnodar? Tangerines? We have enough Abkhazians. We have enough of our own traders, and it’s time to thin out foreign ones. And I don’t remember anything else.
      1. Bosk
        Bosk 25 May 2013 15: 20 New
        Quote: lewerlin53rus
        . And I don’t remember anything else.

        Here the other day on the mezzanine I found Olifa's bottle back in Soviet times, took a closer look ... and it was done in Georgia. It turns out that the chemical production was also established for them, which was news for me ...
        1. lewerlin53rus
          lewerlin53rus 25 May 2013 15: 43 New
          Drying oil is based on vegetable oil. Is it possible to grow sunflower in Georgia? It was in Soviet times that they built a factory and provided them with raw materials. And now everything is clearly abandoned ..
        2. ed65b
          ed65b 25 May 2013 17: 07 New
          Colchis trucks made tea.
          1. lewerlin53rus
            lewerlin53rus 26 May 2013 00: 16 New
            Quote: ed65b
            Colchis trucks did

            Yeah, they were also called "Memorial Service"
          2. George
            George 26 May 2013 00: 20 New
            Quote: ed65b
            Colchis trucks made tea.

            Dad told me that Colchis was afraid of four Gs:
  13. Slevinst
    Slevinst 25 May 2013 09: 57 New
    Thank you for the article, I have never been interested in this issue and now much has been opened about Georgians, my attitude towards them has somehow deteriorated, apparently in their blood be someone's vassal and betrayal
  14. My address
    My address 25 May 2013 10: 00 New
    Almost all medium-sized nations as part of large formations received more than they themselves did. At the same time, they considered themselves to be victims and, during the separation, they had small and large mischief of the main ethnos. Georgians are no exception.
    In the USSR, Georgia decently received food from Russia and Ukraine — grain, meat, and milk. And it is in this climate!
    In 91, on a business trip to the west of Georgia, I was visiting my relative's relatives. The hosts collected a fabulous table, but noticed that this is a Georgian table, with products purchased from Azerbaijanis on the market grown in Azerbaijan and Armenia.
  15. lecturer
    lecturer 25 May 2013 10: 53 New
    In general, the present borders of all the states of the South Caucasus are the merit of Russia, after all, Georgia itself was part of the Russian Empire, since it was not by that time a centralized state ... It once again appeals to Russia, and the sent Russian troops supplant the Persians. The new Georgian tsar, trying to make amends for his father’s mistakes, asks not for the patronage of Russia, but for joining it. After which the same “two hundred years of friendship” came ...
    The Georgievsk treatise saved Georgia, but did not save its rulers from the pernicious habit of playing with the fate of their people. It is this habit and led to the current sad consequences.

    Guys, let’s next time, we’ll already be from everyone “crawling towards us in peace and for help” - DO NOT rush to forgive! And to take a receipt (!) - Up to the 7th knee. How Jews in the Bible enlisted (sworn) in their venality and treason ...
    PS Yes, to condemn - there is a great sin! And God forgive me!
  16. zennon
    zennon 25 May 2013 10: 54 New
    Actually, we don’t need Georgia with the Borzoi Georgians. The article reflects it quite intelligently. For us it’s good that after 2008 they went less than thieves. As a market, it is insignificant. Their wine production is better than Chilean, tangerines-Spanish, rest-Italy
    .I would be glad if I didn’t let them come to us in the future. Let them look for friends in other countries. Flags in their hands, a drum on the neck!
    1. Corsair
      Corsair 25 May 2013 11: 29 New
      Quote: zennon
      Actually, we do not need Georgia with the Borzoi Georgians

      It is worthless to squander the Earth, not WE collected them ...
      1. zennon
        zennon 25 May 2013 14: 49 New
        Write to you, write ... You gave yourself the trouble to read that
        written? Do you have something to argue? Specifically? And yet, these lands are not ours.
        1. Karlsonn
          Karlsonn 25 May 2013 20: 55 New
          Quote: zennon
          And yet, these lands are not ours.

