Military Review

The hot borders of Central Asia. Borders between countries of the region become hotbeds of conflict

The hot borders of Central Asia. Borders between countries of the region become hotbeds of conflictThe borders between the states of Central (Middle) Asia, drawn during the Soviet period without taking into account local religious, cultural-ethnic and economic specifics, are increasingly turning into conflict zones. Many of them have been smoldering for decades, becoming a permanent factor of tension in interstate and national relations. As the situation in the region becomes more and more complex, the situation in conflict zones only worsens.

Most of the border conflicts are concentrated in the Kyrgyzstan-Tajikistan-Uzbekistan triangle. During the Soviet period, the territory of the Fergana Valley, the most densely populated, Islamized and conflict-prone region of Central Asia, was divided between them. In conditions of high agrarian overpopulation, shortages of land and water, conflicts over the distribution of these resources occur here regularly. Recently, the problem of the external, Afghan border has been added to them, the situation in which, as the date for the withdrawal of the bulk of the US and NATO troops from Afghanistan is approaching, is becoming increasingly threatening.

So, at the beginning of this year, another conflict occurred on the border between Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan. 4 January Uzbek border guards shot dead a Kyrgyz citizen. According to their version, he illegally crossed the state border to commit a smuggling transaction, in connection with which the border guards were forced to open fire to kill. According to the Kyrgyz side, they shot at an unarmed man who did not pose any threat. Most likely, this incident would have remained unnoticed if the situation on the border again did not worsen.

On January 5, the situation around the Uzbek enclave of Soh was heated. Being surrounded on all sides by the territory of the Batken Oblast of Kyrgyzstan, the Sokh region of Uzbekistan is connected with the “metropolis” only by road. At one of the border sections in the area of ​​the village of Chabrak, Kyrgyz border guards installed reinforced concrete pylons. Part of the pillars, as it turned out later, was established by them on Uzbek territory, and the border in this place was demarcated. On January 6, residents of the Uzbek village of Khushyar, dissatisfied with the construction, attacked the neighboring Kyrgyz village of Chabrak and took several dozen hostages, forcing them to the enclave.

The upward shots that the Kyrgyz security forces fired failed to prevent the hostage taking. Then the Kirghiz blocked all frontier posts, including the road connecting Soh with Uzbekistan. The enclave was blocked.

Tashkent placed all the blame for the incident on Kyrgyzstan. According to the National Security Service (SNB) of Uzbekistan, which is in charge of the border guard, the cause of the conflict was the actions of the Kyrgyz border guards, who illegally erected posts on Uzbek territory, and also used weapon and wounded five citizens of Uzbekistan. “... Reckless and illegal actions of the Kyrgyz border guards led to an aggravation of the situation on the Uzbek-Kyrgyz state border,” the NSS said in a press release. The next day, Kyrgyz hostages were released. The Uzbek side pledged to compensate the citizens of Kyrgyzstan for the cost of cars burned during the riots, and to pay compensation for moral damage to those Kyrgyz citizens who were taken hostage. However, the roads leading to Sokh remained blocked for a long time. 11 January reported that food and essential goods are becoming more expensive in the enclave, as residents, deprived of the opportunity to go beyond it, cannot purchase them. Difficulties experienced and Kyrgyz villages located around Sokh. The roads connecting them to Kyrgyzstan run through the enclave, and therefore their residents also began to experience difficulties with electricity, access to drinking water, medical care, etc.

The problem of enclaves went to Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, inherited from the USSR. In total, there are eight enclaves in the Fergana Valley. Most of them are located in Kyrgyzstan, where there are four Uzbek and two Tajik enclaves. The largest of the Tajik - Vorukh, administratively related to the Sogd region of Tajikistan. The largest Uzbek enclaves are Sokh and Shakhimardan. In Uzbekistan itself is located the Kyrgyz enclave of Barak with an area of ​​about 4 square. kilometers, where they live mainly Kyrgyz. The enclaves are a constant factor of tension in the relations of the three countries. Thus, during the Batken events of 1999, militants of the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan attempted to break into the territory of the Uzbek Shakhimardan enclave, after which the Uzbek authorities mined its borders.

In a rapidly growing population, conflicts over the distribution of land and water became almost annual, becoming a constant factor of instability in relations between the three republics of Central Asia.

