By order of the Commander-in-Chief of the Navy fleet The Russian Federation of April 15, 1999, the date of formation of the Pacific Fleet (Pacific Fleet) is set on May 21, 1731. On this day, the Senate of the Russian Empire “For the Protection of Lands, Sea Trade Routes and Fisheries” established the Okhotsk military flotilla and the Okhotsk military port. The Okhotsk Flotilla (Siberian Military Flotilla, Peter and Paul Flotilla) became the first permanent naval unit of the Russian state in the Pacific Ocean. The ships and vessels of the Okhotsk flotilla became the initial link in the emergence of the naval forces of Russia on the Pacific coast and played a decisive role in protecting the interests of the power in the region. Subsequently, the flotilla was transformed into the Pacific Fleet, which went through several stages in its development: from sailing to armored, steam, from cannon to nuclear missile.
Of stories fleet
From the Arctic Ocean to the Korean Peninsula for many hundreds of kilometers stretched the beautiful and richest lands of the Russian Far East, including the Primorsky and Khabarovsk Territories, the Amur, Kamchatka, Magadan and Sakhalin regions. The shores of the Far East are washed by the waters of the five seas - East Siberian, Chukotka, Bering, Okhotsk and Japan. More than 15 thousand kilometers stretches the sea border of our Fatherland in the north-east and east. Vast expanses of the Russian Far East, its natural resources. More than 100 million hectares occupy taiga forests here, in the depths there are deposits of gold, silver, copper, tin, zinc, iron, coal of many other ore and non-metallic minerals. Innumerable and bioresources Pacific. The Far East has every opportunity to become one of the foremost centers for the development of Russia.
The Far East is our land, discovered and mastered by the Russian people. Their amazing courage and selfless labor approved Russia's legal rights on the shores of the Pacific Ocean. And the main defender of the Russian Far East was the Pacific Fleet. His glorious past is completely connected with the activities of the Russian people in the development of this region.
The news of the wonderful expeditions of Russian explorers and navigators of the "sun-meetings" to the shores of the Pacific Ocean has reached our days. In the spring of 1639, a detachment of a Tomsk Cossack, Ivan Yuryevich Moskvitin, moved to the east from the Butalsky prison in Siberia. He reached the mouth of the Ulya River and built the first Russian site on the shores of the Sea of Okhotsk. October 1 (October 11 in a new style) detachment went on a maritime hike and the mouth of the Okhota River (this day is considered to be the date of the beginning of the Russian Pacific shipping). This campaign showed that large ships of special construction were necessary for trips on the sea, and small single-trees, on which Russian Cossacks successfully moved along Siberian rivers. The Moskvitin detachment, during its wintering period on the Ulya River, founded a special “ravine”, which researchers call the cradle of Russian Pacific shipbuilding. On it were built two kocha about 17 length each. These were single-mast (sometimes two-masted), single-deck, sailing-rowing vessels, with a special design capable of withstanding compression in the ice. In 1640, the Cossacks visited the Shantarsky Islands, the mouth of the Amur River and the northwestern coast of Sakhalin on a coch.
In the summer of 1643, a detachment of Vasily Danilovich Poyarkov moved from Yakutsk eastward along the Lena, Aldan and its tributaries. Cossacks went to the mouth of the Amur, where they spent the winter. In 1645, the Cossacks went to the Sakhalin Bay and the Sea of Okhotsk. For three months Poyarkov reached the mouth of the Ulya river. Behind the detachment of Poyarkov, already along a certain path, a detachment of Yerofey Pavlovich Khabarov moved. He founded the first Russian settlements on the Amur. In 1647, a detachment of Semen Andreevich Shelkovnikov marched along the Sea of Okhotsk between the mouths of the Ulya and Okhota rivers and founded the fortress Kosoy. It was the first Russian port and city on the Pacific coast.
The Russians moved eastward along the coast of the Arctic Ocean. In the autumn of 1648, a detachment of Semyon Ivanovich Dezhnev emerged from the mouth of the Kolyma. He opened the "Big Stone Nose" (Cape Dezhnev) and passed through the strait that separates Asia from America. During a storm in the Pacific, Kochi scattered, some nailed to the shores of Alaska, others - Kamchatka. 1649, on the average course of the Anadyr River, founded the Anadyr burg, which became one of the bases for moving south and east.
