For the first time such aircraft appeared in the USA, they were specialized vehicles, with a set of special equipment and communications equipment converted from KS-135A refueling aircraft, created in turn on the basis of the civilian "Boing 707".
In 1965, the 11 KC-135A tankers were converted into EC-135A repeater planes for the command and control system in the event of a nuclear attack. Externally, the aircraft was allocated only a few additional whip antennas and the presence of a fuel receiver above the pilot's cabin. In addition, since the planes had to operate in the conditions of radioactive contamination, red-and-white stripes were put on the tail end near the refueling rod — the signs of “Danger, Radiation”. This was a warning to ground staff: the plane was dirty.
The first VKP, created in 1962, was not altered from the tanker, but specifically built as such. The KC-135B (model 717-166) was a combined tanker / VKP. Above the pilot's cabin there was a fuel receiver. At the ends of the wing from above, slightly away from the tips, were installed forward long VHF-rod whip antennas on small “pylons” (equipment fairings), of the same type with the one that stood on top of the keel in the order of standard equipment. Above the center section there was a square radio-transparent antenna cowling of an ultra-low frequency connection, known as a “saddle antenna,” since it remotely resembled a saddle on a horse. There were two small drop-shaped fairings in front of it, another behind; satellite antennas were located in them. A drum was installed in the fairing in front of the right main landing gear, from which the towed wire antenna of an extra-low-frequency special connection with a stabilizing cone at the end was unwound. She served to communicate with submerged submarines. Releasing the antenna, the plane began to describe the circles; the cone, having lost speed, fell off, and the antenna hung almost vertically - only in this position could the signal pierce the water column.
In the cargo compartment KC-135B were equipped with a cabinet, communications center and residential premises. At any time, at least one such aircraft was on duty with a senior commander on board to ensure command of nuclear forces in the event of a nuclear strike on the United States, which could disable ground command posts.
The 17 KC-135B was built as such; in October 1964, all of them, except for the last three cars, were renamed EC-135С. In addition, five late series KC-135A were additionally refitted according to the EU-135C standard.
The last three cars of the original EC-135C series were converted to EC-135J. It must be said that the presence of the cargo door made it possible to relatively easily and quickly convert the “electronic” versions of the KC-135 from one modification to another, the special equipment was modular and was located in the front of the cargo compartment, and the operators' workplaces were in the rear. Externally, the EC-135J differed from the original version only with seven additional whip antennas on top of the fuselage.
Initially, the KS-135J served as the aircraft of the commander-in-chief of the US armed forces and operated from the Andrews base (Maryland) until they were replaced in this capacity by three VKP Boeing E-4A. There were also options for European and Pacific theaters.
The next step was the creation of such an aircraft, based on the wide-body Boeing 747.
In 1973, the United States Air Force announced the launch of the Advanced Airborne National Command Post AABNCP program, which received the 481В code. This program envisaged the creation of new aircraft-strategic command posts with large working premises, which were later to be equipped with the latest communications and information processing equipment.
The program provided for the conversion of several civilian wide-body airliners of the Boeing-747-200В to WCP aircraft, which were designated as E-4А. At various stages of work, the required number of aircraft varied from four to seven (there were plans to have three BCPs of the KNS and four planes as the CPSU of the BAK), eventually, however, it was decided to build three BCPs of the E-4A and one more plane - immediately option E-4B. At the same time, it was decided to upgrade all E-4А aircraft to E-4В level over time. Airplanes - VKP E-4B are intended for the highest political and military leadership of the United States - the president, the secretary of defense, and other decision makers.
It was decided that all E-4 airplanes would be made available to the committee of the chiefs of staff of the US military and would serve as a backup command post for the top military leadership of the country in emergency situations.
The main contractor for the development of advanced radio-electronic equipment for the E-4В aircraft was the E-Systems company. Contractors in the development and supply of avionics were the company "Electrospace Systems", "Collins" and RCA.
Firm "Boeing" in accordance with the plan of work on the program 481В for 1973 - 1975. Three Boeing-747-200В airliners were converted into VKP-KSS aircraft. The United States Air Force assigned these serial numbers to the aircraft: 73-1676, 73-1677 and 74-0787.
