Military Review

Not the death of Suvorov struck ...

29
May 18 - Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov Memorial Day. Explanations, titles and titles - this is the tenth case. We remember the Soldier. Winner Recall the best epitaphs dedicated to Suvorov.


A wonderful portrait of Suvorov was created at the end of the 19th century by artist Valentin Serov.


Archimandrite Yevgeny Bolkhovitinov, the future Metropolitan of Kiev and Galitsky, a friend of Derzhavin, an admirer of Suvorov, a gifted writer and historian, spoke of a nationwide farewell to the commander:

“I was in the procession and therefore I can briefly describe the ceremonial to you. The prince lay in field marshal's uniform, in the St. Andrew's ribbon. Around the coffin were stools, 18 number, they were laid out cavalry, a diamond bow, granted by Empress Catherine the Second for the capture of Ishmael and the feather for the capture of Rymnik, a diamond sword, field Marshal's baton and others. The prince's face was calm and wrinkle-free. The beard has grown half a inch and is all white. There is something reverent and calm in the physiognomy ... Streets, all the windows in the houses, balconies and roofs were full of people. The day was beautiful. People everywhere ran after us. Finally, we reached the ceremony and entered the ceremony into the upper monastic church ... Only big people were allowed into the church, but they were not allowed into the monastery. There was no sermon. But then court singers 90-th psalm “Live in Help” sang out better than any panegy, a concert by Bortnyansky ... The troops were located behind the monastery. Opto burial, and here ten times I could barely hold back tears. At the last kiss, no one came to the coffin without tears. Derzhavin also appeared here. His bow to the coffin touched my heart to the base, he covered his face with a handkerchief and walked away, and an immortal ode will surely pour out of these tears ... ” Derzhavin, Bolkhovitinov, Bortnyansky - the brightest personalities of that time united in a respectful bow to the deceased Suvorov; and each illuminated the death of Suvorov with his talent.


Father Yevgeny looked into the water: Derzhavin responded to several verses at once with Suvorov’s death. Demolished, he returned to Fontanka from the hero’s funeral; thoughts about Suvorov did not leave him. "The author of the cell was Snigir, learned to sing one knee military march; when the author, after the reproduction of this hero, returned to the house, then, hearing that this bird was singing a military song, he wrote this ode in memory of such a glorious husband ”. Only five years later in the “Friend of Enlightenment” a poem “To Snigir. After the death of Prince Suvorov ", with a note:" This play was sent from the unknown. " This work of Derzhavin was already familiar to many - and still “from the unknown”:

What are you starting a war song for?
Flute like, cute snigir?
With whom do we go to war with Hyena?
Who is our leader now? Who is the hero?
Strong where, brave, quick Suvorov?
The thunder of the North lies in the coffin.

Worthy start - tragic chords. But then - the main thing:

Who before the army will be,
To ride a nag, there are biscuits;
In the cold and the heat of the sword tempering,
Sleep on the straw, watch out until dawn;
Thousands of armies, walls and barriers;
With a handful of Russians to win everything?

During the lifetime of the commander, the emperor ordered him to erect a monument in Petersburg. Paul was master of his word: he wanted - he gave, he wanted - he took it back. Still, the sculptor Mikhail Kozlovsky, by that time already terminally ill, worked on the monument to the hero. He portrayed Suvorov in the form of the Roman god of war - Mars. The similarity was found only in a swift pose. 5 May 1801 on the Field of Mars - one year after Suvorov’s death, two months after Paul’s death - the military and civilians greeted the opening of the monument with glee. Roman god on the field of his name! And Derzhavin did not get Mars with a shield and sword, but a genuine eccentric and commander of the times of Catherine and Paul, a contemporary, chief and friend of the poet.


Let us recall Derzhavin’s famous epistolary response to the death of Suvorov: “Truly, it’s good in such glory outside and in such disrespect inside to end the century! This is a true picture of an ancient great husband. Here is a lesson that there is a man. " Gavrila Romanovich (knowledgeable man) considered the commander to be a victim of court intrigues, this bitter feeling oppressed the poet.

That is why another poem remained hidden for a long time, it was even dangerous to publish it even on behalf of an unknown person:

Triumphed - and grinned
Inside the strangling of his tyrant,
That thunder did not miss him
What did the last blow give them
Invincible hero,
Which in the thousandth battle
Fought hard with him soul
And despised threats of fear.

