Military Review

Conditions of service on post-war diesel submarines and submarines of the first generations of the Soviet Navy

33
Conditions of service on post-war diesel submarines and submarines of the first generations of the Soviet Navy



“It’s time to recognize all submarine crews as units of special risk, endowing their members with decent social guarantees. We must finally realize that we live in a great maritime state. Great even in the grandeur of his sea catastrophes, not to mention his undisputed great achievements ... Today, every Russian is simply obliged to know the names of his underwater aces, pioneers and martyrs ... "
Rear Admiral Shtyrov A. T.


I still have not been able to meet in the media a description of the conditions of life and service on submarines. Those who are not connected with this, have no idea about the life of submariners, and some envy their "salaries".

The definition of "extreme" can be safely attributed to almost all submariners. Submarine service in the royal navy, on the first Russian boats, especially during the Great Patriotic War, and even today, it is still a service in extreme conditions. The stress was constant. And not only were, but there will be.

In the 60-70-ies, the Navy had a lot of diesel projects 615, 613 or 641 of various modifications and almost the same conditions of habitability. When I read that air conditioners had been installed on American diesel submarines since the time of 1 World War I, I was shocked. Of course, the USA is a rich country. She could allow the cost of such weapons and living conditions for the crews of submarines, which we could not even dream of.

In winter, when the air temperature was from minus 20 to minus 30 ° С inside the boat was plus 3-5 ° С. When in the surface position “they were charging or ventilated the boat,” there was generally “Dubak”. To keep a watch on the bridge is like standing at the pole under a fan. None of the designers came up with real protection from the wind. After all, when the boat goes under diesel engines at an average speed with a head wind, it blows through. A windbreaker mounted on boats — this is the “achievement” of advanced Soviet engineering thought — has nothing to do with its name. The watch officer is forced to put on his underwear first, then the underwater clothing (woolen sweater and leggings), trousers and tunic, then alpaca and wadded or alpaca trousers. On the feet are boots or felt boots with “elephant” type galoshes. But that's not all. In order not to bleed and sea salt does not spoil the skin of the alpaca, put on the coating. On the hands of leather mittens. Everything. To duty is ready. Stop. And if the wave covers even the bridge, when the boat digs into the waves, you want to be dry, put on a hydro-overalls. Finally, you are ready to step on the watch. Having risen on the bridge, you put on the fire belt and fasten it with a carbine to the fencing of the cabin so that you will not be washed away. I have never seen such a watch officer in any film. 4 hours of watch, when with a certain periodicity the bridge is covered by a sea wave, and you are covered with ice buildup, not everyone can stand it. It is impossible to show this, because a naval officer should be, like in the movies, “he should also be shaved and stroked, and the gun must be fitted”. The watch is over, and the re-entering watch officer clears the ice from the one he replaces, who is frozen to the logging fence, by a crowbar. And try to run up and down in full dress, which, however, did not save the watch officer from becoming an "ice woman."

American submariners do not have a problem with working clothes for keeping watch on the bridge in winter. They wear lightweight, waterproof overalls with temperature control. The bridge and the place of bearing the watch is well protected from wind and waves.

It was not better in the summer, especially in autonomous swimming. The combat service areas were located mainly in the tropics or subtropics, and sometimes in the equatorial zone. The outboard water temperature was up to the depth of 200 meters + 28 ° С, and the outside air was more than + 30 ° С. In the submerged position, and this, as a rule, in the daytime in the compartments the air temperature rose to + 35-45 ° С, and the decks in the second and fourth compartments, where the batteries are, are not lower than + 42 ° С. In the diesel compartment, the air temperature exceeded + 50 ° С.

All compartments had high humidity, evaporation, and carbon dioxide content increased to 10 MPC. The fans were spinning for nothing, not cooling at all, but only driving hot air. Water supplies were strictly limited, we had to wash only with sea salt water and only with special soap. The shower was in the cabin fencing, but, as a rule, they were not used, because at any time the boat should be ready for an urgent dive. One outlet is a bridge where the exit by tokens is allowed only to a limited number of people. When the boat goes under the RDP, and you lose it. About natural needs and say nothing. Food is organized mainly by canned food, and fresh food is not stored in food stores for a long time. The commanders of the boats pay special attention to the selection of the cocks, who are able to prepare food suitable for different temperature conditions, and do not feed you at + 40 ° C hot dishes. Drinking water is available, but in limited quantities. It was hard for those who suffered the addiction - to smoke. In the submerged position, smoking is strictly prohibited, and in the surface - only on the bridge. The truth "under the RDP" sailors still managed to smoke around working diesel engines. And so from 45 to 90 days.

