Military Review

We fell from a height of 192 km and reported on this.

6



At that moment, when the engine of the last stage ceases to work, an extraordinary sensation of lightness begins - as if you fall out of the seat of the chair and hang on the seat belts. The movement with acceleration stops and the cold lifeless Cosmos takes in its arms those who risked breaking away from the small Earth.

But why is this happening right now? A puzzled look at the timer - 295 second flight. Early to shut off the engine. Six seconds ago, the second stage of the launch vehicle separated, and the third stage engine started at the same time. Intensive acceleration should continue for another four minutes.
Sudden overload in the transverse direction, slight dizziness. A sunbeam darted around the cabin. An alarming siren. Flash on the instrument panel. A fiery red banner slashed in his eyes: “The accident of the RN”.

By this time, the rocket and space system had already reached an altitude of 150 kilometers. They are on the threshold of the Cosmos, but they cannot take their final, final step to go into orbit! The general illogicality of the situation in which the Soyuz-18 expedition found itself, the improbability of the incident and vague ideas about the consequences of such an emergency situation shocked the crew and ground observers. A similar case with a critical accident in the upper atmosphere occurred for the first time in stories Soviet Astronautics.

We fell from a height of 192 km and reported on this.


- Chief, what happens at the top?

- For some unknown reason, there were problems with the design of the launch vehicle, at 295-second flight, the automatics separated the ship from the third stage. For the next couple of minutes, the Soyuz will continue moving up the ballistic trajectory, after which an uncontrollable fall will begin. According to our express calculations, the top point of the trajectory will be at an altitude of 192 kilometers.

- How dangerous is it?

- The situation is really serious, but it is too early to despair. Those who created the "Union" worked through this situation ...

- Start aborted. What happens next?

- Rescue program. Algorithm number XXUMX. This option is triggered when an accident occurs at the launch site between 2 and 157 seconds of flight. The height of a couple of hundred kilometers. The speed is close to the first space. In this case, an emergency separation of the Soyuz from the launch vehicle takes place, followed by the separation of the spacecraft into a descent vehicle, orbital and instrument-aggregate compartment. The descent control system must orient the capsule with the astronauts in such a way that the descent takes place in the "maximum aerodynamic quality" mode. Further, the descent will take place in normal normal mode.

- So, cosmonauts are not in danger?

- The only problem is the correct orientation of the descent vehicle. At the moment, specialists have no confidence that the capsule will assume the correct position in space - in the first seconds of the emergency third stage, the rocket-space system has been offset relative to the vertical plane ...



Meanwhile, the struggle for the life of two people aboard a falling ship unfolded in the upper atmosphere. The genius of the human mind came to grips with mighty gravity and heat. High-precision gyroscopes recorded every displacement around any of the three axes — based on the data obtained, the on-board computer determined the position of the ship and promptly issued corrective signals to the engines of the orientation system. In an unequal battle with the elements entered Teflon "shield" - until the last layer burns through, the heat-insulating screen will firmly protect the ship from the mad fire of the atmosphere.

Can the fragile man-made “prow” resist the sizzling heat and the monstrous loads that accompany the hypersonic flight through the dense layers of air? The descent vehicle, wrapped in a raging cloud of plasma, flew down from a height of 192 kilometers, and no one could have imagined how this “despair leap” would end in the abyss of the aerial ocean.

From the speakers in the Mission Control Center, there were hoarse, muffled cries of Vasily Lazarev and Oleg Makarov. The worst fears of experts were confirmed - the descent took place with a negative aerodynamic quality. The situation on board the descent vehicle caused more and more fears with each passing second: the overload went too far for 10g. Then on the telemetry tape a terrible figure 15 appeared. And, finally, 21,3g - the script threatened to turn into the death of the brave explorers of the Cosmos.

The vision began to "go away": at first it turned into black and white color, then the angle of view began to narrow. We were in a faint state, but still did not lose consciousness. While the overload is pressing, you only think that you need to resist it, and we resisted as best we could. With such a huge overload, when it is unbearably hard, it is recommended to scream, and we screamed with all our might, although it looked like it was a squeezed wheeze.

- from O. Makarov's memoirs

Fortunately, the situation began to return to normal. The speed of the descent vehicle decreased to acceptable values, the slope of the trajectory almost disappeared. Earth, meet your lost sons! The parachute gently slammed over his head - the heat-resistant container withstood the test of the roaring plasma, retaining a saving piece of matter inside.