          1. Thunderbolt
            Thunderbolt 25 May 2013 21: 14 New
            Quote: Karlsonn
            Carlson, because another people lives there, who for many centuries, by his very existence and preservation of ethnic identity, proved that he lives there by the right of historical justice. The article well emphasizes that Georgia is a small state, with respect to superethnoses between which it is a buffer strip . Alas, this is the lot of all "Poland" crying no matter how big or small they are. But remember that the Russian Federation is the legal successor of the USSR, which means that Georgia automatically belongs to the zone of Russian interests (to maintain stability in the North Caucasus, you need to have influence over the Greater Caucasus). So, let r - Yes, the Georgians are not offended, the time will come and the Russian Vanya will ask the overseas guests: What are you doing here? laughing
      2. Pilat2009
        Pilat2009 25 May 2013 15: 04 New
        Quote: Corsair
        It is worthless to squander the Earth, not WE collected them ..

        Late to drink Borjomi when the kidneys fell off.
        Everything is already squandered
  17. PValery53
    PValery53 25 May 2013 11: 45 New
    Judging by the article, Georgia has prostituted between major political players ... M-yeah. And where will such a course lead her? ..
  18. The comment was deleted.
  19. fenix57
    fenix57 25 May 2013 12: 00 New
    Quote: PValery53
    And where will such a course lead her? ..

    According to unofficial data, the full appeal of the "unknown" deputy to
    Saakashvili sounded like this:
    "Listen, to you, as a former, in the recent past, porn producer I
    I recommend lifting Georgia from its knees and palms and taking a member out of his mouth
    America, and from the ass a member of Europe. "
    But it became beneficial for Mr. Saakashvili to pull words out of context and
    compose them in a completely different combination by adding your comments. hi
  20. Dimy4
    Dimy4 25 May 2013 12: 41 New
    On the topic of Georgian industry. Remember the ingenious Colchis truck. Whoever saw this miracle will understand. laughing
    1. OTTO
      OTTO 25 May 2013 13: 01 New
      Indeed it was a "miracle"
  21. wulf66
    wulf66 25 May 2013 12: 47 New
    Without words...
  22. R'RёS,R ° F "RёR№
    R'RёS,R ° F "RёR№ 25 May 2013 12: 48 New
    Over the centuries of lack of freedom among the Georgian powers that be, the slave psychology of prostitutes has developed (regardless of ordinary people). As the old master weakens, lie down under the new one and vice versa. They run, make ....
  23. uestlend
    uestlend 25 May 2013 13: 09 New
    They were always pressed until RUSSIA took under its wing, and now they have fallen under America, and we are talking with each other and not only with them.
  24. knn54
    knn54 25 May 2013 13: 25 New
    In the time of Khrushchev there was a joke:
    Kennedy and Khrushchev argued who lives better.
    The American president decided to see how the Russians live. He was taken to Georgia.
    But I ...
    Khrushchev: I did not ask you to show how Indians live ...
    PS Familiar from Georgia, Ajarian, Svan and Mingrelka are very offended when I try to call them a Georgian.
    They will come running when the country begins to crumble into districts.
    When it’s bad, everyone starts to think about Russia ...
  25. George
    George 25 May 2013 13: 31 New
    This article poses some strange stereotypes about the Georgian people ... When I arrive in Georgia, pro-Western posters are everywhere, television constantly speaks about the occupation of Tskhinvali (South Ossetia) and Abkhazia by Russia, that the only hope for strengthening and uniting the state is integration with the EU and NATO ... But the people are not so stupid and see that all this leads in the wrong direction. To practically all the people of Georgia, this EU and NATO are a damn, and even after the 2008 war. Georgia towards Russia, the people are very positive, especially after the change of power. Everyone remembers and knows that Russia, once saved Georgia, from its southeastern enslavers. Although anti-Russian propaganda is underway (under Ivanishvili it almost ceased to exist), but is it only in Georgia? Both in Poland and in the Baltic states and in many other former fraternal republics there is such propaganda, but should we judge the people of these states only because of the behavior of their pro-Western proteges? I think this is wrong. About 75% of the Georgian population speaks Russian, Russian-language schools reopen and the population welcomes Russians.
    Yes, and I want to argue with villages and camps turned into cities, Georgia, like Armenia and some other Caucasian states, were quite developed at the time of their collapse before the Ottoman Empire, the Seljuks, etc. The rise of culture occurred, due to integration with Byzantium, and self-development. If that is the culture of Russia, it was also enriched by the culture of Byzantium and some neighboring states. In general, one should not believe in all these stereotypes.
    Georgia perceives Russians as fraternal people, for some reason the Russian people have such a feeling for Georgians, and for many states there is no.
    And the author of the article, before writing about the attitude of the Georgian people to the Russian, it would be better to go there himself, and not tell the story in terms of television sentiment.
    1. ed65b
      ed65b 25 May 2013 17: 14 New
      As for anti-Russian propaganda in the former countries, absolutely. Sadly, in all the countries of the former USSR, Russia and Russians are blamed for all troubles. What can I say, look what is happening in the Russian Federation itself.
    2. Simon
      Simon 25 May 2013 19: 13 New
      Interesting! And why did the fraternal people shoot our peacekeepers in South Ossetia from tanks and artillery.
      1. George
        George 27 May 2013 00: 04 New
        Firstly, of course, I’m not looking for Georgia’s excuses in that war, all the same I write this post on the website of the country in which the military propaganda was conducted and it makes no sense to convince you of the falsity of some messages on television at that time. But here is what I will tell you, of course, having received many disadvantages. Everyone needed this war. What for Georgia did you need this war? In a word, NATO. To enter NATO, the country must be united, there should be no territorial disputes with neighbors, Georgia had a problem with this. So why not solve this problem peacefully? Yes, because it is a very long time ... Saakashvili, since he is, to put it mildly, not a far-sighted and naive person, decided if he received US support, Russia would not budge, at least Western "friends" assured him and decided, and why not unite the country right now? Without any treaties with the Russian Federation, and enter the EU and NATO, but that was ... in the general ending of this story we know. What for of Russia did you need this war? If Georgia joined NATO, the southern region would become a new problem for the Russian Federation, a new hotbed of instability would appear. Therefore, Russia even provoked Georgia a little to start a war, so that Georgia, suddenly, as an exception, was not taken into NATO, then everything is known. Why the west USA did you need this war? To gain a foothold in the Caucasus and gain greater influence in this region. But everything was in vain. We figured it out. Now about the peacekeepers. You were there? I think not, but what they say on TV is 75% a lie, both in Georgia and in Russia, everywhere it is, it’s normal, because we need to explain to the people why we are fighting there? And so that we are good. But in fact, everyone is bad and everyone in this war had their own goals.
        Secondly, the people of Georgia did not want this war, I think, like the people of Russia, it is as you read above that you decided for us. I hope that I have changed someone's attitude towards this war ...
        1. Lukich
          Lukich 27 May 2013 20: 46 New
          Georgia perceives Russians as fraternal people, for some reason the Russian people have such a feeling for Georgians, and for many states there is no.

