“It’s time to recognize all submarine crews as units of special risk, endowing their members with decent social guarantees. We must finally realize that we live in a great maritime state. Great even in the grandeur of his sea catastrophes, not to mention his undisputed great achievements ... Today, every Russian is simply obliged to know the names of his underwater aces, pioneers and martyrs ... "
Rear Admiral Shtyrov A. T.
Rear Admiral Shtyrov A. T.
I still have not been able to meet in the media a description of the conditions of life and service on submarines. Those who are not connected with this, have no idea about the life of submariners, and some envy their "salaries".
The definition of "extreme" can be safely attributed to almost all submariners. Submarine service in the royal navy, on the first Russian boats, especially during the Great Patriotic War, and even today, it is still a service in extreme conditions. The stress was constant. And not only were, but there will be.
In the 60-70-ies, the Navy had a lot of diesel projects 615, 613 or 641 of various modifications and almost the same conditions of habitability. When I read that air conditioners had been installed on American diesel submarines since the time of 1 World War I, I was shocked. Of course, the USA is a rich country. She could allow the cost of such weapons and living conditions for the crews of submarines, which we could not even dream of.
In winter, when the air temperature was from minus 20 to minus 30 ° С inside the boat was plus 3-5 ° С. When in the surface position “they were charging or ventilated the boat,” there was generally “Dubak”. To keep a watch on the bridge is like standing at the pole under a fan. None of the designers came up with real protection from the wind. After all, when the boat goes under diesel engines at an average speed with a head wind, it blows through. A windbreaker mounted on boats — this is the “achievement” of advanced Soviet engineering thought — has nothing to do with its name. The watch officer is forced to put on his underwear first, then the underwater clothing (woolen sweater and leggings), trousers and tunic, then alpaca and wadded or alpaca trousers. On the feet are boots or felt boots with “elephant” type galoshes. But that's not all. In order not to bleed and sea salt does not spoil the skin of the alpaca, put on the coating. On the hands of leather mittens. Everything. To duty is ready. Stop. And if the wave covers even the bridge, when the boat digs into the waves, you want to be dry, put on a hydro-overalls. Finally, you are ready to step on the watch. Having risen on the bridge, you put on the fire belt and fasten it with a carbine to the fencing of the cabin so that you will not be washed away. I have never seen such a watch officer in any film. 4 hours of watch, when with a certain periodicity the bridge is covered by a sea wave, and you are covered with ice buildup, not everyone can stand it. It is impossible to show this, because a naval officer should be, like in the movies, “he should also be shaved and stroked, and the gun must be fitted”. The watch is over, and the re-entering watch officer clears the ice from the one he replaces, who is frozen to the logging fence, by a crowbar. And try to run up and down in full dress, which, however, did not save the watch officer from becoming an "ice woman."
American submariners do not have a problem with working clothes for keeping watch on the bridge in winter. They wear lightweight, waterproof overalls with temperature control. The bridge and the place of bearing the watch is well protected from wind and waves.
It was not better in the summer, especially in autonomous swimming. The combat service areas were located mainly in the tropics or subtropics, and sometimes in the equatorial zone. The outboard water temperature was up to the depth of 200 meters + 28 ° С, and the outside air was more than + 30 ° С. In the submerged position, and this, as a rule, in the daytime in the compartments the air temperature rose to + 35-45 ° С, and the decks in the second and fourth compartments, where the batteries are, are not lower than + 42 ° С. In the diesel compartment, the air temperature exceeded + 50 ° С.
All compartments had high humidity, evaporation, and carbon dioxide content increased to 10 MPC. The fans were spinning for nothing, not cooling at all, but only driving hot air. Water supplies were strictly limited, we had to wash only with sea salt water and only with special soap. The shower was in the cabin fencing, but, as a rule, they were not used, because at any time the boat should be ready for an urgent dive. One outlet is a bridge where the exit by tokens is allowed only to a limited number of people. When the boat goes under the RDP, and you lose it. About natural needs and say nothing. Food is organized mainly by canned food, and fresh food is not stored in food stores for a long time. The commanders of the boats pay special attention to the selection of the cocks, who are able to prepare food suitable for different temperature conditions, and do not feed you at + 40 ° C hot dishes. Drinking water is available, but in limited quantities. It was hard for those who suffered the addiction - to smoke. In the submerged position, smoking is strictly prohibited, and in the surface - only on the bridge. The truth "under the RDP" sailors still managed to smoke around working diesel engines. And so from 45 to 90 days.