And then - the main thing:

No, not a tyrant, not fierce rock,
Not death "..." struck:
Gingerbread, glory to God
Archangel Michael
Sent, heavenly leader of the forces
Let the leader of the earth bring him
Accept retribution crown,
Like a ray from a vault of blue ...

The secret of the tenth line of this poem is easy to guess: "Not death ... struck." Of course - Suvorov. Derzhavin was afraid to directly enter this name in the notebook: then the anti-Paul orientation of the unfinished ode would have become clearer ... In our view, the emperor Paul turned into a victim - and he was the victim of a bloody conspiracy. But contemporaries (especially the nobles) considered him a “despot and corporal on the parade ground”, no more. In addition, the emperor in the last weeks of the life of Suvorov and really subjected the terminally ill old man to unfair disgrace. But it was precisely the Suvorov glory that brightly lit up the years of the rule of the emperor-eccentric.


Suvorov did not let Derzhavin. Again and again he wrote about him:

End, eternity,
Those disputes are infinite,
Who is more of your heroes was.
End the infinite controversy.
In your sanctuary entered
From us Suvorov.

Derzhavin invented a magnificent and laconic epitaph for the grave of Suvorov, quite in the spirit of the great hero. "HERE LIES SUVOROV" - and Alexander Vasilyevich, according to legend, warmly endorsed this idea. Who in Russia does not know his protector, the old soldier? But the fate of the epitaph was not so easy ... On the tomb of Suvorov in the Alexander Nevsky Monastery, an authentic inscription was knocked out: “Here lies Suvorov. Generalissimus Prince of Italy Gr. Alexander Vasilievich Suvorov Rymniki, was born on November 1729 of November 13 of his day, passed away on the 1800 of his year on May 6, and his namesake was Nov. 24go. So it is more familiar, but also more banal.

The will of Suvorov and Derzhavin was performed only fifty years after his death. This is the grandson of the commander, Alexander Arkadevich Suvorov, in the 1850-m restored justice. Since then, in the Alexander Nevsky Monastery, in the lower Annunciation Church, near the left choir, the brightest of the Russian epitaphs is carved on the tombstone: "Suvorov lies here."


Another, similar to “Snigir”, peak of Suvorov poetry is a poem by Admiral A. S. Shishkov, in the future - the ideologist of the Russian victory of 1812. Shishkovskaya epitaph Derzhavin is well known to the audience of the Pudovkin film "Suvorov". In this film, the general himself (contrary to historical the truth) in Konchansky recites the Shishkovsky epitaph:

Stop the passerby!
Here man lies on mortals unlike.
On the wing in the middle of nowhere with a deacon, he sang with a bass,
And glory as Peter Il Alexander thundered.
A cold water poured over me
And the fire of courage poured into the hearts of the people.
Not in armor, on horseback, like a Greek hero,
Not with a shield golden, decorated more than all,
With a whisk in his hands and a Cossack nag,
In one summer he took half a dozen he Troy.
It is not invested in Brno, not on a high hill,
He scolds the bloody calm eye measure,
In a shirt, in a sisak, in front of the troops on horseback,
Like lightning flashed and struck like thunder.
He walked with shelves where birds fly a little.
He lived in simple huts, and conquered the capital.
I got up on roosters, fought on bayonets;
Alien people wore it on their heads.
One meal with soldiers ate.
Kings to him in the relationship, he was not to them, was due.
There was a two empire leader; Europe surprised;
He planted kings on the throne, and slept on straw.

In the Suvorov epitaph, Admiral Shishkov surpassed himself: this is undoubtedly the most outstanding example of his poetic work. The mythologized confrontation of the metropolitan "Conversations ..." and the Moscow "Arzamas", shishkovisty and Karamzinists, was not a battle of the talentless and talented, gray and bright. “Arzamas” remained in Russian literature - Pushkin, Zhukovsky, Vyazemsky, many others - and participants in the “Conversations ...”: Krylov, Derzhavin, young Griboedov, Shakhovskaya and Bobrov. The tails of graphomania and literary militancy of the noble Shakhovsky were not eclipsed in the "Conversation ..." Derzhavin traditions. The Suvorov epitaph of Shishkov, made in Derzhavin traditions and with the original talent of a scientist and admiral, was written before the “Conversations ...” and became the most popular epitaph of Suvorov.