          ... the people of Georgia did not want this war, I think, like the people of Russia, as you read above, they decided for us ...

          ... Russia constantly loses in the promotion of its interests, is inferior to Europe and the United States, and most importantly, the zone of Russian interests should be all of Eastern Europe, the entire territory of the former union, all Arab countries, southeast Asia and, of course, Africa, at the same time we must conduct offensive tactics regarding Latin America and the USA. Europe itself will fall under the Russian peasant, she will not get used to, if only the person was good ...
          ... by the way, the American Indians want to separate from the United States - information for consideration ...
  26. FC SKIF
    FC SKIF 25 May 2013 14: 24 New
    As soon as Turkey turns its attention to the proud Georgians, as to Syria, then we will see how they sing.
  27. sigizmund472
    sigizmund472 25 May 2013 14: 46 New
    Quote: lewerlin53rus
    And I don’t remember anything else.

    Well, how then? A mountain tractor "Colchis" ??? This is the top of the automotive industry !!! laughing
    1. lewerlin53rus
      lewerlin53rus 26 May 2013 00: 20 New
      I have already commented above that they called him a "requiem". Looks like not casual. Our nicknames are usually essentially
    2. Fitter65
      Fitter65 26 May 2013 14: 51 New
      Colchis assembled from Zilovsky parts and assemblies. We installed a cabin above the engine, the axle weight distribution went in the wrong direction, and if with a semitrailer it still somehow drove, then without it it often got onto the front bumper with sharp braking. No wonder the drivers said: " Georgians invented Colchis to bring grapes from the mountains, and Russians carry logs uphill on it ... "And the build quality, it was not for nothing that they called spare parts for ZIL, and it was not uncommon (this was in Soviet times!) new Colchis who came to the motorcall as donors for the 130 killed.
  28. Bosk
    Bosk 25 May 2013 15: 24 New
    Judging by how they drove GAY walkers ... on a human level, they are normal people, and everything else is behind-the-scenes political trash. Over time, everything wakes CHIKI-PIKI or PIKI-CHIKI.
  29. My address
    My address 25 May 2013 15: 46 New
    Here, some write about the spiritual kindness of Georgians. And about the invalidity of this kindness Russian.