The boat commander keeps his watch almost 24 hours a day, even in a dream, “not disconnecting” from everyday worries and anxieties. He defines the time for rest to the navigator himself. On diesel boats of type "M" and "Medium" of the 613 "B" project, the combat schedule provides for a staff of only one navigator who, during 45 days, combines the carrying of running and navigator watches. Diesel boat to replenish air reserves and charging AB forced to float in the surface position or become under the RDP, which is extremely dangerous. There were times when boats were generally forbidden to stand under the RDP. And strong pitching also can not affect the performance of crew members. It is especially strongly felt in the first (torpedo) compartment, where two types of pitching are applied - onboard and keel.
In the surface position during the operation of diesel engines, there is a strong noise mainly in the 5-th compartment. In the submerged position in the compartments the constant rumble of the selsyns, their monotonous sound annoying to many. On the steering-verticals he acts "lulling". Especially at night when the boat goes "economy." course, for a long time without changing course.
On boats, the number of berths is strictly limited and corresponds to the staffing table. However, often at the time of exit attract supernumerary l / s and places for recreation are not enough. And on boats of type "M" was not provided for the possibility of rest of the crew at the same time. There is only a two-shift watch. One shift is on watch, the other is resting.
In everyday life, people, with the exception of patients, pay little attention to atmospheric pressure drops, which are harbingers of changes in the weather - the approach of the storm, the approach of anticyclone, precipitation. On diesel boats on the surface when operating diesel engines, these drops are especially noticeable, as if they are “beaten” over the ears, if the system of general ship ventilation is not adjusted, or the boat goes “under the RDP”.
The situation was somewhat different with habitability on nuclear-powered ships.
If the diesel locomotive conditions of habitability depended on the season and the area of navigation, then on nuclear-powered ships everything depended on the position of the boat - surface or underwater.
The microclimate inside the submarine, due to the high energy efficiency of the AEU, provided comfortable conditions for the habitability of the crew, regardless of the time of year and navigation area. Another thing is when the boat is on the surface, and the watch officer and signalman are on the bridge watch. Here the situation is more favorable than on diesel boats. Atomic-powered ships are larger than diesel boats, so the bridge fills them with less.
Drinking water is produced in sufficient quantities without restriction. Refrigerators allow you to store significant stocks of food. Food ration rates are higher and better than on diesel boats. Modern galley equipment provides for baking fresh bread in an amount sufficient for the entire crew. The rate of autonomous food rations is quite large, both in cost and in calories around 5500 cal. Only test pilots have higher. However, constant replacements of high-quality products with lower-quality sausage (cooked sausage with boiled wine, dessert wine with fortified wine, canned food “Sevryuga in tomato sauce” with “Flounder in tomato”, etc.) do not allow submariners to get what they are supposed to talking about the constant theft. Only later, 4-years of service on nuclear-powered ships, when I was in Komsomolsk-on-Amur, I not only saw what was a sea autonomous ration, but also received it. Often there were cases when at the end of combat service, the boats extended the deadlines for performing new tasks. If the quartermaster was caught stealing and did not actually take the products for complete autonomy, but only showed by documents, then this could lead to the disruption of the combat mission. Such an incident occurred at the K-57 fleet, when the commander of the 26 diplomat Rear Admiral Korban V. Ya. Was on board, arriving on the boat 15 minutes before her departure to the BS. After 40 days after performing BS tasks, when the boat returned to the base, by the decision of ComTOF, she was extended another 15 days, since according to the documents, the quartermaster received products for 60 days. For the last 15 days, the crew’s meals were extremely scarce: in the morning, one dryer for breakfast, at lunch — a 1 can of canned meat for three, and supper again tea and drying. It is a pity that upon returning to the base, the quartermaster did not bring a military tribunal to court, as the divisional commander wanted. A shower and laundry room along with a gym, which can be deployed if necessary, create sufficient comfort. Smoking on 1 submarines of the generation was allowed only in the surface position on the bridge. If the commander of the BCh-5 or the division -3 commander was a smoker, some smokers managed to make a few puffs. In a submerged position, the boat was slightly “blown” and there was an increased pressure in the compartments up to 800 mm Hg. post and more. This is often artificially done by the aforementioned mechanics. To remove the excess pressure, a diesel was started for several minutes, near which smokers gathered. On the 2 boats and subsequent generations, smoking rooms were provided, from the walls of which, after a short time, the unpleasant smell of tobacco emanated. With noise, things were the same as on a diesel boat, only diesel in the surface position worked for a short time to replenish stocks of VVD. A strong sound "whistle" issued separate mechanisms GTSA.