Shishkov felt the texture of the Suvorov miracle - in his epitaph there is a soldier-worshiper, a stoic and a favorite of glory. The key to unraveling the Suvorov phenomenon in Shishkov is the "dissimilarity" of the commander to other mortals, contrasting images that scratch the reader's imagination. Each line of the poem reveals a new facet of this "dissimilarity." I think that the creators of Suvorov’s film biography in their actual wrong were psychologically right: Suvorov would have liked the Shishkov poem, he would have put him in line with his favorite creations of Derzhavin, ancient poets and the McPhersonian Ossian, whom Suvorov loved by translating Yermil Kostov. Shishkovskaya “The inscription to the monument to Suvorov on Tsaritsyn Meadow” deserves attention (note that after the installation of the monument to Suvorov, Khvostov wrote, no less than one, to the sculptor Kozlovsky):

For the treatment of all European eyes
On this image, in copper shining between us,
Do not need a poem voice;
Enough to say: this Suvorov!

We failed, did not dare to forget about Suvorov. Only in Russian culture do we meet the universal worship of the heroes of the past centuries, who remain for us a lesson and a secret parable. Honoring Suvorov among the people is a real miracle. Alexander Vasilyevich inspires, inspires and turns into winners those who open his heart. For modern Russian people, Suvorov means more than, say, Nelson for the British. He was not eclipsed by the heroes of the stadiums, blockbusters and commercials ... At the beginning of the twenty-first century, Alexey Korovin wrote good poems in memory of Suvorov:

May sixth day
Cathedral bells
Complained, ringing.
So Suvorov died,
Warrior, all my life in the ranks
Motherland served,
Before anyone in battle
Banner not folded.

The sixth day is, of course, in the old style. And nowadays, 18 of May serves the panikhida for Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov. Prayers will be lifted to the sky from the Moscow “Suvorov” temple of Theodore Studite, near the Nikitsky Gate, and from dozens of other churches across Russia ...

Not the death of Suvorov struck ...
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  1. politruk419
    politruk419 21 May 2013 07: 30 New
    +8
    The memory of the Great Leader will always touch the most delicate and sonorous strings in the soul of a Russian person. And let Europe tremble. She sausages about one mention of the name of Suvorov (although Switzerland and Italy owe him their statehood). And no wonder. This was the same era when in the world there was only one superpower, the RUSSIAN EMPIRE.
    1. ShturmKGB
      ShturmKGB 22 May 2013 00: 31 New
      0
      You will surely be zealous, but Suvorov participated in many punitive operations against free Cossacks, Circassians and especially cruel almost complete destruction of Nogais, it looks especially ugly that the Nogais believed Suvorov (he was friends with the Nogai behem), and then betrayed ... whoever wants, will find information on the network about an attempt to deport the Nogais to the Urals in October 1783 of the year ... and yes, he is a hero, no words ... Krasnodar Territory has been cleared, Stavropol, Volga region ... native Russian lands, and who will prove it? there are no living ones, but those farther ...
      1. Seraph
        Seraph 22 May 2013 01: 28 New
        0
        And what, Grachev and better than bandits cleared in the same Caucasus? "The tougher the war, the fewer casualties" (is it not Adolf Aloizovich’s utterance?)
      2. Karlsonn
        Karlsonn 22 May 2013 16: 54 New
        -2
        ShturmKGB
        Suvorov participated in many punitive operations against free Cossacks, Circassians and especially brutal almost complete destruction of Nogais


        tell us in more detail about the casualties among the civilian population during the Pugachev uprising, but you recalled this episode of Suvorov’s career.


        ShturmKGB
        it looks particularly ugly that the Nogais believed Suvorov (he was friends with the Nogai behem), and then betrayed ...


        Do you remember what the steppe friends did with monasteries and monks?


        ShturmKGB
        The Krasnodar Territory has been cleaned up, Stavropol, Volga ... the original Russian lands, and who will prove it? there are no living ones, but those farther ...


        Well, do not be so cunning wink and then it seems that the Krasnodar and Stavropol Territories lived loyally and Suvorov came here and cut everyone off for no reason - can you remind us why it is suddenly that the best Russian commander, after the conclusion of the Kuchuk-Kainardzhi peace treaty, is suddenly appointed the commander of the 6th Moscow Division and throw on the Volga? For one, remind us of the role of the Cossacks in the Peasant War yes .