The capsule with the astronauts confidently walked to the surface of the Earth, but the joy of happy rescue was suddenly overshadowed by an attack of anxiety — the navigation system’s evidence clearly showed that the ship was dropping in the Altai region. Landing area is near the border with China! Or behind the line of the Soviet-Chinese border?

- Vasya, where is your gun?

- "Makarov" in the container, along with other special equipment.

- Immediately upon landing, you need to burn a secret journal with the program of the expedition ...

While the plan of action was discussed, the engines of a soft landing worked - the descent module touched the earth's firmament ... and immediately rolled. Obviously, no one expected such a turn of events: the space capsule “landed” on a steep mountainside! Subsequently, Makarov and Lazarev will understand how close they were to death at that time. Only by luck, the astronauts did not shoot off the parachute immediately after landing: as a result, the canopy, caught on stunted trees, stopped the descent vehicle in 150 meters from the cliff.


Installation of the landing place "Soyuz TM-7". Memorial Museum of Cosmonautics

Wow! Twenty minutes ago they were standing on the launch pad №1 of the Baikonur cosmodrome, and the warm steppe wind caressed their faces - then the Earth seemed to be saying goodbye to their children. Now both astronauts were standing across the chest in the snow and looking with horror at the descent vehicle, miraculously hovering over a precipice.

At this time, search and rescue flew into the alleged area of ​​the proposed landing aviation: the aircraft quickly spotted the beacon of the returning vehicle and established the location of the astronauts - “The situation is normal. Landing occurred on the territory of the Soviet Union. I’m watching two people and a landing capsule on the slope of Mount Teremok-3 ... Reception. "

To communicate with the aircraft, it was necessary to return to the lander, which threatened to leave the place every second and roll into the abyss. The astronauts took turns descending into the hatch: while one was busy inside with the radio station, the crew member remaining on the slope insured his comrade, “holding” the three-ton apparatus by the lines. Fortunately, this time everything was fine.


Typical landing site of the "Union"

After circling over the landing site, the aircraft proposed dropping a batch of paratroopers to help, which was decisively rejected - there was no need for that. The astronauts were waiting for the rescue "turntable". The helicopter arrived, but could not evacuate people from a steep slope. The insane adventure ended only the next morning - the Air Force helicopter took the astronauts and safely delivered them to Gorno-Altaisk.

The rise and fall of "Soyuz-18"

In accordance with the tradition of Soviet cosmonautics, "clean" numbers were assigned only to successful launches. The suborbital flight of Oleg Makarov and Vasily Lazarev received the designation “Soyuz-18-1” (sometimes 18А) and was buried in archives under the heading “top secret”.

According to stingy reports, the launch of the ship was made on 5 on April 1975 of the year from the Baikonur cosmodrome and ended after 21 a minute 27 seconds in 1574 kilometers from the launch point, on the territory of Gorny Altai. The maximum lift height was 192 kilometers.

As it was established later, the wrong opening between the second and third stages became the cause of the accident - as a result of the wrong command, three of the six locks prematurely opened. The multi-ton launch vehicle began to literally "bend" in half, the thrust vector deviated from the calculated direction of motion, and dangerous lateral accelerations and loads appeared. Smart automatics took this as a threat to the lives of people on board and immediately took the ship away from the launch vehicle, transferring the returning vehicle to a ballistic descent path. What happened next, we already know. The capsule landed on the slope of Mount Teremok-3, on the right bank of the Uba River (currently the territory of Kazakhstan).



The crew of the Soyuz-18-1 spacecraft consisted of two cosmonauts - commander Vasily Lazarev and flight engineer Oleg Makarov. Both were experienced specialists who had already been in orbit as part of the Soyuz-12 expedition (it is noteworthy that for the first time, in the 1973 year, they flew in exactly the same composition).

Despite the dizzying descent to cosmic heights, both astronauts were not only alive, but also completely healthy. After returning to the USSR Cosmonaut Detachment, Makarov flew into Space again (Soyuz-27, 1978 Year and Soyuz T-3, 1980 Year) - each time the flight was successful. Vasily Lazarev was also allowed to fly into space, but he didn’t manage to go more into orbit (he was the understudy * of the crew commander of Soyuz T-3).

* Two crews usually arrive at the cosmodrome: the main and the backup ones. They have identical training, are familiar with the program of the upcoming flight and are consistently interchangeable. If on the launch pad a member of the main crew pushes a leg up - a double will immediately take its place.