At the end of the XVII century begins the development of the Kamchatka Peninsula. Russian winter quarters and forts were founded here, which became the bases for penetrating the nearby islands and North America. Everywhere, Russian people carried advanced culture, higher forms of farming, which were gradually adopted by the local population.
In 1711, Ivan Petrovich Kozyrevsky and Danila Yakovlevich Antsiferov explored the first islands of the Kuril Islands. Then Kozyrevsky studied most of the Kuril Islands. In Kamchatka at this time there were several barrens — the Lower Kamchatka, Tagil, and Bolyneretsky. From Yakutsk to these jails they traveled through the Anadyr prison, and then through the Okhotsk. The path to Kamchatka from Yakutsk took up to at least six months.
In 1713, Tsar Peter Alekseevich signed a decree on finding a sea route to Kamchatka. Soon, experienced shipbuilders, Kondraty Moshkov, Nikifor Tresku, Yakov Neveitsin, Ivan Butin and others, were sent from Petersburg to Okhotsk, who played a big role in developing the region. In 1716, on the Kukhtuy River, near Okhotsk, masters Kirill Plotnitsky, Ivan Kargopoltsev and Bartholomew Fedorov built the first sea vessel created by the Russians on the shores of the Pacific Ocean - the Vostok boat. Rook sailed to the Bolsheretsk prison, then the capital of Kamchatka, from which time Okhotsk and Kamchatka tied regular flights.
In 1720-1721 Russian officers of the Russian fleet, surveyors Ivan Mikhailovich Evreinov and Fedor Fedorovich Luzhin made an expedition to the boat “Vostok” to explore the Kamchatka coast and the Kuril Islands, they made the first map of the peninsula and islands. In 1723, the Okhotsk detachment was replenished with one more boat, in 1727, the Okhotsk shipyard built the Fortune kitty, in 1729, the two bots, the Lion and the Eastern Gabriel.
At the end of 1724, the First Kamchatka Expedition was organized, which was given the task of finding out whether there is a strait between Asia and America (Dezhnev’s report on the opening of this strait was lost and was discovered later). The campaign was led by captain-commander Vitus Bering and non-commissioned lieutenant Alexei Chirikov. This expedition to 1725-1730's. discovered the strait, later called Bering, studied certain parts of the coast of Kamchatka and Chukotka.
In 1731, the city of Okhotsk became a military port, the Okhotsk military flotilla was established, its first commander was G. G. Skornyakov-Pisarev. In Okhotsk, created a shipyard. In 1740, a school was founded, which in 1756 was transformed into a navigational school that trained navigators for ships and ships sailing off the coast of the Far East. By the middle of the 18th century, there were seven ships in the Okhotsk flotilla: the 3 bot, the 3 haliota, and one brigantine. Okhotsk became the cradle of Russian naval forces in the Pacific.
In 1729 — 1732 Cossack head Athanasius Shestakov and Major Dmitry Pavlutsky on "Fortune" and "St. Gabriel ”explored the northern Kuril and Shantar Islands, the Uda Bay and the Bering Strait. In 1732, navigator Ivan Fedorov and surveyor Mikhail Gvozdyev made a trip to Cape Dezhnev, and then to the North-West Coast of North America. In 1741, the “St. Peter "and" St. Pavel "under the command of Bering and Chirikov left Petropavlovsk to find ways to the coast of America. The storm divided them and Chirikov first approached the shores of North America, and then Bering. The sea route to North America from the Kamchatka Peninsula has been opened. During this expedition, the islands of the Aleutian ridge were discovered.
In 1787 — 1790 an expedition led by Joseph Billings and Gavriil Sarychev on the vessel Yasachnaya, examined the shores of the Arctic Ocean east of the Kolyma River and identified the possibility of a sea route along the Siberian shores to the Pacific Ocean. In 1790 — 1791 Billings and Sarychev on the ship "Glory of Russia" examined the coast of the Bering Sea. In 1799, three frigates and three small ships under the command of Rear Admiral IK Fomin were sent to Okhotsk to strengthen Russia's military presence on the shores of the Pacific Ocean. In the same year, a regiment of soldiers was sent to Okhotsk to protect settlements and land borders.