A nuclear submarine is capable not to surface for a long time in a surface position, which increases its secrecy.
Being at a depth of more than 100 meters, nuclear-powered ships are not subject to rolling and the influence of meteorological conditions.
However, atomic icebreakers there is a constant threat of radiation exposure. On submarines of the first and second generation l / s of non-mechanical service, dosimeters were not issued at all. In fact, the probability of exposure may be slightly different for mechanics and navigators. Of course, the main “recipients” of radiation doses are special holds, managers, Kipov and radiometrists. And everyone knew about it. So, according to the chemist, Lieutenant-Captain Boris Nefedov, two L / W steam generators flowed into the K151 fleet during combat service in September 1963, and all of the ship’s dosimeters went off scale and all shipborne dosimeters went off scale. Then, without emerging, a gas-filled compartment was vented all over the boat. As a result, the entire crew received a certain dose of radiation. But for some reason this case was not included in the order of the Civil Code of the Navy for the benefits of l / s in case of a GEM accident.
Long military service, especially rpksn, when during the 75-80 day the whole crew is ready to conduct combat operations, it is difficult for an unprepared person to withstand psychological stress. On rpksn "K-366" in the first campaign l / s warhead-2 was torn and intimidated by the commander of the warhead. Unable to withstand such tension, one of the young sailors tried to commit suicide. He stabbed himself in the chest with a knife. During the operation, the ship's doctor discovered that the heart bag was wounded and stitched. The sailor survived. It was the first heart operation performed by the ship's doctor at sea, for which he was awarded the medal “For Military Merit”.
The issue of the psychological compatibility of the crew in carrying out the tasks of the BS has never been given any attention.
Medical support in boat-based locations does not always meet the requirements. As a rule, there is no medical examination on boats before going to the BS. Limited to only random check. Well even if the ship's doctor can pass a secondment for surgery at the hospital. Dental care is almost absent. We in the 15 squadron had only two dental paramedics - an alcoholic who could not provide any medical aid without alcohol. Even for sailors in fixed-term service, they demanded 0.5 a liter of alcohol for treatment, and in the morning they could not work because they were too humorous. shaking hands.
In addition to the performance of combat service, nuclear-powered ships were brought to combat duty. The officers considered this a punishment.
What is the difference between combat service and combat duty? In combat service, their professional level increased. In addition, they received additional leave and surcharge (ocean). When they were on combat duty for 60 days, they were constantly in 40-minute readiness for going to sea. Technique all worked. It was impossible to get off the ship. And frequent checks commissions of all ranks? In addition to the "wicks" for two months will not earn anything. And in the Northern Fleet, the boats interceded on duty for only 15 days "?".
And still, submariners, despite the difficulties described above, preferred to be in the sea, where there were no commissions and fewer bosses of all ranks, and people were engaged in their main business - they defended the Homeland. Admiral S. O. Makarov is right when he said: "In the sea - at home."
On the severity of the underwater service can not affect the areas where ships are based and the living conditions of families. If these are areas prone to frequent earthquakes, tsunamis and floods, if the biological hours of human activity break down for six months a night, and in winter there are frequent snowstorms and typhoons in the summer, few people will want to live in these areas. Therefore, these conditions were trying to compensate for some benefits - additional leave, cash surcharges, etc.
But here, too, the leadership of M. O. allowed leveling, which could bring nothing but harm. All normal people have questions, why an officer - submariner from a nuclear boat receives a service allowance in remote areas 100% of the salary and his service life is counted "one month for two", as well as to officers of surface ships, employees on the coast or army officers .