The boat commander keeps his watch almost 24 hours a day, even in a dream, “not disconnecting” from everyday worries and anxieties. He defines the time for rest to the navigator himself. On diesel boats of type "M" and "Medium" of the 613 "B" project, the combat schedule provides for a staff of only one navigator who, during 45 days, combines the carrying of running and navigator watches. Diesel boat to replenish air reserves and charging AB forced to float in the surface position or become under the RDP, which is extremely dangerous. There were times when boats were generally forbidden to stand under the RDP. And strong pitching also can not affect the performance of crew members. It is especially strongly felt in the first (torpedo) compartment, where two types of pitching are applied - onboard and keel.

In the surface position during the operation of diesel engines, there is a strong noise mainly in the 5-th compartment. In the submerged position in the compartments the constant rumble of the selsyns, their monotonous sound annoying to many. On the steering-verticals he acts "lulling". Especially at night when the boat goes "economy." course, for a long time without changing course.

On boats, the number of berths is strictly limited and corresponds to the staffing table. However, often at the time of exit attract supernumerary l / s and places for recreation are not enough. And on boats of type "M" was not provided for the possibility of rest of the crew at the same time. There is only a two-shift watch. One shift is on watch, the other is resting.

In everyday life, people, with the exception of patients, pay little attention to atmospheric pressure drops, which are harbingers of changes in the weather - the approach of the storm, the approach of anticyclone, precipitation. On diesel boats on the surface when operating diesel engines, these drops are especially noticeable, as if they are “beaten” over the ears, if the system of general ship ventilation is not adjusted, or the boat goes “under the RDP”.

The situation was somewhat different with habitability on nuclear-powered ships.


If the diesel locomotive conditions of habitability depended on the season and the area of ​​navigation, then on nuclear-powered ships everything depended on the position of the boat - surface or underwater.

The microclimate inside the submarine, due to the high energy efficiency of the AEU, provided comfortable conditions for the habitability of the crew, regardless of the time of year and navigation area. Another thing is when the boat is on the surface, and the watch officer and signalman are on the bridge watch. Here the situation is more favorable than on diesel boats. Atomic-powered ships are larger than diesel boats, so the bridge fills them with less.

Drinking water is produced in sufficient quantities without restriction. Refrigerators allow you to store significant stocks of food. Food ration rates are higher and better than on diesel boats. Modern galley equipment provides for baking fresh bread in an amount sufficient for the entire crew. The rate of autonomous food rations is quite large, both in cost and in calories around 5500 cal. Only test pilots have higher. However, constant replacements of high-quality products with lower-quality sausage (cooked sausage with boiled wine, dessert wine with fortified wine, canned food “Sevryuga in tomato sauce” with “Flounder in tomato”, etc.) do not allow submariners to get what they are supposed to talking about the constant theft. Only later, 4-years of service on nuclear-powered ships, when I was in Komsomolsk-on-Amur, I not only saw what was a sea autonomous ration, but also received it. Often there were cases when at the end of combat service, the boats extended the deadlines for performing new tasks. If the quartermaster was caught stealing and did not actually take the products for complete autonomy, but only showed by documents, then this could lead to the disruption of the combat mission. Such an incident occurred at the K-57 fleet, when the commander of the 26 diplomat Rear Admiral Korban V. Ya. Was on board, arriving on the boat 15 minutes before her departure to the BS. After 40 days after performing BS tasks, when the boat returned to the base, by the decision of ComTOF, she was extended another 15 days, since according to the documents, the quartermaster received products for 60 days. For the last 15 days, the crew’s meals were extremely scarce: in the morning, one dryer for breakfast, at lunch — a 1 can of canned meat for three, and supper again tea and drying. It is a pity that upon returning to the base, the quartermaster did not bring a military tribunal to court, as the divisional commander wanted. A shower and laundry room along with a gym, which can be deployed if necessary, create sufficient comfort. Smoking on 1 submarines of the generation was allowed only in the surface position on the bridge. If the commander of the BCh-5 or the division -3 commander was a smoker, some smokers managed to make a few puffs. In a submerged position, the boat was slightly “blown” and there was an increased pressure in the compartments up to 800 mm Hg. post and more. This is often artificially done by the aforementioned mechanics. To remove the excess pressure, a diesel was started for several minutes, near which smokers gathered. On the 2 boats and subsequent generations, smoking rooms were provided, from the walls of which, after a short time, the unpleasant smell of tobacco emanated. With noise, things were the same as on a diesel boat, only diesel in the surface position worked for a short time to replenish stocks of VVD. A strong sound "whistle" issued separate mechanisms GTSA.

A nuclear submarine is capable not to surface for a long time in a surface position, which increases its secrecy.

Being at a depth of more than 100 meters, nuclear-powered ships are not subject to rolling and the influence of meteorological conditions.

However, atomic icebreakers there is a constant threat of radiation exposure. On submarines of the first and second generation l / s of non-mechanical service, dosimeters were not issued at all. In fact, the probability of exposure may be slightly different for mechanics and navigators. Of course, the main “recipients” of radiation doses are special holds, managers, Kipov and radiometrists. And everyone knew about it. So, according to the chemist, Lieutenant-Captain Boris Nefedov, two L / W steam generators flowed into the K151 fleet during combat service in September 1963, and all of the ship’s dosimeters went off scale and all shipborne dosimeters went off scale. Then, without emerging, a gas-filled compartment was vented all over the boat. As a result, the entire crew received a certain dose of radiation. But for some reason this case was not included in the order of the Civil Code of the Navy for the benefits of l / s in case of a GEM accident.