In the “era of glasnost”, the incredible story about falling from cosmic heights became the property of the media. Oleg Makarov did not just give interviews, joked how “they fell and reported on this with foul language,” recalled with horror how they were nearly strangled by a monstrous overload, told about their experiences about the landing site and how they drowning in the snow, burned the logbook and other important documents. But he spoke with particular warmth about the creators of the super-reliable Soyuz spacecraft, which saved their lives in a situation when it seemed that death was inevitable.

Epilogue. Chance of salvation

The Soyuz rocket-space system provides crew rescue in the event of any emergency situations in all parts of the trajectory of the introduction of the ship into Earth orbit. The exceptions are the catastrophic destruction of the launch vehicle (similar to the explosion of the American Shuttle Shuttle), as well as such terrible exotics as “captives of the orbit” - the ship cannot maneuver and return to Earth due to engine failure.

A total of three scenarios were provided, each for a specific time range.

Scenario number XXUMX. It was carried out from the moment when the hatch of the spacecraft slammed and the attendants descended on the elevator to the foot of the giant rocket. In the event of a serious problem, the automatic system literally “breaks” the spacecraft in half and “shoots” aside a block from the head fairing and a capsule with people. Shooting is performed using a solid engine of the head fairing - in view of this condition, scenario No. 1 is valid until the 1 second flight, until the time of discharge of the head fairing.

According to calculations, during an accident on the launch pad, the capsule with the astronauts flies up a kilometer up and a couple of hundred meters away from the launch vehicle, then a soft landing with a parachute follows. Engine thrust head fairing reaches 76 tons. The running time is just over one second. Overload in this case rolls over 10g, but as they say, you want to live ...

Of course, in reality everything was much more complicated - many factors were taken into account when saving astronauts. For example, after passing the “Rise” command (the rocket broke away from the launch pad), the first stage PH engines had to work for at least 20 seconds - in order to take the system to a safe distance from the launch pad. Also, during an accident in the first 26 seconds of flight, it was assumed that the descent vehicle was landing on a reserve parachute, and after the 26 second flight of the aircraft (when the required height was reached), on the main flight.

Scenario number XXUMX. It was demonstrated by the Soyuz-2-18 spacecraft emergency rescue system.

Scenario number XXUMX. The upper part of the trajectory. The ship is already in open space (a height of several hundred kilometers), but has not had time to gain the first space velocity. In this case, a regular separation of the ship’s compartments follows - and the descent vehicle produces a controlled descent in the Earth’s atmosphere.










Space launch from the Plesetsk cosmodrome. View from the embankment of the City Pond in Yekaterinburg



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  1. The comment was deleted.
  2. viktorR
    viktorR 20 May 2013 11: 03 New
    +4
    If a member of the main crew tucks up their foot on the launch pad, their double will immediately take their place.

    Actually, not one crew member is replaced, but the entire crew, since they must be worked together.
  3. Volkhov
    Volkhov 20 May 2013 12: 16 New
    +1
    The comet in the stratosphere over China is good - can I have another photo or link?
    Space launch from the Plisetsk cosmodrome. View from the embankment of the City Pond in Yekaterinburg


    This picture is especially interesting because of the back plasmoid.
  4. Reserve buildbat
    Reserve buildbat 20 May 2013 14: 40 New
    +3
    And we thought it was the first step away ...
    1. Volkhov
      Volkhov 20 May 2013 16: 03 New
      +1
      Altitude - 40 km approximately, range 150 ... 200, i.e. the dimensions are kilometer and the second body does not have a cone of shock wave - that is, unlike the first one, there is no solid body in it, only a plasma ghost.
      The speed is three times higher than the rocket.
      1. viktorR
        viktorR 20 May 2013 18: 10 New
        0
        Three times faster than rocket speed
        On the eye identified on the photo?
        the dimensions are kilometer and the second body does not have a compression shock cone
        Look at the water, photo taken with a very long exposure
        1. Volkhov
          Volkhov 20 May 2013 19: 06 New
          +1
          Quote: viktorR
          Look at the water, photo taken with a very long exposure

          Do not write nonsense - with a long shutter speed, the details of the twists of the main body would be blurred. Exposure is short.
          The height is visible by the spread of the trace - the boundary of the ionosphere, the distance along the angle above the horizon, hence the size of the plasma.
          This shot is known as Chinese, far from Plesetsk. The speed and the video is visible, also from the geometry.
          1. Santa Fe
            20 May 2013 19: 34 New
            +2
            Quote: Volkhov
            This shot is known as Chinese, far from Plesetsk.