The Sokh enclave in the Fergana Valley occupies a special place. It is the largest enclave in Central Asia and one of the largest enclaves in the world. Actually, it is an enclave only for Kyrgyzstan, but for Uzbekistan, Soh is an exclave (part of the country surrounded by another state). On an area of ​​352 square. km are located 19 settlements and live almost 60 thousand people. The acuteness of the situation is that the population of the enclave belonging to Uzbekistan is almost entirely Tajik. The share of Tajiks is 99%, Kyrgyz - 0,7%, and Uzbeks - only 0,3% of Sokh residents. That is, in a dispute with Bishkek, Tashkent has to defend the interests of the Tajiks, while its relations with Dushanbe have for a long time been extremely conflicting and tense.

Most of the Kyrgyz-Uzbek border in this area has not yet been delimited. According to the head of the State Border Service of Kyrgyzstan Zakir Tilenov, only 136 km (less than 40%) is described from the 30 km of the border of the Sokh district of Uzbekistan with the Batken province of Kyrgyzstan. In total, 1378 kilometers (1007%) are delimited from the 73 kilometers of the Kyrgyz-Uzbek border. The order of 370 km remains undescribed, with the most controversial areas being just the Kyrgyz exclave Barak, the Sokh enclave and two reservoirs. Further delimitation of the border without mutual concessions is impossible. According to the head of the office of the Government of Kyrgyzstan for the delimitation of the borders of Kurbanbai Iskandarov, there are areas where in one village the son’s house is located in the territory of Kyrgyzstan, and the father’s house may be in Uzbekistan. However, it was not possible to solve the problem of enclaves by exchanging the territories, since the land compensation offered by the Uzbek side did not suit Kyrgyzstan. However, as the January events show, conflicts in the enclaves may well occur with delimited borders.

Militarily, Tashkent is clearly superior to Bishkek. According to military analysts, the armed forces of Kyrgyzstan are generally the weakest in Central Asia.

This also affects the zone of the enclaves. According to the border service of Kyrgyzstan, on the borders of the enclave are two Kyrgyz border posts: Charbak and On-Odyr, while on the Uzbek side of the border Sokh guards seven frontier posts. True, both sides prefer to refrain from military confrontation, realizing that it will not lead to anything good. Uzbekistan refused to intervene even during the Osh events of 2010, when the death toll was in the thousands. Tashkent prefers not to notice smaller incidents at all, although the situation on the border has remained tense for a long time.

The situation on the Kyrgyz-Uzbek border is confirmed by the fact that recently the border guards of the two countries agreed not to use weapons to defeat in the daytime. “At early meetings, an agreement was signed that daytime weapons would not be used against residents at the borders,” Tokon Mamytov, chairman of the State Border Service of Kyrgyzstan, told 24 on April 9 at a press conference in Bishkek. that there are no fatal incidents at borders today. ” According to him, earlier, the Uzbek border guards tried to solve problems on their own with the violation of the border by citizens of Kyrgyzstan, but now they transfer the detained offenders to their Kyrgyz colleagues. According to, the shooting at residents of neighboring states, judging by media reports, is most often opened by Uzbek border guards.

The situation on the border of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan is also unstable. At the end of April, a conflict occurred in the area of ​​the Tajik enclave of Vorukh, the reason for which was the construction of the Ak-Sai-Tamdyk road, which makes it possible to get from Osh to Isfana bypassing Tajik territory. 27 April dissatisfied with the construction of the inhabitants of the Tajik Ankava, who considered that the road touches their land, blocked it, beat the builders and damaged the construction equipment. From the Tajik side, about 1000 gathered, and from the Kyrgyz side - about 300 people. Tajiks captured two Kamaz and took two Kyrgyz drivers with them. Kyrgyz and Tajik border guards arrived at the scene of the conflict, the latter of whom, according to news agencies, began shooting in the air. A detachment of SOBR arrived from Batken, after which the Kyrgyz drivers captured by the Tajiks were released, but they never returned the Kamaz. According to a resident of the Kyrgyz village of Ak-Sai Nuritdin Mamytov, quoted by, this is the fourth major clash in the Vorukh region since 1975, and small clashes take place here every year. The promises of the Kyrgyz border guards to solve the problem with the roads so far have not led to anything concrete.