Long military service, especially rpksn, when during the 75-80 day the whole crew is ready to conduct combat operations, it is difficult for an unprepared person to withstand psychological stress. On rpksn "K-366" in the first campaign l / s warhead-2 was torn and intimidated by the commander of the warhead. Unable to withstand such tension, one of the young sailors tried to commit suicide. He stabbed himself in the chest with a knife. During the operation, the ship's doctor discovered that the heart bag was wounded and stitched. The sailor survived. It was the first heart operation performed by the ship's doctor at sea, for which he was awarded the medal “For Military Merit”.

The issue of the psychological compatibility of the crew in carrying out the tasks of the BS has never been given any attention.

Medical support in boat-based locations does not always meet the requirements. As a rule, there is no medical examination on boats before going to the BS. Limited to only random check. Well even if the ship's doctor can pass a secondment for surgery at the hospital. Dental care is almost absent. We in the 15 squadron had only two dental paramedics - an alcoholic who could not provide any medical aid without alcohol. Even for sailors in fixed-term service, they demanded 0.5 a liter of alcohol for treatment, and in the morning they could not work because they were too humorous. shaking hands.

In addition to the performance of combat service, nuclear-powered ships were brought to combat duty. The officers considered this a punishment.

What is the difference between combat service and combat duty? In combat service, their professional level increased. In addition, they received additional leave and surcharge (ocean). When they were on combat duty for 60 days, they were constantly in 40-minute readiness for going to sea. Technique all worked. It was impossible to get off the ship. And frequent checks commissions of all ranks? In addition to the "wicks" for two months will not earn anything. And in the Northern Fleet, the boats interceded on duty for only 15 days "?".

And still, submariners, despite the difficulties described above, preferred to be in the sea, where there were no commissions and fewer bosses of all ranks, and people were engaged in their main business - they defended the Homeland. Admiral S. O. Makarov is right when he said: "In the sea - at home."

On the severity of the underwater service can not affect the areas where ships are based and the living conditions of families. If these are areas prone to frequent earthquakes, tsunamis and floods, if the biological hours of human activity break down for six months a night, and in winter there are frequent snowstorms and typhoons in the summer, few people will want to live in these areas. Therefore, these conditions were trying to compensate for some benefits - additional leave, cash surcharges, etc.
But here, too, the leadership of M. O. allowed leveling, which could bring nothing but harm. All normal people have questions, why an officer - submariner from a nuclear boat receives a service allowance in remote areas 100% of the salary and his service life is counted "one month for two", as well as to officers of surface ships, employees on the coast or army officers .

The service on submarines took place under conditions of constant stress. All emergencies, as a rule, were silenced and were not reported to the command of the formation. For example, the rpl project 629a under the command of captain 1 rank K. in 1965, went to military service. When carrying out trimming in Avachinskaya lip, an error was made in its calculation, as a result of which the boat received a significant trim on the bow. An unsecured combat torpedo in the nose torpedo apparatus struck its head on the TA front cover. When viewed from a torpedo, a shell crack and a dent were discovered. According to the requirements of the valid documents, the boat had to return to the base and replace the torpedo. However, realizing that this may entail, the commander did not report "upstairs" about the incident and continued to move to the area of ​​combat service. In the sea, a skilled midshipman dented a dent and closed a crack. The report on the incident by the commander of the PL was not made even on his return from the autonomous system. The torpedo was passed without comment, and only a few months later the defect was discovered.

Stressful situations include radiation, fires, partial flooding, or water entering compartments, navigation accidents and accidents with weaponsIn one way or another this took place practically on all boats. It is known that in the post-war period the Navy lost 22 submarines (11 nuclear and 11 diesel), which killed more than 650 people.

Not everyone maintained such a service "to wear out."


At the Pacific Fleet in early March 1968, when the X-NUMX project K-675 was assembled at the base station, during a medical examination, the commander of the boat captain 7, rank Janbikh V.F., was diagnosed with a microinfarct “on foot”. Despite this, he was going to the BS. Only after the intervention of the division commander Vladimir Yakovlevich Korban, was the boat commander removed from participation in the march for health reasons and transferred to service in VMOLUA.

18 February 1976 or 1977, the commander of the 8 division of the submarine division of the 2 fleet, 1 rank captain Lazarev, Yury Sergeevich, fired missiles at his division.