            Dear, what else is China, this is my favorite city of Sverdlovsk (Yekaterinburg, Yo-burg)

            If you have not been to Sverdlovsk,
            We invite you to visit and wait,
            We are in our city together
            Admiring the beauty, let’s go through.
            1. Volkhov
              Volkhov 20 May 2013 22: 35 New
              0
              Indeed, Yekaterinburg, only a comet flies, is the same as over China. This is even more interesting - there were no media reports, but there was everywhere about the Chinese, their appearance was similar, so they mixed it up.
              For reference - a comet of this size gives a Gigaton power of the explosion (3 orders of magnitude more powerful than the Chelyabinsk), after them the deserts remain like Sinai ... The flight of the comet is tangent to the ionosphere and in this (as in Chinese) case not ballistic, the corridor of such a flight is a few degrees, the explosion buried a bit, and the comet's course is from the North, that is, across the ecliptic, there are few such comets, but then it came and fell into the “needle eye” ...
              You can jump to the ceiling that the city is in place.
              When flying over China, it seemed that someone scared the Rothschilds or the Tibetans, but now they paid attention to the Urals.
              The concern of the authorities is encouraging - they did not report either before or after, only the usual lies about the launch, we do not know anything about protecting the information of the Russian Federation far ahead of China.
              1. Reserve buildbat
                Reserve buildbat 21 May 2013 13: 47 New
                +2
                Here is a link to the news from 05.05.2011. http://www.e1.ru/news/spool/news_id-348861.html. It says it all. No comets
              2. Reserve buildbat
                Reserve buildbat 21 May 2013 21: 01 New
                +2
                “Late in the evening, around 23: 50 local time, in the northern part of the sky, a very bright luminous point quickly rose to the zenith. Behind the point was a brightly lit long train. A minute later, another one separated from the point, a brightly lit dome-shaped halo appeared around it - apparently, the rocket stage separated. The sight was very beautiful and unusual for our city. Judging by the azimuth of the place of appearance of the rocket, the launch was made from ZATO Free near Nizhny Tagil, ”suggested one of the users of Е1.RU portal. Many citizens have decided that they see a UFO.
                The Space Forces on Wednesday, May 4, conducted a successful launch of a Soyuz-2.1 launch vehicle with the Meridian apparatus on board, told RIA Novosti the Space Defense Ministry’s spokesman for Space Forces, Lieutenant Colonel Alexei Zolotukhin.

                "On Wednesday in 21: 41 Moscow time from the launcher N 4 of the site N 43 of the Plesetsk cosmodrome with the crew of the Space Forces successfully launched a medium-class launch vehicle (PH) of the Soyuz-2.1 spacecraft with the Meridian spacecraft," Zolotukhin said.
                The launch of the carrier rocket proceeded normally, he noted.
          2. viktorR
            viktorR 21 May 2013 11: 07 New
            0
            and details of the twists of the main body
            - What are the details forgive? Can you circle them in the picture for clarity?
            Once again, judging by the brightness of the photo and blur, and what the photo was taken at night, the shutter speed was great!
            But nonsense is just what you wrote about
            The height is visible by the spread of the trace - the boundary of the ionosphere, the distance along the angle above the horizon, hence the size of the plasma.
            1. Volkhov
              Volkhov 21 May 2013 12: 53 New
              0
              The ripples on the water are clearly visible - did she stand?
              1. viktorR
                viktorR 22 May 2013 16: 56 New
                0
                The fact of the matter is that it is blurry ...
  5. El13
    El13 20 May 2013 15: 52 New
    +1
    Many thanks to Oleg, I, a person who is deeply interested in astronautics, have never heard of this launch, I could not even imagine this ... After the recent accident, Progress (third stage) wondered what would have happened if it had been the Union with astronauts? But it turns out this already happened!
  6. postman
    postman 20 May 2013 16: 41 New
    +2
    Quote: Author
    The general inconsistency of the situation in which the expedition found itself Soyuz-18

    describes the situation for Soyuz-18-1 (Soyuz-18A), PH 11A511 Union (X15000-23) = April 5, 1975
    Soyuz-18 (Soyuz-18-V), LV Soyuz 11A511 (No. Ф15000-33) = May 24, 1975, successfully for 2 months

    Quote: Author
    A similar incident with a critical accident in the upper atmosphere occurred for the first time in the history of Soviet Cosmonautics.