By the end of the 18th century, Russian seafarers discovered and mastered not only the Kamchatka Peninsula and the Kuriles many islands of the Aleutian chain, the Commander and other islands, and explored the routes to North America. On the new Russian lands based settlements. In 1784, a Russian merchant G. I. Shelekhov founded a fortress on Kodiak Island. He establishes a Russian-American company that played a major role in the development of the Russian Far East, organizing travel and strengthening Russian positions in the region. In 1799, the new head of the company A. A. Baranov founded Novo-Arkhangelsk on Sith Island, which became the capital of Russian America. One after another, Russian settlements appeared on the American coast. The southernmost was Fort Ross, erected at the mouth of the Slavyanka River, near present-day San Franz. Brilliant military-strategic and economic prospects for controlling the entire northern part of the Asia-Pacific region opened before Russia.
In 1805, JF Kruzenshtern on the Nadezhda sloop explored a number of Japanese islands on the east coast of Sakhalin Island, the Tsushima Strait. In 1811, Lieutenant V. M. Golovnin explored the southern Kuriles on the sloop "Diana", and then on the sloop "Kamchatka" determined the coordinates of several islands of the Aleutian chain. In addition, a large role in the study of the region was played by O. E. Kotzebue, F. P. Litke, Yu. F. Lisyansky, M. N. Stanyukovich, M. N. Vasiliev, and many other Russian researchers.
However, the more rapid development of the region was hindered by its remoteness from European Russia. Russian settlers were in constant need of food, weapons, ammunition, various tools, etc. It was believed that the use of the Amur and its tributaries could partially solve this problem. But for this it was necessary to find out whether this river is navigable along its entire length. The expedition of the French explorer Laperouse in 1783 tried to penetrate the Amur Liman from the Sea of Japan, but concluded that Sakhalin is a peninsula. Ten years later, the British navigator Brauton made the same conclusion. In 1805, the mouth of the Amur from the north and Kruzenshtern failed to enter. In 1845, he searched for the mouth of the Amur Brig "Konstantin" under the leadership of A. Gavrilov. After that, the question of Amur was officially closed. It was actually initiated by the commander of the Baikal transport, Lieutenant Commander Gennady Ivanovich Nevelskaya, in 1848. He became convinced that large sea vessels could pass into Amur and discovered the strait separating Sakhalin from the mainland. Nevelskoy proved that Sakhalin is an island, and that large ships from the Sea of Okhotsk and the Sea of Japan can fall into the mouth of the Amur.
Nevelskoy in the 1850 year founded the Nikolaev military post (Nikolaevsk-on-Amur), approved the position of Russia in Primorye, to which the American and British colonialists had already coined. For several years, the Amur expedition worked. In 1853, a military post was created in DeKastri Bay. Thus, by the selfless labor of Russian naval sailors, the Russian state received free access to the Pacific Ocean. At the mouth of the Amur River, on Sakhalin Island, and in a number of places along the coast of the Okhotsk and Japanese seas, military posts were created that played a major role in protecting the Russian Far East.
As Russian round-the-world trips took place, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky came to the fore due to its more convenient geographic location. In addition, Okhotsk had an open water area and a shallow water raid. As a result, the main military port decided to move to another location. From 1849, the main base of the Okhotsk flotilla (from 1856, Siberian) was Petropavlovsk-on-Kamchatka. Here the flotilla received the first baptism of fire - in August 1854, the attack of the Anglo-French squadron was repulsed. The heroic defense of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky was led by Vasily Zavoyko.
Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky was not long the main base of the fleet. In the 1855 year, due to the vulnerable position of Petropavlovsk, the base, the ships and the population were evacuated from there to the Nicholas Post. Since 1871, Vladivostok has become the main base. The main problem of the flotilla in the pre-revolutionary period was the lack of a shipbuilding base (newer ships were sent from the European part of Russia) and a poorly developed basing system.
At the end of the century, the Far East became the sphere of interests of all the great powers and Russia adopted the shipbuilding program 1895, supplementary to the 1898 program, for the needs of the Far East. It envisaged an increase in naval forces in the Pacific to 10 squadron battleships, 4 armored cruisers, 10 armored cruisers, 10 cruisers of the 2 rank, more than 30 destroyers. In 1897, Port Arthur became the main base of the fleet. The Port Arthur Squadron (the future First Pacific Squadron) was formed.