At this time, command and staff exercises were conducted in the fleet under the direction of the Commander of the Pacific Fleet, Admiral Maslov V. P. The officers of the fleet headquarters were in the Protected Command Station Pacific Fleet in a dungeon. At about 23.00 hours a telegram arrived at the address of the Commander from the Navy Administration. It said that the captain of the 1 rank, Lazarev Yu. S., was awarded the title of "rear admiral" by a decree of the USSR Council of Ministers. At the same time, the RDO arrived in the name of V.P. Maslov from the boat where Lazarev was stationed, that the captain of the 1 rank, Lazarev Yu.S., was unconscious. The presumptive diagnosis is myocardial infarction. A few hours later, without regaining consciousness, Lazarev Yu. S. died. He did not even know that he received the rank of Rear Admiral. He was just 44 of the year.

At the autopsy, traces of 8 microinfarction were found. For the last two years, he has been almost constantly at sea in the boats of his division, he was not granted any leave, which affected his health.

At the beginning of the 80s, the commander of the nuclear submarine of the 671rt project of the Northern Fleet, Captain 1 of the rank of Harold Mosolov, returned from autonomous navigation. After mooring, he went to headquarters for a report. Rising to the second floor, he fell and died from acute heart failure. He was also only 44 of the year.

Taking care of the health of the submariners, the GC of the Navy, by its order, established that during autonomous navigation periods from 30 to 45 days after returning within a month, the crew must be provided with sanatorium treatment for days 10. For longer voyages, from 45 to 60 days - 15 days, from 60 to 90 - 20 days, from 90 or more - 24 days. But none of the command in the fleet was interested in granting such long vacations. The issue of reducing the period of rest was solved very simply. Campaigns were planned so that the boat was at sea not 45 days, but 43, not 60 days, and 58 days. Then the holidays were less.

In general, medical and sanatorium support for submariners was previously organized extremely poorly. For 10 years of service on submarines, I received a ticket to a sanatorium once, and a rest house twice. Upon receipt of the family voucher to the sanatorium of the European part of the USSR, military transportation documents were issued to a family member, which was mainly used by staff officers.

Service on submarines is hard work and no exotics. What prompted young people to choose this profession? Recently, at a regular meeting, my classmates were asked what led them to the naval school. Most responded to the romantics, and the sense of duty helped to endure any kind of hardship and deprivation that was forbidden to complain about by the statute of the USSR Supreme Soviet. And some chiefs still did so, "so that the service did not seem to be a paradise." They had a lot of ways. But more about that another time.
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  1. Toit
    Toit 20 May 2013 08: 36 New
    +8
    Very interesting article, thanks.
    1. Uncle
      Uncle 20 May 2013 21: 07 New
      -6
      Quote: Toit
      Very interesting article, thanks.

