Work on the creation of a promising shock-intelligence complex began in the P.O. Sukhoi in 1962, which in itself was quite unexpected, since N.S. Khrushchev, then at the head of the country, was a staunch opponent of strategic manned aircraft, preferring ballistic missiles. As a consequence, in the 1960, the OKB design bureau was no longer used. Myasishcheva - one of the leading teams specializing in strategic strike aircraft (the work on the programs of supersonic bombers and missile carriers M-50, M-52 and M-56, as well as supersonic passenger aircraft) was closed; somewhat earlier, in 1956, another leading creator of strike aircraft, S.V., “left” the bomber aircraft. Ilyushin (the last bomber created at the OKB he headed became a supersonic Il-54, which made its first flight in 1955, but remained in two prototypes). At government meetings on defense construction, views were expressed on the complete abandonment of manned bomber. A similar picture was also observed in the main potential adversary - the United States, where, thanks to the efforts of the “aviaphobe” R. McNamara, who served as Secretary of Defense in the government of John F. Kennedy, in 1959, work on the creation of the promising North American B-70 “Valkyrie” was stopped "(Although in 1960, work on the Valkyrie was resumed, but the plane was reclassified from a bomber into an experimental machine).
Nevertheless, thanks to the persistent efforts of representatives of aviation science, sensible military, workers of the Ministry of Aviation Industry and other government structures (in particular, the first deputy chairman of the State Planning Committee V. Ryabikov), who believed in the prospects of manned aircraft and the need for heavy bombers for the defense of the country, it was still difficult managed to "break through" the party and government decision to begin work on the creation of a supersonic reconnaissance bomber.
In addition to the Design Bureau P.O. Sukhoi, other design teams were involved in the work on a new theme on a competitive basis: OKB A.N. Tupolev, where a study was conducted of promising supersonic bomber "125" and "106" (and also began a deep modernization of the serial bomber Tu-22, which later led to the appearance of the Tu-22M aircraft) and the design bureau A.S. Yakovlev, where he studied the project of a heavy supersonic machine with a mass of about 100 t and a range of 7200 km.
To the development of the aircraft OKB P.O. Sukhoi, who received the designation T-4 or “product 100”, attracted numerous research teams, design bureaus and plants. More than 30 variants of aerodynamic and structural arrangements were considered, fundamental computational and experimental studies were carried out in the field of aerodynamics in the range of numbers M to 3,5, as well as in the region to M = 10, a large amount of testing was performed in ADT TsAGI and SibNIA.
The scout bomber was designed to search and defeat naval targets, primarily aircraft carrier strike groups. In order to successfully accomplish this task, in the context of all the projected improvements in NATO air defense weapons, a machine was required that had a high supersonic speed (3000-3200 km / h) and a ceiling exceeding 20 km (the higher the ceiling, the farther is the radio horizon of on-board radar, besides, large speed and the altitude of the aircraft carrier increases the energy of rockets, contributing to the achievement of a greater launch range). Without PTB, the practical range of the aircraft should have been 6000 km. In addition to missile weapons, the reconnaissance bomber had to hit strategic ground targets with free-fall (including nuclear) bombs. Initially, four P15-BF-300 or RD1-1715 engines (4 x 15 000 kgf) were considered as a power plant.
In the second quarter of 1963, work was completed on a preliminary draft design. In addition, the options for using the machine as a reconnaissance aircraft, a long-range interceptor and a supersonic passenger aircraft were considered.
At the end of 1963, the state commission issued a positive opinion on the T-4 project, the aircraft was accepted for development, the start of flight tests was scheduled for 1968.
In 1964, work on the draft design of a reconnaissance bomber was completed. The plane, made according to the “duck” scheme, had to have four engines arranged in pairs in two underwing gondolas. Armament (three SD) was placed on parallel suspension nodes between the nacelles.
In October, the 1964 of the State Committee on Aviation Engineering approved the draft design of the T-4 aircraft. Initially, in accordance with the government’s decision, it was planned to involve the design bureau and the pilot plant named after them to design the aircraft. S.A. Lavochkin, where he had the richest experience in creating high-speed aircraft (in particular, the La-250 fighter, the Burya intercontinental cruise missile with a speed corresponding to M = 3, and the Dal unmanned interceptor), but soon “went” to another Ministry and completely switched to rocket and space issues. In the end, for the construction of the aircraft, the Tushinsky Machine-Building Plant (TMZ, later known for having built the Buran VKS) and the Burevestnik ICB, which received the status of a branch of the Sukhoi Design Bureau, were allocated. Initially, the TMZ Directorate resisted the transfer to the enterprise of a new subject, convincing top-level managers that the creation of a new aircraft to the plant was beyond its power. However, their efforts were in vain, and with 1966, the TMZ began preparations for the construction of "weave".