Communication equipment and information processing installed on board these aircraft, was borrowed from the former aircraft - VKP KNSH EC-135J, withdrawn from the combat composition of the SAC of the US Air Force. This equipment was protected from the effects of an electromagnetic pulse of a nuclear explosion.
The working area of the aircraft is 429,2 m2, which is approximately three times higher than that of the EU-135С.
The E-4А passenger cabin was divided into six compartments: the office of the highest military leadership, two meeting rooms, a room for the KNSH task force, a communications center and a rest room. On the upper deck of the aircraft was equipped flight room flight crew.
The power plant of the first two aircraft consisted of four FXDUMX TRDDs (JT105D) manufactured by Pratt & Whitney, common for the Boeing-9-747В modification. The third car was equipped with new engines F200-GE-103 (CF100-6E50), manufactured by General Electric. Later, these engines were equipped with all aircraft type E-2.
The first flight of the first E-4 aircraft took place on July 13 1973. In December of the same year, the aircraft was included in the 1 squadron of the VKN 1 mixed aircraft wing deployed at Andrews air base not far from Washington. In May and September, 1974 was added to it two more aircraft E-4A.
Since the beginning of 1982, in accordance with the plan, all E-4А aircraft have been refitted to the E-4В variant. The aircraft received new electronic equipment, engines F103-GE-100 (the first two cars) and air-to-air refueling receivers. On the re-equipment of one car took a year. The first E-4В aircraft converted from the E-4А returned to the 1 Squadron of the VKP 55-th STRAKr in June 1983, the second - in May 1984, and the third - in January 1985.
The E-4B differed from the previous modification by improved radio communication equipment, new systems for processing, displaying and transmitting information, as well as the availability of a fuel receiver for the air refueling system located in the nose of the aircraft fuselage.
The presence of a refueling system made it possible for the aircraft to be continuously in the air for 72 hours.
The power plant consisted of four dual-circuit engines F103-GE-100, developing maximum thrust 23.625 kgf. The take-off weight of the aircraft is 360 t. The maximum speed was 960 km / h. Practical ceiling - 12.000 m. Flight range without refueling in the air reached 11.000 km.
The main deck is divided into six functional parts: NCA (National Command Authority) workplaces, a conference room, a briefing room, operators' workplace, communications and recreation rooms. E-4B crews can include up to 114 people, including a crew of operators, ACC flight crew, service, communications and security teams. E-4 equipped with protection against various damaging factors of nuclear weaponsincluding electromagnetic pulse. There is a filtering system from radioactive dust in the intake and air conditioning systems for outside air for ventilation of the cabin and compartments.
The E-4B is equipped with VHF AN / ARC-89 (V), AN / ARC-150, AN / ARC-164 (V), AN / ARC-196 and AN / ARC-513 radio stations. In addition, there is a shortwave station AN / ARC-58 and equipment of the backup system SDV communication with a transmitter of power 200kW using a towed antenna with a length of about 8 km.
The air command post has radio stations of satellite VHF communication systems AFSATC0M and MILSTAR, as well as radio station satellite microwave communication AN / ASC-24. The latter is designed to work in strategic multi-channel satellite communication systems DSCS-2 and DSCS-3. It provides the transmission of voice, telegraph messages and data in digital form. The range of radio frequencies used is 7 - 8 GHz. Transmitter power - 11 kW. The parabolic antenna of the AN / ASC-24 radio station with a diameter of 91 is installed under the fairing in the upper part of the aircraft fuselage.
Onboard the ECPM E-4B installed terminal devices display the warning system of a rocket attack. The aircraft is also equipped with the ALCS launch launch control system equipment. The presence of this equipment allows launches of intercontinental ballistic missiles, as well as retargeting them directly from the aircraft, bypassing intermediate control points. Like the aircraft, the VKP of the previous generation EC-135С, Е-4В is equipped with AN / ASQ-121 HARDS equipment.
In 1982 - 1985 In the E-4В variant, three previously manufactured E-4А aircraft were converted. One of the four aircraft-VKP KNSH is in constant combat duty at Andrews airbase in a state of 15-minute readiness for takeoff.
Call sign on duty - "Nightwatch". The number of the operational group on board the aircraft while on combat duty on the ground is 30 people. The full capacity of the aircraft - 114 people.