      I agree, I read a lot of books about the submariners of the Second World War, I conclude that in peacetime, the situation in the navy was worse than during the Second World War. And the mass of the people yells: "How good it was in the USSR!" Hypocrites! The elite of the fleet, submariners existed in bestial conditions, and they sing odes to sausage! Soybean supposedly was not!
      1. IgWest
        IgWest 20 May 2013 23: 28 New
        +5
        In Soviet times, serving boats was better and more interesting than now. Believe the man who served on both diesel and nuclear submarines from lieutenant to captain of the 1st rank, both in the Soviet and in the current corrupt time. Why - a separate conversation - is beyond the scope of today's discussion.
  2. Crang
    Crang 20 May 2013 08: 41 New
    +2
    Personally, was inside one of the eyeliners pr.613. What can I say .... Just Tin. There is no place for nifig - if something happens you will not come out. There is no heating either. Dubachina is terrible. The toilet is located completely open in the diesel compartment just behind the right diesel engine. Dining table - it's an operating table. There is also no place to sleep. Two cabins for the boat. However, these cubicles are difficult to call cabins. And this is in a rather large boat about 90m long. Underwater speed maximum 10-12uz and only for an hour. Brutal technique.
    1. IgWest
      IgWest 20 May 2013 22: 20 New
      +3
      Incidentally, the 613 project is the best in its class for its time, the most numerous, reliable and with good export potential. She was jokingly called a bicycle. I went through four military services on it, never let down, swallow. Well, about the everyday difficulties of habitability, after decades, I recall with humor: 8 officers (all young were from the commander - cap.3 p. To the navigator - lt) and 9 midshipmen. I’m not talking about sailors. No one was whining, except that the doctor endured heavily.
      1. Crang
        Crang 20 May 2013 22: 44 New
        +1
        Why is she the best? What was the best about her? Performance characteristics are worse than some large boats of WW2, incl. and our P-class cruisers with two 100mm gun mounts and a bunch of 533mm TA.
        1. IgWest
          IgWest 20 May 2013 23: 54 New
          +4
          Hear me - best-in-class medium submarine. The Escu cannot be compared to cruising submarines or nuclear powered ones. Purpose, patrol areas and tasks are different. The artillery was removed from the 613 project in the 50s. A "pile" of 533 mm and even 650 mm torpedo tubes is not an indicator. In the history of practical combat exercises (dueling situation) diesel 613 and 641 (large submarines) more often outperformed nuclear submarines. On this basis, after all, no one claims that the DPL is better than the Premier League. However, the 613 project is a significant milestone in the history of underwater shipbuilding.
        2. Misantrop
          Misantrop 20 May 2013 23: 56 New
          0
          Quote: Krang
          What was better about her?
          Well-thought crew living conditions
          1. Crang
            Crang 21 May 2013 08: 34 New
            0
            Well, are you joking? I was inside pr.613. There are no habitat conditions there. Sleep on torpedoes, help everyone in plain sight and in the wild cold.
            1. Misantrop
              Misantrop 21 May 2013 15: 32 New
              0
              Quote: Krang
              No habitat conditions there
              As with the vast majority of submarines in almost all countries, including the US nuclear submarines. Cabin accommodation with a separate berth for each is available only on some of their most advanced submarines (which their crews are terribly proud of). Here in the base they have living conditions MUCH cooler than ours, there is no arguing ...
              1. Crang
                Crang 21 May 2013 17: 57 New
                0
                Just don’t say what is the same in pr.941, where even a swimming pool and a zoo are ....
                1. Misantrop
                  Misantrop 21 May 2013 22: 00 New
                  0
                  Quote: Krang
                  Just don’t say what is the same in pr.941
                  The USSR nuclear submarine is a happy exception in this regard. Not only the command group lives in the cabins, but the entire crew. The sailors have 4-6 berth cabins. By the way, the guys from "Sharks" most often poured potatoes into the pool autonomously lol
                  But the zoo is not there (unless a very wild sailor will be called wassat ) A lounge area in the wardroom is available. With aviary for birds. That's just they live there sucks, quickly die, alas. If you take a little kitten into the sea, it will survive and take root. Adult - no, no options. And we had a cat, signalmen dragged in front of the autonomous in a suitcase with secrets lol
                  1. Crang
                    Crang 22 May 2013 01: 42 New
                    0
                    You probably don't know who the cat "Samuel" was?
                    1. Misantrop
                      Misantrop 22 May 2013 10: 46 New
                      0
                      Quote: Krang
                      who was the cat "Samuel"?
                      Our cat was called Filka (by the name of the then commander). In general, only four submarine divisions were based in Gadzhievo, and there were these bases on Kola ... I know something else, on the nuclear submarine 4 types of living creatures feel more or less normal: a red cockroach, a gray rat and ... a person. Everyone else can survive if they get small and grow there, otherwise they die quickly. It is clear that there are no rules without exceptions.
                      By the way, when I just came to the fleet, gyms, exercise machines, etc. were on the submarines are very popular. There were special methods for physical training, attention was paid to this. And then, when the corpses went, the Moscow Region was forced to send a whole commission of doctors to seriously deal with this issue. They chose the crew, conducted a full examination of health and physical condition. According to its result, the crew was divided into 3 groups. The entire autonomy, the first group was trained in a bunch of different techniques, the second was a control one (they did not touch it), and the third was done as sparingly as possible without physical exertion, with a minimum of movement and physical exertion. And after autonomy, having given a week to get used to the shore, we again conducted examinations and tests. And it turned out that the best indicators were given exactly ... by the third group. After this, the manuals on the AF were removed, the simulators were dismantled (the bulk, in some places the fans got the hang of it) and recommendations were made to limit physical activity at sea. These are the conclusions ...
                      By the way, I took a sports pedometer with me to one of the autonomous vehicles. I hung it on my belt and wore it without taking it off. Those. he recorded not only steps, but also "got up, sat down, bend". I wrote down readings for a week, divided by 7. The result was rather strange. If the standard step is counted as 72 cm (although wherever on the submarine you step like that), then on average it turned out 400-500 m of movement per day ...
                      1. Crang
                        Crang 22 May 2013 12: 21 New
                        0
                        Samuel the Cat was originally the ship's cat of the British Grand Fleet. He took part in the battle of Jutland. He drowned several times. He was picked up by the British, then the Nazis. Changed several ships in two fleets. As a result, there were legends about this cat, and it was not in vain that he earned the nickname "Unsinkable Sam". I can't tell you the commanders of battleships in WW1 right off the bat, but I know this guy.
  3. navy33
    navy33 20 May 2013 08: 44 New
    11
    yes, a good article, I myself served an urgent one at RTMe, everything happened on the hikes, but still there are some pleasant memories and a bald spot on the top of my head fellow to all who have lasting greetings and many long years! soldier
    1. Crang
      Crang 20 May 2013 13: 03 New
      +3
      That cool pr.671RTM, and then dizelyuhi.
      1. Fuzeler
        Fuzeler 20 May 2013 13: 35 New
        +3
        Dear Craig! You diesel boats do not rush to discount)
        1. Crang
          Crang 20 May 2013 15: 56 New
          +1
          I don’t take off. But I was in one and it was winter. I'll tell you - it's just tin. There are not created elementary conditions for human performance. I wouldn’t go to such a boat for less than 150000 rubles / month. And then I would have thought. Given its speed characteristics - for warships the boat pr.613 is almost harmless because more than one attack will not be given to her. Yes, and weapons - only straight-line 533mm torpedoes. For the 50-60s, it’s not ice anymore.
          1. Fuzeler
            Fuzeler 20 May 2013 16: 59 New
            +2
            Dear Krang! You are very, very wrong about torpedoes, and about pr. 613.
            To begin with, with the end of World War II, torpedoes ceased to be, as you say, "forward". Since the 2s, mine and torpedo weapons have undergone and are undergoing significant changes, and Soviet weapons did not lag behind the weapons of a potential enemy here. I don’t know why you decided that the torpedoes went only in a straight trajectory - I don’t know. Scour the network about the SAET-50M torpedo, for example, and you will understand that you have rushed to conclusions. Or, if here, of course, the link is valid, http://vadimvswar.narod.ru/torpedo/saet.htm, here in more detail about some types of torpedoes. This is about the warhead-50.