    In addition to the comm. from 10ch 00min.

    The hosts talked about how well-dressed Georgians came several times to them and POLISHLY wondered when these Russians would get down to Russia to get ready to occupy an apartment. All nations will have geeks, but who can say that Russians are also capable of that? At the mass demonstration of meanness?
  30. nnz226
    nnz226 25 May 2013 15: 48 New
    Here you ask yourself: was it worth shedding Russian blood, saving all sorts of neighbors from the "final solution of their question"? (similar to the solution of the Jewish question in 1941-45 by the Nazis) In 1654, the Poles gathered a “major collapse” to solve the issue of rebellious claps (and would have solved it completely, because then there were no PACE in principle), whose descendants are now screaming "Glory to Ukraine!". The Persians and Turks were also going to solve the Georgian question. Would you not fit in (and then you would have dispersed the Turks and Persians) and there would have been no 08.08.08 war ?! And Teplische (the Slavic settlement, so called because of the warm sources there) is now mistakenly called "Tbilisi" and it would be Slavic, that is, Russian ... And the cries about the "invaders", "imperial ambitions", etc. also would not be. There would be one Russia. So if history begins to repeat itself (and according to Marxist dialectics, history develops in a spiral) do not immediately rush to save the cut-out "brotherly" peoples. For they are not fraternal, but very hostile. And then the invaders of these lands will be knocked out with a roar so that they wash themselves with a bloody yushka and populate the liberated lands with Russian people. As in 1945, East Prussia.
  31. Ivanovich47
    Ivanovich47 25 May 2013 16: 50 New
    Peoples, they are peoples in Africa. But the rulers ... When the question was to be or not to be a Georgian ethnic group, fell to their knees, save Russia! In fairness, the Georgian elite was held in high esteem in Russia. Bagration is worth a lot. But the current, small-scale elite, fed up on US dollars, has "forgotten all this."
  32. ivachum
    ivachum 25 May 2013 17: 27 New
    Quote: Agent.
    from 5 seconds, only what for they are nobody needed. What to occupy them and then

    “Billy, do you see Elusive Joe sitting at that table?”
    -Yes. And why the elusive?
    -Because, Billy, no one can catch him ...
    -What such a cool cowboy?
    -No, Billy ... It’s just that no one catches him - nah ... but no one needs him!
  33. regsSSSR
    regsSSSR 25 May 2013 21: 34 New
    here it always struck me who in the union it was best to live, first of all, how the currents felt the sunset of the empire, howled about the injustice of their people, and the first to rush overboard the boat completely rewriting history and selling it with spathrocks and yes and the only one of the former Allied republics CLAIMING the war against their own metropolis and hastily they really surrendered to us such traitors !! even if America feeds them now, they haven’t done anything with us, and with Amers they don’t do anything either, but how will she get the kirdyk, let them go to bow laughing they cannot get used to changing friends on their own, they are still unable to exist! but in general it’s a pity it’s a pity that they are so ... after all, a long common history and the Georgian veterans are sorry for them too! Yes, and the tangerines for the new year, you agree they were good and the wine is an excellent movie good)) Oh, well, they themselves are to blame for wanting a better life, well, eat loss!
  34. piotr534
    piotr534 25 May 2013 21: 51 New
    The Georgievsk treatise saved Georgia, but did not save its rulers from the pernicious habit of playing with the fate of their people. It is this habit and led to the current sad consequences.
    People who do not remember the lessons of history, run the risk of repeating them!
  35. Serg_Y
    Serg_Y 25 May 2013 22: 58 New
    Yes, it’s impossible to break, the Russian language suddenly disliked everyone, everyone wants to learn business English, and not literary Russian.
  36. nsr1950
    nsr1950 26 May 2013 08: 39 New
    Who does not remember, there is such a famous director in Soviet times, the director Otar Ioseliani. Now he lives in France and pours mud on Russia. During the Georgian attack on South Ossetia, Otar Ioseliani spoke live on Ukrainian television and cursed Russia for "attacking Georgia", and recently he spoke again, pouring mud on Russia, this time in France, in a dialogue with Natalya Narochnitskaya. Then he directly claimed that such nationalities as “Ossetians” and “Abkhazians” do not exist in nature at all. That’s what it is like - Georgian entichy ...
  37. Smoke
    Smoke 26 May 2013 10: 17 New
    I didn’t even read it .... the tsarist administration was soft-bodied and not effective, in this aspect the British should act most effectively: 300 million people who died over 5 years in India alone, you can keep silent about Africa .... the country is completely plundered and if in ancient and middle ages, India was the center of science of culture and production, then after the British, India is still still at some level at the level of the Papuans. The Indians in America ... a good red-skinned = dead red-skinned ==== >> the problem is solved quickly cheaply (cartridges are cheaper than hospital schools and housing) angrily and most importantly FOREVER. It’s time for the Russians to adopt the advanced technologies in the construction of the empire and NEVER make a mistake like that, since kindness is perceived as weakness.
  38. Alexan
    Alexan 26 May 2013 12: 56 New
    After Georgia’s annexation to Russia, all numerous princes received
    privileges equal to St. Petersburg. And they had no less princes than counts in Russia. Content on whom lay down? To Georgian lands or to the imperial budget? They’re used to it ... Simple people are working and friendly there, but there is a big difference between Mingrelians and Ajars. Poti and Batumi, as two states.
  39. pinecone
    pinecone 26 May 2013 13: 51 New
    Quote: ed65b
    Colchis trucks made tea.