Ambiguous project OKB P.O. Sukhoi was also met at the ministry, where doubts were expressed about the possibility of implementing the stated requirements (in particular, achieving cruising speed corresponding to M = 3). A number of technical innovations incorporated into the design of the aircraft caused suspicion, in particular, the electric remote control system created for the first time in the world for a mass-produced vehicle (the first American aircraft with an EDS Fighter General Dynamics F-16 was created in 1974, two years later "). At one of the meetings of the STC IAP a project of the P.O. bomber. Sukhoi was criticized by A.N. Tupolev, who stated, in particular: “Sukhoi will not cope with such a machine. I affirm this because he is my student, ”to which Pavel Osipovich replied:“ It is precisely because I am your student that I can manage! ”
N. Chernyakov was appointed chief designer of the T-4. V. Ilyushin, the chief pilot of the company, who took part in the first test flight on a new car, took a direct part in the creation of the aircraft. In 1963-65, after considering more 30 variants of the aerodynamic and constructive layouts, a large amount of blowdowns at the TsAGI ADT and SibNIA, the configuration of the aircraft was “frozen”. The final layout of the aircraft was somewhat different from the one that was embodied in the draft design: four engines were placed in a single ventral gondola, and TRDF RD-36-41 of the Rybinsk Motor Bureau was created as a power plant, created under the guidance of P.A. Kolesov.
A model with engines VD-4 and a model of a power plant with TRDF 19Р were created for testing on the CIAM stands of the T-79 propulsion system with electric remote control. The layout of the four super-power engines proposed by the OKB in a single gondola initially caused skepticism at TsAGI, but his fears were unfounded: the power plant worked normally on bench tests.
Ergonomic testing of pilot workplaces was carried out with the involvement of the Institute of Aviation and Space Medicine, where a full-scale mock-up of a “weave” cabin was installed.
Sharp discussions were caused by the question of whether to put the steering wheel, traditional for heavy bombers, on the plane, on which the customer insisted. However, the “horns” of the steering wheel covered a significant part of the already “compacted” instrument panel. In the end, preference was given to the fighter-type control stick (Russia was the last major aviation power "to be at the helm": in the UK, the V-series bomber was transferred to the United States at the start of the 1950-s, 58 "Hustler" - at the end of 50-x).
For testing for the T-4 aircraft wing with a new profile based on the Su-9 fighter in 1967, a flying laboratory “100L” was created, on which in 1967-1969. Eight different wing variants were tested for the “weave”, which made it possible to optimize the aerodynamic configuration of the new percussion machine (in particular, a rich experimental material was obtained on vortex separated flows). To test the electrical analogue control system, another aircraft was used - the flying laboratory - “100LDU”, created on the basis of the Su-7U combat training aircraft. In 1968, the RD-16-36 engine began testing at the Tu-41 flying laboratory. An-12, TU-22, IL-18 and TU-104B aircraft were used for testing avionics and systems.
A significant amount of work on the creation of new structural materials (heat-resistant titanium alloys, non-metallic materials, special grades of rubber, fiberglass plastics) was done at VIAM.
In December, the 1966 of the OKB showed the customer the layout of the T-4 aircraft (had a length of 43,7 m, a wingspan of 22,0 m and a wing area of 291 м2). In 1966-68 the detailed design of the reconnaissance bomber was carried out. The construction of the first prototype aircraft at the Tushino Machine-Building Plant began in 1969, and on December 30, 1971, the prototype 101, was delivered to the flight and development base in Zhukovsky.
In the manufacture of cars were used new technologies, many of which had no analogues in the domestic and global aircraft industry. The entire production cycle of the T-4 was automated to the maximum extent. In particular, 95% of welds were automatically performed. A much higher material utilization rate was achieved than in the construction of aircraft of previous designs, which minimized waste. The full transfer of monolithic parts to assembled-welded structures provided for in batch production, according to NIAT estimates, should have provided a reduction in material costs by 70%, labor intensity by 45%, reduction of production cycles by two to three times.
In 1972, in Zhukovsky, the system was refined and the vehicle was prepared for the first flight. However, the start of flight tests was delayed due to the destruction of titanium fasteners in the rear fuselage as a result of a high level of acoustic and vibration loads. As a result, it was decided to replace the entire titanium fasteners with steel ones.