            And here is what I will tell you about Project 613: yes, of course, it was inferior to Project 641 in armament and autonomy (after all, Project 613 is the average type of boats, and Project 641 is ocean type), but it was not inferior in reliability and secrecy. Her only big minus, like all diesel submarines, is that she had to come up to recharge.
            However, if the boat floats to recharge, this does not mean that it is immediately discovered (remember the story of the "Swedish Komsomolets" pr. 613, when it went in the Swedish waters in the CRUISING position, and ran aground near the SECRET naval base of the Swedish Navy) ... Conditions are different.

            And as for the service on modern diesel engines, I will tell you this: go to pr. 877, and make sure that it, in comparison with pr. 613 (and pr. 641), is heaven and earth. There are more places there, habitability is more comfortable.
            1. Crang
              Crang 20 May 2013 17: 05 New
              +1
              I asked the captain about the torpedoes. He said only erect. There are no homing ones. Straight forward with firing control system. To compare with pr.877. This is not a diesel engine but the newest boat with fuel cells and full electric propulsion (and on the surface too). This is yes - "Black Hole" - NATO's codename speaks for itself.
              1. Fuzeler
                Fuzeler 20 May 2013 17: 12 New
                +1
                Project 877 has been under construction since the 80s. You, perhaps, confuse with pr. 677? The last boat - yes, is equipped with an electrochemical engine, rocket launchers inside the hull.
                A very strange captain came across to you, very.
                1. Crang
                  Crang 20 May 2013 17: 50 New
                  0
                  Maybe confused. Or with pr.636 something like that. This is cooler than nuclear boats. They are almost noiseless. Either the atomic ship whistles, hisses, howls. Whether such a boat, which is practically silent in all modes.
            2. Misantrop
              Misantrop 21 May 2013 00: 14 New
              +1
              Quote: Fuzeler
              And as for the service on modern diesel engines, I will tell you this: go to pr. 877, and make sure that it, in comparison with pr. 613 (and pr. 641), is heaven and earth.

              Will we compare Ford T with BMW 5? winked In fact, the PL 613 project is a slightly completed 21W German development of the end of the Second World War. We had a teacher who sobbed into a group that shook out documentation from the British (they initially grabbed it). Is it any wonder that living conditions are better on modern ones, and newer technology? winked
          2. IgWest
            IgWest 20 May 2013 22: 42 New
            +1
            Krang, where do you get information from? 613 project was armed with quite modern homing torpedoes in service with our Navy, which are still in use. For example, against surface ships - 53-65K. Only two torpedoes in the bow torpedo tubes were installed on the "forward" and that, because they were equipped with special ammunition (nuclear). Low submerged speed (on electric motors "full speed ahead" - 3,2 knots) is rather an advantage for her. I am talking about the times of the late 70s - mid 80s.
            1. Crang
              Crang 20 May 2013 23: 12 New
              0
              The commander told me so. I asked him if it was possible to load the RK-533 "Granat" operational-strategic cruise missiles into the 55mm TA of his boat and if it had homing torpedoes. He told me that this is not. And all torpedoes are only forward bikes. I also showed their firing control system. The EMNIP console was located behind the periscope, slightly to the right, in front of the hatch into the battery pit.
  4. pinecone
    pinecone 20 May 2013 09: 33 New
    +2
    Thank you for the article. As for sanatorium vouchers for officers, it is true: they were received, as a rule, at headquarters and rear services, and not only in the Navy, but also in all types of armed forces.
    1. sso-xnumx
      sso-xnumx 20 May 2013 22: 30 New
      0
      That's for sure! Himself a former Nach.Med. service, but I have never been to a sanatorium.
  5. avt
    avt 20 May 2013 09: 51 New
    +4
    Serve on a submarine - live in a clockwork. hi Well, how on diesel in low latitudes went request ....
  6. Fuzeler
    Fuzeler 20 May 2013 10: 53 New
    +8
    The submarines of pr. 641 had air conditioners. Only they were never turned on, tk. they absorbed a lot of energy, made a lot of noise, and often failed. When my father was on the BS, they were hijacked by the command somewhere in the southern seas (19 brigade of submarines of the Pacific Fleet), so, he said, inside the boat it was over 50 degrees. They wore only shorts, and the beds were such that they were simply squeezed out in jets. A boat floats up, ventilation starts, and they (divers) lose their heads from the fresh air for a second or two, for a moment they do not recognize each other (and who is weaker, and falls off his feet). As soon as they surfaced, the watchmen only climbed to the bridge, when the R-3 Orion began to hum, passing on low level flight over the boat (they were scratching almost with screws on the retractable devices).
    But they carried out their tasks.
    1. atalef
      atalef 20 May 2013 12: 01 New
      +2
      Quote: Fuzeler
      they were stolen by the command somewhere in the southern seas (19 br. PL TOF), as he said, inside the boat there were over 50 degrees. They walked in their underpants, and the beds were such that they simply squeezed out in jets