The service on submarines took place under conditions of constant stress. All emergencies, as a rule, were silenced and were not reported to the command of the formation. For example, the rpl project 629a under the command of captain 1 rank K. in 1965, went to military service. When carrying out trimming in Avachinskaya lip, an error was made in its calculation, as a result of which the boat received a significant trim on the bow. An unsecured combat torpedo in the nose torpedo apparatus struck its head on the TA front cover. When viewed from a torpedo, a shell crack and a dent were discovered. According to the requirements of the valid documents, the boat had to return to the base and replace the torpedo. However, realizing that this may entail, the commander did not report "upstairs" about the incident and continued to move to the area of combat service. In the sea, a skilled midshipman dented a dent and closed a crack. The report on the incident by the commander of the PL was not made even on his return from the autonomous system. The torpedo was passed without comment, and only a few months later the defect was discovered.
Stressful situations include radiation, fires, partial flooding, or water entering compartments, navigation accidents and accidents with weaponsIn one way or another this took place practically on all boats. It is known that in the post-war period the Navy lost 22 submarines (11 nuclear and 11 diesel), which killed more than 650 people.
Not everyone maintained such a service "to wear out."
At the Pacific Fleet in early March 1968, when the X-NUMX project K-675 was assembled at the base station, during a medical examination, the commander of the boat captain 7, rank Janbikh V.F., was diagnosed with a microinfarct “on foot”. Despite this, he was going to the BS. Only after the intervention of the division commander Vladimir Yakovlevich Korban, was the boat commander removed from participation in the march for health reasons and transferred to service in VMOLUA.
18 February 1976 or 1977, the commander of the 8 division of the submarine division of the 2 fleet, 1 rank captain Lazarev, Yury Sergeevich, fired missiles at his division.
At this time, command and staff exercises were conducted in the fleet under the direction of the Commander of the Pacific Fleet, Admiral Maslov V. P. The officers of the fleet headquarters were in the Protected Command Station Pacific Fleet in a dungeon. At about 23.00 hours a telegram arrived at the address of the Commander from the Navy Administration. It said that the captain of the 1 rank, Lazarev Yu. S., was awarded the title of "rear admiral" by a decree of the USSR Council of Ministers. At the same time, the RDO arrived in the name of V.P. Maslov from the boat where Lazarev was stationed, that the captain of the 1 rank, Lazarev Yu.S., was unconscious. The presumptive diagnosis is myocardial infarction. A few hours later, without regaining consciousness, Lazarev Yu. S. died. He did not even know that he received the rank of Rear Admiral. He was just 44 of the year.
At the autopsy, traces of 8 microinfarction were found. For the last two years, he has been almost constantly at sea in the boats of his division, he was not granted any leave, which affected his health.
At the beginning of the 80s, the commander of the nuclear submarine of the 671rt project of the Northern Fleet, Captain 1 of the rank of Harold Mosolov, returned from autonomous navigation. After mooring, he went to headquarters for a report. Rising to the second floor, he fell and died from acute heart failure. He was also only 44 of the year.
Taking care of the health of the submariners, the GC of the Navy, by its order, established that during autonomous navigation periods from 30 to 45 days after returning within a month, the crew must be provided with sanatorium treatment for days 10. For longer voyages, from 45 to 60 days - 15 days, from 60 to 90 - 20 days, from 90 or more - 24 days. But none of the command in the fleet was interested in granting such long vacations. The issue of reducing the period of rest was solved very simply. Campaigns were planned so that the boat was at sea not 45 days, but 43, not 60 days, and 58 days. Then the holidays were less.
In general, medical and sanatorium support for submariners was previously organized extremely poorly. For 10 years of service on submarines, I received a ticket to a sanatorium once, and a rest house twice. Upon receipt of the family voucher to the sanatorium of the European part of the USSR, military transportation documents were issued to a family member, which was mainly used by staff officers.
Service on submarines is hard work and no exotics. What prompted young people to choose this profession? Recently, at a regular meeting, my classmates were asked what led them to the naval school. Most responded to the romantics, and the sense of duty helped to endure any kind of hardship and deprivation that was forbidden to complain about by the statute of the USSR Supreme Soviet. And some chiefs still did so, "so that the service did not seem to be a paradise." They had a lot of ways. But more about that another time.