        As you have not yet accused Suvorov of the inhuman suppression of the uprising in Poland, which led to the partition of Poland - I can’t imagine request
        1. Karlsonn
          Karlsonn 23 May 2013 01: 51 New
          0
          Russophobes - such - Russophobes!
          1. ShturmKGB
            ShturmKGB 18 October 2013 14: 32 New
            0
            Yes, no Russophobes, just great people have dark sides that they don’t paint, and the patriots refuse to acknowledge ... and I did not question the military genius of Suvorov ...
  2. Dima190579
    Dima190579 21 May 2013 08: 24 New
    +8
    I wish all the commanders to be equal to the great commander. To fight not by numbers but by skill.
    1. Arberes
      Arberes 21 May 2013 10: 14 New
      +8
      Quote: Dima190579
      I wish all the commanders to be equal to the great commander. To fight not by numbers but by skill.
      I join your wishes! drinks

      Let's leave friends from unnecessary conversations
      We know how shore soldiers SUVOROV

      RUSSIA-mother wonderful creation
      He didn’t gain victory by skill!
    2. iulai
      iulai 21 May 2013 17: 47 New
      -3
      They won’t be able to, stupid, the wrong teachers were.
      1. Blackgrifon
        Blackgrifon 22 May 2013 00: 06 New
        0
        Close your mouth before carrying such heresy.
  3. VDV 80-82
    VDV 80-82 21 May 2013 09: 38 New
    +8
    yeahhh ... there was a great man! He fought not with the Tomahawks and Iskanders, but with skill! Go around, cut, hit the flank! Indeed, our national Hero !!!
  4. omsbon
    omsbon 21 May 2013 09: 42 New
    +8
    Most recently I was in the Alexander Nevsky Lavra, bowed to the ashes of the Great Man and the Leader!
  5. Dimkapvo
    Dimkapvo 21 May 2013 09: 42 New
    +9
    Pride bursts that he is OUR !!!
  6. cool.ya-nikola
    cool.ya-nikola 21 May 2013 13: 56 New
    16
    Suvorov gave more than 60 battles and all won them.
    Suvorov said: “I am proud that I am Russian! .. My offspring, please take my example ... be out of breath to be faithful to the Fatherland”
    “We are Russians, what a delight!”
  7. AntonR7
    AntonR7 21 May 2013 14: 48 New
    +4
    Yes, thanks to people like Suvorov, Potemkin and other figures of those times, Russia was very important. not without reason the chancellor of the times of Catherine 2 Bezborodko: he said, "Not one gun in Europe dares not shoot without our permission." God grant that this time comes again. I am also proud to be Russian!
  8. wax
    wax 21 May 2013 15: 10 New
    +1
    I am waiting for Suvorov and Kutuzov to join the faces of the saints to Ushakov.
  9. xan
    xan 21 May 2013 15: 20 New
    +1
    Those contemporary Russians of Suvorov were lucky, they had a living example of integrity, selflessness - qualities that were especially valuable in our time, and most importantly - the highest professionalism and unquestioned authority among subordinates. And for me, an indicator is a confirmed fact - personally Suvorov could stop the running troops (although this was only a couple of times), restore order in a matter of minutes and send him to the attack again. Neither Napoleon nor Frederick 2 could.
  10. nnz226
    nnz226 21 May 2013 18: 17 New
    +1
    To all applicants for the title of Generalissimo: take 10000 soldiers without climbing equipment and go! On his route through the Alps! we won’t even shoot, we’ll see how much comes out of the mountains. There are no commanders equal to Suvorov !!!
    1. reichsmarshal
      reichsmarshal 21 May 2013 23: 21 New
      -6
      At the disposal of Suvorov was 20 thousand, and not 10 thousand, 5 thousand absolutely ineffective exhausted people descended from the mountains without a single gun. Italian and Swiss campaigns are the Russian version of Napoleonic 1812
      1. Blackgrifon
        Blackgrifon 22 May 2013 00: 08 New
        +1
        Yeah, but at the same time the army was saved and after the rest was able to continue the fighting.
        In addition, the more numerous forces of the French Republic pushed the Russian group to the Alps, but they could not achieve their goal - to destroy the Russian contingent.
        1. Seraph
          Seraph 22 May 2013 02: 03 New
          +3
          Enemy smash the numbers. They can juggle and distract attention with emotions. 15 thousand lost - blurted a digital from the ceiling. And as for the exhausted, who later also arrived in Mother Russia not in the huts, but reached with their legs, the liberal’s snot, in general. Ah, Suvorov killed the young conscripts! Evil is not enough for the superficial "historians" and barkers of native history. Don’t feed such bread, let me pull it into clean water. Oh, about the fact that the French women died and were injured more than the Russians in the whole battle in Mutenskaya Valley at the hands of “absolutely incapable exhausted people without a gun” - he doesn’t know once, you need to have time to listen to the Echo of Moscow and leave bad comments somewhere else (all the same, they won’t punish for stupidity)
      2. Seraph
        Seraph 22 May 2013 01: 49 New
        +3
        And no other army would have done that. The most difficult route, the betrayal of the “allies” (Archbishop Karl was vile on their faces, as they say, did not disdain British pounds), who abandoned the Russians, won several battles against absolutely confident in their victory (it couldn’t be different if it weren’t for Suvorov and the Russians miracle heroes) of the enemy - and all this in 3 weeks !!! Without helicopters and special equipment. And where do you get the numbers about losses in 3/4 of the personnel ??? Are you smarter than Dmitry Alekseevich Milyutin, Field Marshal and researcher of the Swiss campaign? Or did Latynina and Albats hear enough? Or are you Albats?)) 21 thousand entered the Alps. 5100 total losses, including 1,6 thousand people who were injured and 1 thousand injured left in Switzerland.
        No need to be the new Fomenko or Pozner on this site,
      3. Karlsonn
        Karlsonn 22 May 2013 16: 57 New
        0
        Quote: reichsmarshal
        Italian and Swiss campaigns are the Russian version of Napoleonic 1812