      My (father) recounted that even cowards were cut so it was so hot.
  7. Sirozha
    Sirozha 20 May 2013 11: 19 New
    +3
    Explaining to ignorant people about the conditions of service on the submarine, you sow the article in terms and abbreviations, without explaining what it is.
    RDP is what?
    1. Fuzeler
      Fuzeler 20 May 2013 11: 26 New
      +6
      RDP is a Submerged Diesel Operation. "
      1. Sirozha
        Sirozha 20 May 2013 13: 56 New
        +2
        Thank! :)
        I tried to google, but there is no decryption anywhere.
    2. sso-xnumx
      sso-xnumx 20 May 2013 22: 20 New
      0
      RDP - Diesel Work Underwater, in German - snorkel or snorkel, who both pronounces
  8. Hemi cuda
    Hemi cuda 20 May 2013 14: 35 New
    +1
    Godfather said that the most severe during his service was that the Caribbean heat crisis was unbearable.
  9. smershspy
    smershspy 20 May 2013 17: 51 New
    +2
    Good article! Thank!
  10. TUMAN
    TUMAN 20 May 2013 18: 47 New
    +3
    It is known that in the post-war period, the Navy lost 22 submarines (11 nuclear and 11 diesel), which killed more than 650 people.

    Where does this statistic come from?
    I have such information!
    * According to the book S.P. Bukan. "In the wake of underwater disasters", during the post-war period, 11 submarines were killed in the USSR Navy, four of them were nuclear-powered. ** Marine collection. 1992. number 10, p. 33. )
    1. Know-nothing
      20 May 2013 20: 56 New
      +1
      Perhaps it is not death (drowning) that is considered, but the impossibility of recovery from an accident, for example, like K-431.
      1. TUMAN
        TUMAN 20 May 2013 21: 58 New
        -3
        Quote: Dunno
        Perhaps it is not death (drowning) that is considered, but the impossibility of recovery from an accident, for example, like K-431.

        Custom article! About the watch, about the clothes, and the statistics of the catastrophes of the submarines are not true. Therefore, a false article, intended to denigrate the Soviet school of underwater shipbuilding!
        1. IgWest
          IgWest 20 May 2013 23: 17 New
          +3
          You shouldn't be like that. One can argue with some small points of the article, but it is interesting for those who went to sea on these ships. I myself, being the officer of the watch of the pl 613 of the project on the bridge in winter, put on underpants, a quilted jacket, cotton pants, and on top of alpacas larger in size with an alpaca (baloney cover for alpacas), well, felt boots, respectively, preferably with shoe covers from chemical. set (in boots - chilly). There is a mistake in the death statistics. I don't pretend to be accurate, but 19 boats were lost. Six - together with crews: 1 diesel (K-129, commander V.I.Kobzar), 5 nuclear. And in the article there is no gibberish about Soviet shipbuilding. They built excellent boats. There were design flaws. But they cannot be avoided when in many ways it was "for the first time."
  11. mirror
    mirror 20 May 2013 22: 21 New
    +2
    Unfortunately, this is our tradition - it is very little to think about people. And unfortunately, it continues. What are the living conditions for families in the garrisons? There is no heating, then water. By the way, what is the form of a naval officer in terms of its convenience in a marine climate? Indeed, the sea always has high humidity, frequent rains, wet snow.
    Well, the conditions of service in the article are well said. Often, everything was aggravated by the strange endeavor of some fathers-commanders to ensure that the subordinate service did not seem to be honey. And more often than not for the sake of business.
    But, damn it, everything happened, but for some reason I personally came across smart and sensible commanders and superiors. And service is the best time of life, and in a dream I am still in a black overcoat. smile But I really want the current submariners, surface combatants, pilots, tankmen and infantrymen to serve easier and their families to live better.
    Yes, even though I didn’t serve on boats, and the staff parquet had a chance to polish my shoes, but for some reason I didn’t get a ticket to the sanatorium laughing
  12. sso-xnumx
    sso-xnumx 20 May 2013 22: 27 New
    0
    Hey, you up there .... (with general stars, TUMANu)
    But do you yourself go down into the boat and go weakly into the ocean for 90 days on a diesel engine? do not shout about custom articles if he himself has never been there. My friends there served in the Soviet Navy, 90% of the truth in the article !!!!!!!!
    1. TUMAN
      TUMAN 20 May 2013 22: 57 New
      0
      Quote: sso-250659
      Hey, are you up there .... (with general stars, TUMAN) But do you yourself go down into the boat and go weak for 90 days on a diesel engine? do not shout about custom articles if he himself has never been there. My friends there served in the Soviet Navy, 90% of the truth in the article !!!!!!!!