The situation on the borders of the states of Central Asia has one more, external aspect. Moreover, its value may be much more significant than the slowly smoldering border conflicts between the republics of the former USSR.

In late April, news agencies reported that the clashes and the accumulation of militants are observed on the borders of Afghanistan with Turkmenistan and Tajikistan. In the Afghan province of Faryab, located on the border with Turkmenistan, according to the BBC, there were fierce clashes between government forces and the Taliban who seized several villages. According to a representative of the provincial governor, more than 60 militants were killed in these clashes. As a result of the fighting, thousands of people were forced to leave their homes. Almost simultaneously, reports began to be received about the congregation of immigrants from Central Asia and the North Caucasus on the border with Tajikistan who were at war in the Taliban. “Currently, international terrorist forces have become more active in Afghanistan,” Secretary of the Defense Council of Kyrgyzstan Busurmankul Tabaldiyev told 29 on April at a meeting of the secretaries of the SCO Security Councils in Bishkek. “The situation is aggravated by the instability of the current ruling regime, which does not enjoy the support of the main ethnic forces of the population, influential clans and tribal unions.”

According to him, already today certain territories of Afghanistan are again under the control of the militants, "who are planning provocations in the near future, aimed at destabilizing the situation in the Central Asian states."

Recall that Afghanistan borders with three of the five Central Asian states. In addition to Tajikistan and Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan has a common border with it. And the destabilization of the military-political situation in these states will pose a threat to the entire region, with which Russia has no natural boundaries and a well-equipped, protected border. At the same time, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan are not members of the CSTO, which means that they are not bound by a defensive alliance with other members of the organization. Between Russia and Uzbekistan, however, there is an agreement on allied relations of November 14 2005, the second article of which states that aggression against one of the parties is considered as an attack on both sides. However, the possibility of cooperation between the countries of Central Asia themselves, the relations between which are burdened by numerous conflicts, in a situation of external danger, causes great doubts. On the eve of the upcoming withdrawal of most of the US troops from Afghanistan in the coming year, these circumstances force us to pay close attention to the external and internal borders of the Central Asian region.
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  1. vladimirZ
    vladimirZ 21 May 2013 06: 03 New
    Another example of the wrong Leninist organization of the USSR.
    Stalin IV, when organizing the USSR, was against the creation of the USSR as a union of national republics, he already saw a potential threat of separatism. His proposal - the creation of a federal union of administrative territories, the "persistent Leninists" who dreamed of a world revolution and a world USSR, then rejected.
    If Russia does not evolve from the national-administrative Leninist division to the territorial-administrative division, Russia will be faced with inevitable repeated territorial bloody conflicts, similar to Chechen ones.
    1. patline
      patline 21 May 2013 07: 58 New
      Federalism is also a mine under statehood, a federation with the same success can proclaim independence from the center, as well as a national republic.
      And divide the territory into squares, as in the USA, without taking into account nationality ... Well, I don’t know. Here, too, have their pros and cons.
    2. Forget
      Forget 21 May 2013 09: 44 New
      Quote: vladimirZ
      If Russia does not evolve from the national administrative Leninist division to the territorial administrative division

      I wouldn’t say so, if the USSR would develop the national language, culture, customs of the peoples who inhabited it, albeit with a communist bias, I’m sure the USSR would be now. There is no difference how to divide a country and how to name the division, if only it would be good for people ....
      1. patline
        patline 21 May 2013 11: 41 New
        Now, if the USSR would develop the national language, culture, customs of the peoples inhabiting it

        Strange you say something.
        So it was. In the USSR, national cultures were never oppressed, on the contrary, they were supported and developed in all republics and not only republics, but also in national autonomous regions and districts, and all small nationalities were preserved and were not assimilated to any titular nation.
        Even more can be said - the national identity of the republics was stimulated and was at a very high level.
        It is thanks to the national policy of the USSR that we know about all the peoples who inhabited and inhabit our republics.
        1. Alibekulu
          Alibekulu 21 May 2013 16: 35 New
          Quote: patline
          Strange you say something.
          So it was. In the USSR, national cultures were never oppressed, on the contrary, they were supported and developed in all republics and not only republics, but also in national autonomous regions and districts, and all small nationalities were preserved and were not assimilated to any titular nation.
          Even more can be said - the national identity of the republics was stimulated and was at a very high level.
          It is thanks to the national policy of the USSR that we know about all the peoples who inhabited and inhabit our republics.