In addition to the combat duty on the ground, the E-4 aircraft are involved in escorting the US President's aircraft when the latter makes long flights. During the period when the US President was abroad, one of the air command posts was based on a nearby American air base. In all these cases, the crew of the aircraft of the All-Union Communist Party is assigned the task of maintaining constant communication between the president and the command centers of the US armed forces, ensuring, if necessary, through the command staff of the JSU, that the presidential orders are provided to all the necessary command and control bodies of the armed forces.
Google Earh Satellite Image: E-4 VKP, Andrews Air Base
Currently, all four E-4V aircraft continue to be in service with the United States Air Force. They are part of the 1-th squadron of the AUCP of the 55-th aviation wing of the 8-th Air Army of the combat aviation command of the US Air Force. In connection with the decrease in the level of military danger after the end of the "cold war", the combat readiness of the aircraft fleet - the WCP of the Committee of Chiefs of Staff of the United States Forces was to a certain extent reduced. The range of tasks solved by these aircraft has expanded. With 1994, the E-4В, now referred to in the USA as the NAOC (National Airborne Operations Center), is used, in addition to its main purpose, as mobile control points for operational groups of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) the work of these groups (on the ground) directly in emergency zones of peacetime. In addition, these aircraft are often engaged in responsible transportation in the interests of the United States Department of Defense.
In January 2006g. Donald Rumsfield announced that the entire fleet of E-4B will be phased out. They can be replaced by two Boeing C-32, upgraded to the level of the CPSU, the President of the United States in case of nuclear war, natural disasters and unrest.
Modification of E-4A
Wingspan, m 59.64
Length of aircraft, m 70.51
Aircraft height, m 19.33
Wing area, m2 510.95
Weight, kg empty
equipped aircraft 148069
maximum take-off 364552
Domestic fuel, kg 150395
Engine type 4 TRDD General Electric F103-GE-102 (CF6-80C2B1)
Thrust, kgf 4 x 252.44
The maximum speed, km / h 969
Cruising speed, km / h 933
Practical range, km 12601
Flight duration, h / min
without refueling 12.0
with refueling 72.0
Practical ceiling, m 13715
Crew, people 2-4
The airplanes - ECPM-6B, which simultaneously perform the functions of the Looking Glass (ABNCP) and TACAMO programs, are intended for senior officers of the US armed forces - USSTRATCOM Strategic Command and other commands. They provide military control and communications with the US strategic triad: installations of ICBMs, submarines with SLBMs and bombers, and the transfer of orders issued by the US political leadership.
At the end of 80's The United States Navy has begun to modernize its super-long-range communications system with the TASAMO (Take Charge and Move Oul) nuclear submarines. It was originally based on 16 EC-130Q repeater planes, which were combined into two air squadrons (3 and 4). The modernization program provided for the replacement of all EC-130Q aircraft with new E-6А aircraft, which were called Hermes. These aircraft were designed by Boeing based on the Boeing-707-320С glider.
The first prototype E-6A was built in 1983, its flight tests began in 1987 (the first flight took place on February 19). Since 1988, deliveries of serial E-6A aircraft to units began aviation Navy, previously operating the aircraft EC-130Q. As a result, by 1992 all old repeater aircraft were replaced by new E-6A machines and sent for conservation at the TsOVAT. Both squadrons of TASAMO repeater aircraft were then relocated to Tinker Air Base in Oklahoma.
Google Earh Satellite Image: E-6В aircraft, at Tinker Air Base
In the second half of the nineties, the US military leadership decided to deactivate the 7 th wing of the US Air Force 55 Air Wing of the United States Air Force BNU-8 Strategic Command, which remained at that time in the 135 squadron of the VKP, and the transfer of their functions to the E-6В dual-purpose aircraft, into which it was intended to retool all sixteen E-6A repeaters, which had already been renamed Mercury (Mercury) at that time.
The conversion program provided for the placement on board of the E-6A of special radio equipment removed from the EU-135С aircraft. Thus, the transponder aircraft would be converted into dual-purpose vehicles capable of performing both their former functions within the TASAMO system and the functions of the USC air command post and the Minuteman launch control center.