To the beginning of the Russian-Japanese war 1904-1905 The naval forces of the Russian Empire in the Far East consisted of the 1 Pacific Pacific Squadron and the Siberian Military Flotilla. The main base was Port Arthur. Vladivostok detachment of cruisers and destroyers based in 1901 was based in Vladivostok. The Russo-Japanese War was remembered by a number of heroic and tragic events: the feat of the Varyag cruiser and the Koreyan cannon boat; the battle of the destroyer "Steregushchy"; the heroic defense of Port Arthur; the death of 2-I squadron of the Pacific Fleet in the Tsushima battle. Despite the heroism and courage of the Russian sailors, the main forces of the Russian fleet in the Pacific were killed. For their part, they did everything possible to win. The main reason for the defeat lay in the field of government policy in the Far East, for many decades it was flawed.
By the beginning of the 1917 revolution, the naval forces in the Pacific had not been restored, priority was given to the development of fleets in the Baltic and the Black Sea. The Siberian flotilla in the 1914 year included two cruisers - Askold and Zhemchug, one gunboat, 8 destroyers, 17 destroyers and 13 submarines. During the Civil War, sailors of the Siberian and Amur military flotillas participated in the struggle for the establishment of Soviet power in the Far East, fought with the White Guards and interventionists. In 1922, the Far Eastern Naval Forces were formed, including the Vladivostok detachment of ships and the Amur flotilla.
In 1935, the Far Eastern Marine Forces reformed into the Pacific Fleet (Pacific Fleet). During World War II, more than 140 of thousands of Pacific sailors fought on the fronts. During the Soviet-Japanese war 1945, the Pacific Fleet participated in the liberation of the Korean Peninsula, in operations to seize the Kuriles and Sakhalin. By the beginning of the 1970-s, a new oceanic nuclear-missile fleet was created, which solved the problem of strategic deterrence of potential adversaries in the Asia-Pacific region.
Since 1991, the Pacific Fleet has experienced a decline, and the problems of the Russian state are fully reflected in it. Its most combat-ready and powerful units were put out of action: the 1143 "Krechet" - Minsk and Novorossiisk aircraft carrying cruisers; TARK project 1144 "Orlan" - "Admiral Lazarev" (there is a possibility of modernization); BDK ocean zone project 1174; large anti-submarine ships of the project 1134B "Berkut"; most of the destroyers of the 956 Sarych URO project, all URO frigates, etc. A critical situation exists in the submarine fleet. For two decades, the fleet has not received a single ship of the first, second rank.
Currently, the Pacific Fleet is the largest operational-tactical alliance of the Russian Navy and a serious factor of peace and security on the eastern frontiers of our Motherland. Especially his role is increasing in the situation when the Asia-Pacific region becomes the “powder magazine” of the planet.
Its current combat base is: the Varyag missile cruiser (flagship); 4 BOD project 1155 "Frigate" - "Marshal Shaposhnikov", "Admiral Vinogradov", "Admiral Panteleev" and "Admiral Tributs"; 1 destroyer URO of the project 956 "Sarych" - "Fast"; several nuclear submarines with intercontinental and cruise missiles.
It should be noted that in recent years, due to the growing threat of Russia on the world stage, the Pacific Fleet have begun to pay more attention. The number of exercises, exits to the open sea has increased. The Pacific Fleet is promised to be strengthened by a universal landing ship of the Mistral type - the first French helicopter carrier Vladivostok is assigned to the main KTOF base in Vladivostok. The Amur Shipbuilding Plant is building a series of 20380 project corvettes for the Pacific Fleet: the “Perfect” was laid (they are scheduled to be commissioned in the 2014 year), the “Loud” one, several more ships are planned to be laid in the near future. There are plans to modernize the 2020 Sarych project, the cruiser Admiral Lazarev, by 956. The transfer from the Northern Fleet to the disposal of the Pacific Fleet of the Admiral Nakhimov and Marshal Ustinov cruisers is also planned.
We heartily congratulate all Pacific sailors and their families on the Day of the Pacific Fleet of the Russian Navy and wish them good health, simple human happiness and success in the service. And to the fleet - a worthy continuation of military traditions, the growth of combat power for the glory of Great Russia!