          Strange you say ..- IF EVERYTHING WAS SO GOOD, WHY WHY IT END SO BAD ... request
          1. patline
            patline 22 May 2013 08: 44 New

            Everything ended badly NOT because the USSR was a fair nat. policy. And from the fact that traitors came to power - Gorbachev, Yakovlev ..., later Yeltsin, Chubais and others.
            Well, then we’ll see, maybe it’s not over yet, maybe we’ll still live in a big Great country. Maybe even during our lives.
        2. Marek Rozny
          Marek Rozny 23 May 2013 06: 17 New
          Wah, how the Soviet government protected Kazakh culture! even the Kazakhs were forbidden to use this language in production and study. and then the Kazakhs would blur this language with new words. the comrade remains an archaic language that excites the minds of archaeo-linguists.
          in short, the Soviet government wanted to spit on the culture of the national republic. there was an outspoken Russification of everything and everything.
          and how many small nations within Russia disappeared during the Soviet period - it’s a sin not to remember if they started talking about it. who were drunk, who were bullied by repression, relocations, who were simply assimilated. Where are the Finnish villages of the Leningrad region? where are the peoples of the north? Where is education in national languages? Where are the signs on the national languages ​​in the republics? the Chuvash and Yakuts were almost assimilated. another 50 years, and only memories will remain of them as about Mary or Cheremis.
          and nifiga Russians do not know about the neighbors. not a gram. for Russians there are chocks, Jews, hache. more Russians do not know anyone and do not want to know. do not expose Russian Russians as experts capable of distinguishing Buryat speech from Chechen.
    3. T-100
      T-100 21 May 2013 15: 09 New
      Another example of the wrong Leninist organization of the USSR.
      Stalin IV, when organizing the USSR, was against the creation of the USSR as a union of national republics, he already saw a potential threat of separatism. His proposal is the creation of a federal union of administrative territories

      Her Stalin embodied his plans. But then, the corn shepherd Khrushchev, seeing in his affairs as a challenge to him, altered everything in his own way, so to speak, laid a time bomb under the USSR, which was pulled away in 90 a year.
    4. FC SKIF
      FC SKIF 21 May 2013 17: 24 New
      There was nothing "from the bulldozer" to draw borders. Wherever it happened. constant conflicts - in Africa. in the Middle East and Central Asia too.
  2. Humpty
    Humpty 21 May 2013 06: 36 New
    There and with the union forever because of the canal ketmen fought. What is the matter, I’m sure not in a canal or road, but in cave nationalism of a large part of the population of the Ferghana Valley. As for the water shortage in that place, this is a hyperbole. Somewhere, maybe they just didn’t dig a ditch. The water there is in bulk, much more than in the steppes near Volgograd. The numerous rivers flowing into the Ferghana Valley have mainly mixed nutrition - groundwater, snowfields and more than 1000 glaciers.
  3. aszzz888
    aszzz888 21 May 2013 06: 45 New
    Yes, indeed, historically it happened that they killed each other for water.
    And always, since the Civil War, during the period of Basmachism, the southern borders and borders were a hot spot in terms of border protection. These are the present. Too big dibs are spinning there, and where dibs are, there is politics.
    1. Marek Rozny
      Marek Rozny 23 May 2013 06: 22 New
      Basmachi did not appear because of water, but because Soviet commissars began to rob the population. there would be no total seizure of livestock and other products from the Turkestans, there would have been no "basmachi".
  4. valokordin
    valokordin 21 May 2013 06: 48 New
    Once again, a clear confirmation of the perniciousness of the national territorial demarcation of the country. It is a pity that Stalin at the top of his power did not make administrative-territorial reform. Probably not before that, but it must be done now, no matter how the national kings wanted it. Now this is still possible with little blood, although no one wants to die, except with the exception of suicide bombers.
    1. Hleb
      Hleb 21 May 2013 07: 01 New
      This is a very interesting topic. Here Zhirinovsii, for example, proposed dividing the country into seven provinces. Like federal districts.
      But how do you see the Caucasus, for example? How should it be represented within the framework of the administrative-territorial borders?
      1. Abakanets
        Abakanets 21 May 2013 21: 49 New
        It should be fenced off from Russia and poured with concrete.
  5. Canep
    Canep 21 May 2013 08: 04 New
    The author did not give a map of the region in vain.