For the first time, the aircraft took to the 22 in August 1972 (the date of the flight was repeatedly postponed due to poor visibility caused by numerous peat and forest fires, which tightly closed the sky of Central and Northeastern Russia in a haze). The plane was piloted by test pilot VS Ilyushin, in the second cockpit was test navigator N.Е. Alferov. The leading engineer A.S. Titov. By October, the 1974 T-4 performed nine test flights in which the speed corresponding to M = 1,28 and the height 12 100 m were reached. As Ilyushin wrote, the aircraft was easy to fly, had good stability and controllability. There were no serious complications. However, cracks were found in the titanium wing spars, which required repair work (areas of crack concentrations were drilled out). On the second prototype, new, more viscous and ductile alloys were applied, which in principle eliminated the problem of cracks.
In addition to the 101 aircraft and the 101C airframe intended for statistical tests, the construction of the second 1969 aircraft began on the TMZ in 102. The construction of the 1973 aircraft began, and preparations were made for the construction of aircraft. 103 ”,“ 104 ”and“ 105 ”.
In October 1974, the flight tests of the “weave” were suspended, and the plane was soon transferred from the TMZ territory to the LIEDB OKB AN. Tupolev. Soon, work on the production of equipment for the serial production of a bomber at the Kazan Aviation Plant, which by that time had already mastered the production of the main "competitor" T-4 - the Tu-22 Tupolev bomber, stopped.
T-4 has long been preserved. One of the authors of these lines saw for the first time a “weave” of 1975 in winter: a huge plane with shiny black sides, for some reason causing an association with a locomotive, stood alone in a poorly lit hangar. Two or three people lazily poked around on the fuselage of the car, doing some obscure work. However, the slow action of the workers and the impression of some abandonment of the aircraft, suggested that the program was dying. Indeed, in the same 1975, all work on the T-4 was discontinued. The rejectable nose section of the “weave” fuselage was soon undocked and, placed on the transport carriage, was parked for some time at the station of experimental machines of the PO OKB. Dry, intriguing uninitiated passers-by, taking it for the fuselage of some new unknown fighter. In 1982, the 100 product was transported to its last, everlasting stop - the Air Force Museum in Monino. Two other unfinished copies of the T-4 were disassembled for metal (some of the details of the 102 aircraft were transferred to MAI as visual aids).
Although so far it remains unexplained, what was the official reason for closing the program, it can be assumed that there could be several such reasons. Despite the fact that the aircraft was successfully tested in the air, the necessary on-board radio-electronic equipment and weapons were not created, additional time and large investments were required to work out the unique, not having not only domestic, but also world-class avionics and missiles. At the same time, a simpler and cheaper Tu-22M aircraft, capable of solving similar tasks, was launched into mass production, which somewhat reduced the customer's interest in the “weave”. There were also foreign policy reasons that could influence the fate of the aircraft. In the middle of 1970, Soviet-American negotiations on the limitation of strategic weapons were actively conducted, and L.I. was very interested in the successful outcome of which. Brezhnev. Under these conditions, the appearance of a powerful new strategic bomber in the Soviet air force would probably have alarmed the Americans and made the negotiation process more difficult. (It is enough to remember how much trouble the diplomats of the much less “revolutionary” Tu-22 M aircraft delivered, which the American press presented almost as the main threat to the US security.) The Air Force’s desire to receive as many front-line MiG-23 fighters played its role The work on the release of which was also carried out at TMZ: the plant could not cope at the same time with a tense program for MiGs and the construction of a fundamentally new strike aircraft.
According to P.O. Sukhoi, "weaving" was supposed to be only the first aircraft in the family of strategic machines, the work on which was developed in the OKB. In 1967-69 Work was carried out on the project of a long-range reconnaissance bomber T-4M with a variable geometry wing having an intercontinental range. The combat potential of this vehicle compared to the original T-4 was supposed to be expanded by increasing the range at subsonic speeds, improving the battlefield complex and expanding the composition of weapons. The aircraft was supposed to be largely unified with the T-4 (power plant, a number of onboard systems and equipment remained).
Somewhat later, in 1969-1970, an advance design of the T-4MS strike aircraft (product “200”) was developed, also having a variable sweep wing. The car had a pronounced integral layout, two-tail plumage, four engines in the tail section, placed in two separated gondolas. The crew of three is located in the cabin without a protruding lantern. Considerable attention was paid to reducing radar visibility. The dvuhsotki project competed with the projects of Tupolev (product 70 or Tu-160) and Myasishchev (M-18) in the competition for the right to create a promising strategic bomber (as a result of a rather dramatic struggle, the Tupolev firm won).