        only in the minds of ignoramuses such as you - go back to the desk.
  11. Iraclius
    Iraclius 21 May 2013 18: 48 New
    +5
    I read the article, and the goose bumps on my skin ... I don’t know whether the commander’s genius of Alexander Vasilievich is guilty or the poetic - Derzhavin and Shishkov. Apparently, all together. And most importantly, pride in their ancestors and the country that nurtured such TITANS.
    How many times did the name of the commander be said by the soldiers and military leaders going to death and feat? There is no number for them ...
    Eternal memory to the faithful defender of the Motherland - the invincible generalissimo Alexander Vasilievich Suvorov! Hooray, comrades!

    And here is my favorite poem about Alexander Vasilyevich authorship I. Irtenyev.

    - Do not go, Suvorov, through the Alps, -
    Napoleon told him.
    - Here your eagles will leave the scalps,
    I have troops here - a million.

    I tell you as a colleague
    As a strategist to a strategist I say
    Here yours will freeze the Pechenegs
    To the embarrassment of the Russian Tsar.

    I know you're used to fighting fierce
    Get Victoria with a bayonet
    But waving under old age alpenstock
    You need to be the last fool.

    But the stubborn showing of temper,
    In a military shaped fight,
    Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov
    I thought to myself: “Fuck you.”


    And the brightest burst like a cannon,
    So that everything inside broke:
    - Soldiers, brave kids,
    Miracle you are my heroes!

    Should the usurper be afraid ?!
    God will not betray, the pig will not gobble up!
    Where didn’t our disappear, brothers ?!
    Do, Orthodox, like me!

    And, with the sign of the cross,
    The count was the first to slip on the slope
    This moment on the canvas known
    Surikov, as he could, displayed.

    So Bonaparte's card was covered
    Not for a penny, sorry, not a centime.
    ... Since then we have been in winter sports
    We do the Frenchman as we want.
    (1988)
  12. knn54
    knn54 21 May 2013 20: 59 New
    +3
    cool.ya-nikola: Suvorov gave more than 60 battles and won all of them.
    The first battle was with oneself, when the weak and frail Sasha Suvorov, as a result of victory over himself, became GENERALISSIMUS A.V.Suvorov, defender of Russia, its military glory and PEOPLE'S pride.
    PS I am happy that while living in Mr. Tulchin I was in the house where Suvorov wrote the book “The Science of Winning”.
    PPS Only thrice (out of 60), being numerically stronger than the enemy.
  13. Aboriginal53
    Aboriginal53 21 May 2013 22: 40 New
    +2
    Bow, eternal glory and memory to the Great Citizen of the Russian land!
  14. SlavaP
    SlavaP 21 May 2013 22: 47 New
    +1
    Memory and Glory of the Wonderful Bogatyr!
  15. Seraph
    Seraph 22 May 2013 02: 08 New
    +3
    Glory to Suvorov! Glory to his teacher Rumyantsev-Zadunaysky! Glory to Russian weapons!
  16. dfkthbqcdtnksq
    dfkthbqcdtnksq 25 May 2013 15: 35 New
    0
    What a pity that we do not protect our geniuses!
  17. dfkthbqcdtnksq
    dfkthbqcdtnksq 25 May 2013 15: 36 New
    0
    What a pity that we do not protect our geniuses. And we, the Soviet, were brought up precisely on these names ...