The re-equipment of the E-6A aircraft was carried out by Raytheon E-Systems. In the course of these works on the aircraft were dismantled: ADD transmitter OG-127; dipole add-on antenna OE-159; complex of automation equipment for a repeater aircraft; voice messaging system; Lilton Omega LTN-211 navigation system; analog-digital flight control system; antenna OE-242.
The new equipment installed on the modified aircraft included the following devices:
a set of automation equipment aircraft-VKP AN / ASC-37;
equipment for automatic switching of radio channels AN / ASC-33 (V) DAISS;
launch control system ICBM ALCS;
AN / ARC-171 (V) 3 VHF Radio;
radio station of satellite communication system M1LSTAR AN / ARC-208 (V) 2;
AFSATC0M communication system radio antenna control equipment
VLA AN / ART-54 radio station, consisting of a G-187 / ART-54 transmitter and a 0E-456 / ART-54 towed dipole antenna;
GPS satellite navigation system equipment consisting of the R-2332 / AR GPS navigation receiver FOR and the AS-3822 / URN antenna unit;
digital flight control system. Upgraded flight information display system.
The avionics also includes three interface buses such as "Manchester-2" (MIL-STD-1553B) used by the SNS and ADL communication devices. In addition, these tires are designed to facilitate interfacing with electronic devices that will be installed on board aircraft in the future.
The first modernized aircraft of the All-Union Communist Party of the Joint Strategic Command E-6В began to carry out combat duty in October 1998 of the year, replacing in this capacity the former EU-135С aircraft. By 2002, the conversion of all sixteen aircraft was completed. At the moment, both squadrons of E-6В planes are combined in the 1 strategic strategic wing of aviation of the US Navy (Strategic Communications Wing One).
The E-6B is equipped with four General Electric TRDD F108-CF-100 (CFM56-2A-2) manufactured by General Electric with a maximum thrust of 9980 kgf. The maximum take-off weight of the aircraft is 155 t. The maximum flight speed is 972 km / h.
Cruising flight speed at an altitude of 12000 m - 825 km / h. Practical ceiling - 12810 m;
The flight altitude during combat duty is 7600 - 9150 m. The flight distance of the aircraft without refueling in the air is 12.400 km.
Flight duration: no refueling - 16,5 hours; with one refueling - 32,5 hours; maximum with multiple refueling - 72 hours. The duration of stay in the combat duty area to remove 1850 km from the base is 10 - 11 hours. The flight crew of the aircraft is a 14 man; the number of the operational group of USC headquarters on board the aircraft is eight people.
The C-32 is a multipurpose transport aircraft created by the American company Boeing based on the Boeing Model 757-200 civil airliner.
The aircraft is intended for the transport of VIPs, including the President and his entourage. The first aircraft was launched at the Seattle 19 June 1998 factory at Boeing. Total produced by 4 aircraft. The aircraft is able to overcome the distance from the Andrews air base to the city of Frankfurt in Germany. Four Boeing 757-200s ordered by the US Air Force entered 1 Squadron of the 89 Air Wing, Andrews Air Base, in 1998 year.
Google Earh Satellite Image: President's C-32A plane, at Andrews Air Base
The aircraft were designed to perform special tasks - the transportation of members of the US government. The aircraft replaced the VC-9 and VC-137, complementing the lower-range VC-25 and the smaller C-20 and C-37C. The last VC-137 was written off in the 1997 year, but the operation of the VC-9 continues. The specification issued by the Air Force required the C-32A to be as unified as possible with the civilian Boeing 757, but the aircraft received a completely new cabin interior designed to carry all 45 passengers. On the C-32A installed the latest radio
equipment with the equipment of classifying negotiations, GPS satellite navigation system receivers, warning system of dangerous approach in the air. The planes are painted blue and white and carry the inscription "United States of America". The Andrews Air Base, located near Washington, is ideal for VIP passengers.
In the USSR, work on the creation of similar aircraft began much later. To ensure operational control at the strategic level on the basis of the IL-86 transport aircraft, the IL-1992 air command center (IL-80VKP was created in 86; in some sources, the aircraft is designated as IL-87, analogous to the American VKP Boeing E-4B).
The choice of the initial type of the car is due to the significant internal volumes of the passenger cabin of the IL-86, sufficient to accommodate special equipment. Additional electronic equipment is located in a special patch compartment width 1,5 m, located above the nose of the fuselage. Measures have been taken to protect the aircraft from the damaging factors of a nuclear explosion. Among other design features: the lack of windows (except the cockpit canopy), as well as a reduced number of access hatches in the IL-86 fuselage.