In addition to combat options "weave", investigated the possibility of peaceful use of the aircraft. In 1963-64 In the design bureau, the T-4 passenger aircraft was developed, capable of carrying the passenger 64 at supersonic speeds.
DESIGN. The aircraft is made according to the “tailless” scheme with a small controlled destabilizer. It had an all-welded construction (the method of automatic through-penetration welding was used for the manufacture of large-sized panels). Titanium (OT-4, BT-20) and steel (VNS-2) alloys were used as structural materials. A number of structures were supposed to be made using radio absorbing materials to reduce the radar visibility of the aircraft.
The wing was triangular in plan with a thin profile (3%) and had a fracture along the leading edge. On the trailing edge there were three-section ailerons. The wing toe is deflected (the bend of the toe provided a “unstressed” profile exit at supersonic speeds).
The fuselage of the T-4 consisted of a deflectable nose part (the deviation was made by a screw pair using a reducer and two hydraulic motors and took no more than 15 seconds), a two-seat cockpit, an airborne BREO compartment (which had a longitudinal passage that provided convenient access to the equipment units) fuel compartment and tail compartment to accommodate the brake parachute.
In the front of the fuselage, destabilizers were used, used for balancing with low stability margins (2% at subsonic speed and 3- 5% at supersonic), which reduced the aerodynamic quality loss by balancing, increased the flight range by 7% and reduced hinges on governing bodies. A small margin of stability was achieved by pumping fuel in flight.
The vertical tail of a relatively small area provided the minimum amount of road stability. The rudder was divided into two sections.
The crew, consisting of two people, was placed in the cockpit according to the “tandem” scheme (the ejection seats of the pilots are somewhat shifted to the left). On the prototype there was a periscope for a review with the nose raised (it was used at speeds up to 600 km / h).
The main landing gear was retracted to the central part of the engine nacelles and had eight-wheeled carts. Turning and dropping of the cart of the main supports was carried out by one hydraulic cylinder. Two-chamber shock absorbers with an anti-overload valve were installed. Pneumatics wheels coupled.
The front desk with a two-wheeled cart was retracted into the nose of the air intake, under the vertical wedge. The control of the front desk is electric.
POWER POINT - four TRDF RD-36-41 (4 X 16 150 who) - was placed in the ventral nacelle with a single channel for each pair of engines. Air inlet with a vertical wedge - mixed compression with a software-closed control system for the number M and the ratio of the pressure in the throat of the air intake. There was a boundary layer drain system.
TRDF nozzle - multimode, supersonic - had three crowns of mobile shutters. Thermostable naphthal (RG-1) was used as fuel.
EQUIPMENT. The aircraft was equipped with an analog EDSU with fourfold redundancy (a backup mechanical control system was also installed on the first prototype) and a two-channel hydraulic system with 280 pressure kgf / cm2 operating effectively at high temperatures caused by kinetic heating (XC-2-1 high-temperature fluid was applied). Steel pipelines of the hydraulic system were brazed from the material VNS-2.
The main electrical system - AC stabilized frequency. The secondary electrical system - direct current rectifier devices.
The air conditioning system of the cockpit of the pilots and avionics compartments is evaporative, of a closed type, with the use of fuel as the primary refrigerant.
There was a balancing system in flight by pumping fuel.
Target equipment included astroinertial system, high power radar, reconnaissance equipment (radar BO, optical, IR and radio sensors). The aircraft was supposed to be equipped with an automated bypass system for ground obstacles when flying at low altitude.
A navigation pad and a multifunctional control panel were installed in the cockpit. Fighter-type control knob was used for piloting by plane.
ARMING included two hypersonic solid propellant anti-ship air-to-ground X-45 air-to-air missiles with a range of up to 500 km, having a homing system and flying along a ricochet trajectory (they were located on the two underwing nodes of the suspension). Free-fall bombs and fuel were located in the drop-down ventral container.
Characteristics of the T-4
DIMENSIONS. Wingspan 22,0 m; length of the aircraft 44,5 m; 11,2 aircraft height m; 295,7 m2 wing area.
ENGINES. TRDZ RD-36-41 (4 x 159,3 kN / 4 x 16 150 kgf).
MASS AND LOADSnormal take-off 114 000; maximum take-off (with outboard fuel tank and two SD) 135 000; empty 55 600.
FLIGHT DATA. Maximum horizontal flight speed 3200 km / h; cruising speed horizontal flight 3000 km / h; practical range 6000 km; distillation range 7000 km; practical ceiling (calculated) 25 000-30 000 m; the length of the run 950-1050 m; length of the run with a brake parachute 800-900 m.