    here it’s true that some sort of an air route has been added.
    As you can see, the borders are not drawn very smoothly.
    1. Humpty
      Humpty 21 May 2013 08: 15 New
      A strange route, drawn. Do not fly from abroad to Kashgar (Kashi on the map). From abroad they fly there through Urumqi or Beijing. There was no airport in Naryn, only a spare strip of kilometers 70 from Naryn on the road to China, now there is nothing left of it.
    2. Bekzat
      Bekzat 23 May 2013 12: 54 New
      I greet everyone, and I saw my city, at the very top of the map, and it starts with this letter "Q", although this is not correct.
  6. dc120mm
    dc120mm 21 May 2013 10: 37 New
    I am very interested in the issues of Central Asia, thanks to the author for the article.
  7. Abakanets
    Abakanets 21 May 2013 12: 52 New
    It is necessary to remove the maximum number of Russians from Central Asia, expel all the Gaster from the Russian Federation and check the validity of obtaining citizenship since 2000 for all Central Asians by origin. The borders are tightly closed, let them eat independence with a full spoon.
    1. Marek Rozny
      Marek Rozny 23 May 2013 06: 30 New
      But in Khakassia, is it not time for the Khakassians to take a closer look at the Nehakasses who are trying about the ethnic purity of Abakan?
  8. incemnnet
    incemnnet 21 May 2013 13: 31 New
    I found where you can download skype, I downloaded here
  9. knn54
    knn54 21 May 2013 13: 42 New
    The author clearly (at the beginning of the article) indicated the main reason. The British, with their inherent cunning, did the same with the borders of Afghanistan, Pakistan, India ...
    And I would add a couple of points:
    1. The degree and time of the perception of Islam - the Kyrgyz and Kazakhs converted to Islam later than other peoples of Central Asia, ~ in the 17th century.
    2. Types of crops: among Tajiks and Uzbeks - agricultural, settled;
    among Kazakhs and Kyrgyz - nomadic, livestock.
    None of the Central Asian states is ethnically homogeneous. In the last years of the existence of the USSR, only in Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan the share of the population of the titular nationality was about 70%. In Tajikistan, this figure was about 60%, in Kyrgyzstan - about 50% and about 40% - in Kazakhstan. There, even the outflow of the Russian-speaking population does not make weather.
    And more.
    Xinjiang's Uighurs, who rely on diasporas, also pose a great danger: in Kazakhstan (150 thousand people), Kyrgyzstan (more than 80 thousand) and Uzbekistan (more than 100 thousand). If earlier the Uigur separatists sought to create an independent state, now they are preaching the creation of a single caliphate in Asia. Islamic extremists operating in the XUAR want to extend influence to the Turkic-speaking Yakutia, Altai, Khakassia and Tuva - with the prospect of their joining a single Islamic caliphate. This cannot but alarm the Russian Federation. Therefore, in 1996, on the initiative of Beijing, the SCO was created to fight separatism and religious extremism, which included the PRC, Russia, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, and a year later, Uzbekistan. And in 2000, on the initiative of China and Russia, the SCO Counter-Terrorism Center was established in Dushanbe, and the Uyghur movement was equated with the terrorist one.
    PS And the union of "democrats" and Islamists in Tajikistan entailed the most severe consequences for the republic.
    1. Humpty
      Humpty 21 May 2013 15: 12 New
      The fact that the Kirghiz converted to Islam in the 17th century is a bold assumption. I do not want to list the details of their places of residence over the past 4 centuries, but the oldest Kyrgyz grave is made according to Muslim tradition, of those that I saw about the second half of the 19th century.
      At the expense of the Uyghurs, we have so far nothing to worry about. They live in China, and in which case their extremists quickly rake away from the Chinese. The Chinese are rapidly mastering and populating Xinjiang. In percentage terms, they, if they have not yet become a majority there, will definitely become in the next 5 years.
      It is not yet noticeable in our country that they muddied the water.
  10. teodorh
    teodorh 21 May 2013 14: 15 New
    The number of Kazakhstan exceeded 17 million people. Of these, more than 11 million (65%) percent are Kazakhs.
  11. ed65b
    ed65b 21 May 2013 17: 58 New
    Fuck ... less necessary and will be good. traveled to Kyrgyzstan. until you reach 3 times you cross the border. That Kazakhstan, then Kyrgyzstan, then Tajikistan .. And they smuggle smuggling through the mountains, both drove and drove.
  12. Kaa
    Kaa 21 May 2013 20: 56 New
    "Moscow. May 21. INTERFAX.RU - The authorities of Kyrgyzstan decided to denounce from July 11, 2014 a cooperation agreement with the United States on the former air base, now the Transit Center at Bishkek's Manas Airport and on any objects and types of real estate related to with him. The Kyrgyz government is submitting the relevant draft resolution to the parliament for approval, the statement said on Tuesday on the website of the cabinet of the republic. 11 in Bishkek, and the Agreement between the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic and the Government of the United States of America regarding the Transit Center at the Manas International Airport and on any objects and types of real estate associated with it, signed on June 2014, 22 in the city Bishkek, "the statement said. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the republic is entrusted with duly notify the "Government of the United States of America of the denunciation of the agreements." "Submit the bill to the Jogorku Kenesh of the Kyrgyz Republic (parliament)," the report said. A source in the Kyrgyz government told Interfax on Tuesday that the bill would be adopted in three readings. The US Manas Transit Center at Bishkek’s airport "exists since July 2009, and was created instead of a military air base. The center's tasks include supporting the forces of the international coalition operating in Afghanistan. There are several refueling aircraft based at the CTC, and military transport and cargo planes stopping in and out of Afghanistan make a stop. About 22 US troops are serving at the Central Military Transmission Center. Kyrgyz President Almazbek Atambayev has repeatedly stated that after 2009, there will be “no military personnel” at the Bishkek-based Manas airport. "We are honestly fulfilling our international obligations, and the agreement with the United States on the Transit Center will be valid for as long as it should - until the summer of 2009," the president said earlier. The government has already adopted a resolution and approved a draft law on the withdrawal of the base (US Transit Center transportation - IF) from Manas, saying that the contract has expired, and now the parliament has to adopt this law, "Atambayev said at a meeting with the club of chief editors of the CIS, Baltic and Georgia countries on Tuesday. In his own words , “I am deeply convinced that there should not be a military base at a civilian airport.”
    1. Abakanets
      Abakanets 21 May 2013 21: 47 New
      Let’s write off these debts to these monkeys, what’s the little things?
      1. Marek Rozny
        Marek Rozny 23 May 2013 06: 28 New
        Quote: Abakanets
        Let’s write off these debts to these monkeys, what’s the little things?