The onboard equipment of the IL-80 aircraft includes a satellite communications station. For powering numerous onboard electronic systems, the aircraft is equipped with an additional turbo-generator. A total of four aircraft were built (their tail numbers USSR-86146, -86147, -86148 and -86149). According to some information, all the boards are part of the Separate control and retransmission air squadron of 8 Special purpose air divisions. Aircraft are constantly based at the Chkalovsky airfield.
Google Earh satellite image: Il-80 aircraft at Chkalovsky airfield
- a unified set of tools developed by the company “Flight” - Link-2;
- shortwave receiving antenna, made as two ridges behind the center section;
- shortwave transmitting antenna, made in a radio transparent radome;
- transmitting antenna of extra long waves of outlet type on a cable with a length of 4000 meters.
- receiving antenna of superlong waves, made in front of the keel;
- Antenna relay connection is made from the top / bottom of the fuselage;
- the antenna of ultrashort waves is made above / below the fuselage;
- Communication antenna with the Strategic Missile Forces units is made at the top / bottom of the fuselage;
In 2009-10, a scheduled maintenance of the Il-86VKP (86147) was carried out, during which some changes were made to the dorsal antenna arrangement.
In the middle of 1990, the IL-86ВКП (86146) made a test flight, during which it made the launch control of an ICBM. The tests are recognized as successful.
Also in the middle of 1991, a contract was signed for the development of the Link-2 toolkit. The cost of the contract amounted to 1.1 billion rubles. In 2005, the Il-86VKP planes begin to make the first intensive flights as part of the aircraft divisions of the RF Armed Forces. In 2010-11, the main tests of the 9-9675 hardware. Probably, under this name hides a unified complex "Link-2".
All airplanes of this type are based at the Chkalovsky airfield. Since the aircraft is one of the unclassified to date samples of Russian military equipment, information on the aircraft and its operation is extremely small. It is known that at least one of the IL-86VKP is in full combat and technical readiness, another one is undergoing major repairs (engine repair).
Modification IL-80 (IL-86VKP)
Wingspan, m 48.06
Aircraft Length m 59.54
Aircraft height, m 15.81
Wing area, m2 320.0
normal takeoff 208000
Engine Type 4 TVD Kuznetsov NK-86
Thrust, kgf 4 x 13000
Maximum cruising speed, km / h 850
Practical range, km 3600
By special order of the USSR Ministry of Defense, two IL-76MD USSR-76450 and USSR-76451 were built as strategic air command posts (CPSU) to control the country's nuclear forces in case the ground control points were disabled. The aircraft received the designation IL-82 (IL-76ВКП).
Some of the equipment of these machines is unified with the Il-86VKP aircraft also built on special order, the other part with the AEW and A-50 aircraft. The aircraft have the designation IL-76VKP.
The appearance of IL-76VKP is very characteristic - you will not confuse them with anything. The entire top of the nose of the fuselage from the pilot's cabin to the center section is occupied by a box-like superstructure with satellite communications equipment, as in the IL-86ВКП.
The navigator cabin's glazing is sewn with metal, and the meteorological radar is closed with a reduced fairing of a modified form, but of type A-50. Like the A-50, the left front door is missing - no landing aircraft need it.
The fairings of the landing gear cleaning mechanisms are also borrowed from the A-50 - their front parts are noticeably thickened, widened and have two round air inlets of different sizes. They contain electronic equipment, so the APU is moved to the rear of the left chassis and is equipped with a protruding air intake, as in the A-50. To the left of the nose landing gear to the left chassis wheel fairing, a box-shaped fairing is pulled.
On the center section planes behind the wing, there are four lobed antennas located rhombus, on the sides of the leading edge of the keel - two oblong fairings, as on IL-86ВКП.
On the side doors of the cargo hatch there are two huge radar antennas, and on the middle doors there is a drum from which the towed wire antenna of the extra-low-frequency special connection with a stabilizing cone at the end is unwound. This antenna length 5 km (!) Serves to communicate with submerged submarines. The drum is located inside the fuselage; only a small fairing and a semi-embedded cone are visible from the outside. The installation of the drum forced to move the bottom flashing light from the middle hatch under the tip of the fuselage.