    The build quality of these trucks is evidenced by the fact that, at Soviet motor depots, the drivers were transferred to Colchis in a disciplinary order. The same thing happened with YERAZ vans (Yerevan Automobile Plant).
  40. Galinanp
    Galinanp 26 May 2013 16: 36 New
    Now for all the separated republics of the former USSR, Russia has saved them from destruction as a people-kupant.
  41. torrnado
    torrnado 26 May 2013 19: 33 New
    Guys, you don’t like Georgians - and the northern Kalazkians seem to like them. Believe me, among them they hate Russia no less than among Georgians. I am ready to accept your position, but then, when I say “chocks” in an article about the North Caucasus, I ask you not to attack me and not to name the chauvinists. What do you usually do, stupid scoops. I DO NOT LIKE the Caucasus, in principle, and I DO NOT WISH it in the Russian Federation. I DO NOT WANT, and most of them are in Russia. You write a lot about Georgia correctly, but here’s what I’ll say: the population of Northern Cauka is MORE negative about Russia. They are even worse than Georgians. You defend them in the comments here, this is hypocrisy and double standards. Or do you think that since they are part of our state, they feel great love for us? No no and one more time no. I’ll see how you react if I say “chocks” about these. 99%: pounce like jackals.
  42. German
    German 27 May 2013 03: 15 New
    I don’t want to say bad things about Georgians — I have a cousin married to a Georgian; all her husband’s relatives love and respect her and almost don’t carry it (in my opinion, it’s a bust), but for some reason I recall the phrase from the “Prisoner of the Caucasus”: ". .. wild people, children of the mountains. "one word," east is a delicate matter "...
  43. Lukich
    Lukich 27 May 2013 20: 56 New
    ... the article itself - so-so, smacks of order not the best ... it was possible to cover the problem even wider ... petty article ...

    The St. George Treatise saved Georgia from annihilation and Georgia’s annexation to Russia ultimately played a favorable role in the development of the Georgian state on the one hand and showed the accurately calibrated national policy of Tsarist Russia, which, unfortunately, the current Russian leadership does not show, which is very bad and bad primarily for Russia.
    Russia must become the geopolitical center of Eurasia, otherwise it will perish.
  44. tavagasa
    tavagasa 29 May 2013 12: 27 New
    opaaaaaa kto unas mirolubivi narod
    kto u nas dumaet shto rusia vtaroi rom
    i kto xochet stat imperiu
    nu kto nash malenki diktator?

    shto vi xatite?
    zemliu da?
    no na *** vam zemlia? isho i chujaiu esli svaiu ne umeite ispolzovat

    isho chto vi prinesli vgruzia mir i civilizaciu da?

    oo ne nada takie shutki
    i kto prinecla eti padarki
    ruskia vasia. mi za eta uje zaplatili sviu kroviu
    vi spasli gruziu at unichtojenia
    no dumaiu esli bi turcii vziali gruzia dlia nas nichevo ne izminillbi
    nas takje ubivli kak ruskie
    takje grabili
    i papatalisbi religiu izminit
    atniali bi iazik
    nu etu mi uje prashli
    sps vam

    vam takje ne xatelasbi shto gruziu zaxvatili turci .eta je politika

    mi vse zavidiem ruskuiu demokratiu laughing
  45. The comment was deleted.