      Do not boil! And sit down and turn on the brain! The cited figures of the catastrophes are incorrect, so the author cheated, and therefore the article can be considered implausible, then, false. I was not at nuclear powered ships and diesel submarines, but a relative served on the nuclear submarines, and I talked a lot, but I didn’t say that. For comparison, on American submarines, one bunk for two. I did not say that there were no difficulties (in the Navy there are no difficulties), but not to such an extent! Yes, and you yourself were not, and yelling, as if several autonomous regions had passed! hi
      1. Misantrop
        Misantrop 21 May 2013 00: 32 New
        +3
        In fact, during the Soviet era, Primorye was a place of exile for boobies, slovens, etc. If the author of the article did not write it up, then we can only sympathize. At the Northern Fleet it was still better with the organization of the service. The medical board before the BS was a MANDATORY condition for the ENTIRE crew. As well as post-hiking rest in a sanatorium. And just try not to go, it won't seem a little (including financially - they will leave only "for the stars").
        The officer in charge and the steering in the freeboard position are not pleasant enough. But most of all, the constant smell of diesel fuel shocked me from my unaccustomed habit on DPL. This is the fundamental difference between it and the nuclear-powered ship. It seems that take any rag, squeeze harder - and from it the diesel fuel will drip.
        That which did not bother with psychological compatibility is a fact. At least I have never heard of a transfer to another crew for this reason.
        Constant pressure drops in the compartments are also a fact. There are quite a lot of pneumatically controlled fittings on the submarine. The discharge goes into the compartment, so that the robust housing is constantly inflated. Just run a diesel engine to relieve pressure ... belay The VVD compressor was started up, at the same time replenishing its stock. So the barometer walked regularly from one end of the scale to the other. Somewhere once a day. Usually they tried to dock this to the surfacing session for communication - they evacuated the ship, and together with the antenna they raised the RCP shaft. They opened the valve and ... the boat breathed in. Indescribable sensations, to be honest. The branch pipe just in the area of ​​the BP-65 came out (my post on alarm)
        1. Fuzeler
          Fuzeler 21 May 2013 10: 35 New
          0
          Quote: Misantrop
          In fact, during the Soviet era, Primorye was a place of exile for boobies, slobs, etc.

          I bet on this topic. He lived in Shkotovo-22, in Vlad, in Koms (there were officers from all the Pacific Fleet recruited). The officers were the same everywhere
          Where are you?
          1. Misantrop
            Misantrop 21 May 2013 15: 27 New
            0
            Quote: Fuzeler
            Where are you?

            Gadzhievo, Olenya. KSF. After UHVMIU graduates were distributed among fleets. Here are the impressions from there. Those who were called up from the same regions aspired to the Pacific Fleet. True, most of them tried to get to Kamchatka. There the ships are a little newer, and the seniority with finances. But KSF skimmed the cream. And if ours got to the Black Sea Fleet, it was only through a steep pull - not our specialties, there are no nuclear ones at the Black Sea Fleet request
  13. xomaNN
    xomaNN 21 May 2013 21: 57 New
    0
    Thanks to the author, who apparently walked many miles under water, for the real life description of the submariners of those years ..
  14. Eugene
    Eugene 22 May 2013 21: 30 New
    +1
    Here, Comrade Kreng swirls about the conditions. Nothing personal. But after three years of service you realize that a person gets used to everything. If he is not a mercenary. Galyun in the middle of the compartment? For God's sake, in a couple of squats, you will learn to wipe in front of everyone! Is it cold? You’ll be healthier. What should I do? Drop onto the deck and start yelling that I can’t do this ?! Alas. It won’t work. The wizard doesn’t fly in the Blue Helicopter. And what about the Amer’s benefits of civilization? Now what if they don’t exist, drop it war? It’s clear that it’s flour. But you somehow survived! And the planes were cold Oh, and the tanks were heated stove bad, but because pobedili.Tak and then bylo.Kstati, Kreng, you know that in the Soviet time was prohibited in washbasins have hot water in the army? Wildly sounds, but it fakt.Udachi.
  15. Alexey Antonov
    Alexey Antonov 11 November 2017 12: 02 New
    +1
    And what "11 nuclear submarines" did our Navy "lose" in the post-war period? Can I ask the author to list them? With dates, rooms and location?