After releasing the antenna, the plane begins to describe the circles. The cone, having lost speed, falls, and the five-kilometer antenna hangs almost vertically. Only in this position of the antenna can the radio signal penetrate the water column.
Finally, under the external consoles of the wing small oval containers with forward VHF pin antennas are mounted on short pylons.
According to some data, both sides are part of the Separate control and relay squadron of 8 Special purpose air divisions. Aircraft are constantly based at the Chkalovsky airfield.
Any other information on these machines is closed. This is one of the few still not declassified samples of aviation equipment.
LTH: Modification IL-82
Wingspan, m 50.50
Length of aircraft, m 46.59
Aircraft height, m 14.76
Wing area, m2 300.00
normal takeoff 190000
Engine type 4 TRDD D-30KP
Thrust, kgf 4 x 12000
cruising speed, km / h 780
Practical range, km 6800
Practical ceiling, m 12000
Until 1956, the top leaders of the USSR flew military aircraft, piloted by Air Force officers. This tradition was interrupted on 13 on April 1956 of the year: By a decree of the Council of Ministers of the USSR N496-295C, the USSR Ministry of Defense was exempted from the obligation to transport the country's highest officials.
In Soviet times, a special flight squad was assigned to transport not only the top leadership of the party and the government of the USSR, but also the heads and public figures of the countries friendly to the USSR. From 1959 to 2009, the airline also, in order to provide a flight to the crew, carried out regular and charter passenger commercial flights in the USSR (Russia) and abroad.
With the collapse of the USSR, changes occurred in the air park of its leaders. In 1993, the Separate Aviation Detachment No. 235 was transformed into the State Transport Company "Russia".
In October 2006 of the year, Pulkovo Airlines was joined to the Rossiya State Transport Company. The incorporated airline began flying under the flag of the State Transport Company “Russia”, and the name of the airline changed to the Federal State Unitary Enterprise “State Transport Company“ Russia ”.
31 January The 2009 of the year the squadron was withdrawn from the SCC “Russia” and belongs to the Office of the President of the Russian Federation, transporting only a limited number of persons defined by the order of the President of the Russian Federation.
In 1995, the board number 1 IL-62, inherited B.N. Yeltsin inherited from MS Gorbachev, replaced the newest IL-96-300PU (PU - control point), equipped by the Swiss company "Jet Aviation". With the arrival in the Kremlin V.V. Putin in the squadron appeared the second such aircraft, equipped in Russia, but under the supervision and technology of the British company «Dimonite Aircraft Furnishings».
A special version of the IL-96-300, designed to carry the President of Russia. There are practically no differences in flight performance from the basic version, except for the increased range due to some modifications. The Il-96-300PU differed from the civilian versions of the "ninety-sixths" by increased flight range and, according to unofficial data, by the presence of optical-electronic jamming stations for homing missiles.
The aircraft is equipped with equipment that allows control of the armed forces in the event of a nuclear conflict. Externally, the aircraft also has no differences from the basic version, with the exception of the characteristic groove in the upper part of the fuselage.
At the moment, four Il-96-300 of various modifications are at the disposal of the Presidential Administration of the Russian Federation.
Under the hand of the first person of the state is everything you need to manage a huge country: computers and office equipment, satellite communication systems, special communication channels.
FLIGHT TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS IL-96:
Thrust engines, kgf 4x16,000
Maximum number of 300 passengers
Maximum payload, kg 40000
Flight range with a commercial load of 30000 kg at an altitude of 9000 - 12000 m with a speed of 850 km / h and a reserve of fuel, km 10000
Cruising flight speed, km / h 850-900
Flight height, m 10000-12000
Required take-off distance, m 2700
Required landing distance, m 2000
Curb weight, kg 119000
Take-off weight, kg 240000
Wingspan, m 57,66
Aircraft Length m 55,35
Aircraft height, m 17,57
The total cost of the IL-96-300PU wide-bodied aircraft, which is considered the most expensive of domestic airliners, reaches 300 million dollars in mid-2000 prices. The cabin is a two-story, with two bedrooms, showers, a meeting room, a lounge, and even a room for resuscitation.
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