        you look in the mirror7
        1. Abakanets
          Abakanets 23 May 2013 20: 33 New
          About chock Kazakh cloyed up.
  13. user
    user 21 May 2013 21: 21 New
    Islamic extremists operating in the XUAR want to extend influence to the Turkic-speaking Yakutia, Altai, Khakassia and Tuva - with the prospect of their joining a single Islamic caliphate.

    I want to add:

    Yakutia, Altai, Khakassia and Tuva are Orthodox
    1. Abakanets
      Abakanets 21 May 2013 21: 47 New
      As a resident of Khakassia, I will say that Tuvans are almost all Buddhists, let's say this is Siberian Dagestan. Even in my native Abakan, the dofig of Islamic scum who hold in their hands almost the entire drug trade.
      1. Marek Rozny
        Marek Rozny 23 May 2013 06: 26 New
        Quote: Abakanets
        Even in my native Abakan, the dofig of Islamic scum who hold in their hands almost the entire drug trade.
        ... taking away clients from Christian scum holding vodka business in their hands?
        Follow the words, Abakan.
        1. Abakanets
          Abakanets 23 May 2013 20: 35 New
          Your prophet is a pedophile, your people are taking over schools and blowing up planes. That is why Islamic scum.
  14. T-baev
    T-baev 23 May 2013 20: 38 New
    The common misconception that the Ferghana Valley is a hotbed of terrorism, I’m talking about the Uzbek part, there are kind people who tolerate representatives of other nations and faiths. But the Kyrgyz part has a completely different picture. It seems that this is not a country, but an uncontrolled territory, where the head of the Osh region absolutely does not obey the president of the country and does lawlessness. In Tajikistan, it is even worse. There, visitors to permanent residence from Afghanistan are already being accepted into the civil service.