    They did it because they practiced and prepared:
    Project BP-190
    research topic BP-150 "Missile probe"
    3 series suborbital flights of dogs: in 1951 - on the R-1B and R-1V missiles, in 1954-1957. - on missiles R-1D and R-1E, in 1957-1960. - on missiles R-2A and R-5A. On July 22, 1951, the dogs Desik and Gypsy flew to a height of about 101 km

    "lost cosmonauts": Alexey Ledovskikh, Sergey Shiborin, Andrey Mitkov and Maria Gromova?
    Especially with competitors:
    May 1, 5 Mercury-1961 3 km Alan Bartlett Shepard
    2 July 21, 1961 Mercury-4 190,3 km Virgil Ivan Grissom
    3 July 19, 1963 North American X-15 flight 90 106,0 km Joseph Walker
    4 August 22, 1963 North American X-15 flight 91 108,0 km Joseph Walker


    Quote: Author
    Entered into an unequal battle with the elements teflon “Shield” - until the last layer burns out

    Sure?
    The thermal protection system of Russian descent vehicles of single-use ships is completely unlike the thermal protection system of American shuttles (as well as the Russian Buran), based on the use of solid - albeit fragile, and this is the main problem - synthetic materials.

    As a heat removal mechanism, one of the most energy-intensive processes in standard physics was proposed - boiling
    thermal protection is based on ablative materials, structurally consists of a power set of elements (asbestotextolite rings) and a “coating” consisting of phenol-formaldehyde resins or materials similar in characteristics.
    1. Santa Fe
      20 May 2013 17: 29 New
      0
      Quote: Postman
      Sure?
      The thermal protection system of Russian descent vehicles of single-use ships is completely unlike the thermal protection system of American shuttles (as well as the Russian Buran), based on the use of solid - albeit fragile, and this is the main problem - synthetic materials.

      As a heat sink mechanism, one of the most energy-intensive processes in standard physics was proposed - boiling
      thermal protection is based on ablative materials, structurally consists of a power set of elements (asbestotextolite rings) and a “coating” consisting of phenol-formaldehyde resins or materials similar in characteristics.

      Shallow dirty trick wink

      I convinced on the spot
      1. postman
        postman 20 May 2013 17: 46 New
        0
        Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
        I convinced on the spot

        with me about 20 years traveled these pieces of TK. Somewhere isho is probably lying around, along with the "ashes" of the ancestors (the result of the incinerator in Trondheim)
        "View from the embankment of the City Pond in Yekaterinburg" in my retouch or treatment? there could be then such a qualification. OR?

        Threat. need to write: subЕSECC (not plИsetsk) - all at night and in a hurry?
        1. Santa Fe
          20 May 2013 17: 56 New
          0
          Quote: Postman
          "View from the embankment of the City Pond in Yekaterinburg" in my retouch or treatment? there could be then such a qualification. OR?

          Why? The photo was taken recently (maybe 5-10 years ago), there are all new buildings on the embankment
          Quote: Postman
          Threat. you need to write: Plesetsk (and not Plisetsk) -all at night and in a hurry?

          No, this one was written on Saturday.
          I seriously don’t know that Plesetsk is spelled "e"
          1. postman
            postman 20 May 2013 18: 09 New
            0
            Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
            did not know

            did not know SAME spelled did not know.
            recourse

            Hahhhh.
            I myself am a little illiterate ... today just broke through: groundhog day probably (or Surkova-KhZ)
        2. Reserve buildbat
          Reserve buildbat 21 May 2013 13: 42 New
          +2
          "View from the embankment ..." made in 2011g. I am familiar with many guys-photographers who managed to photograph this rocket. (Because of the good weather, they then actively walked along the Plotinka and the embankment).
          No photoshop. I saw pictures from several devices (albeit all very high-level SLRs). Exposure is not particularly high, as the sunset was bright.
          1. postman
            postman 21 May 2013 19: 17 New
            0
            Quote: stock buildbat
            Exposure is not very high, as the sunset was bright.

            in 1991 I have pictures (on film, a soap box), right from Baikonur: the start of the Union, the start of the Proton, the mines (blown up), but littered with tiles from the snowstorm, the runway of the Snowstorm, starting, the remains of N-1 ..., My leg on the fairing of Energy and so on.

            the quality is already about, time.
            Who would know that. Then childishness was
  7. postman
    postman 20 May 2013 16: 59 New
    0
    I want to add a little to the topic of suborbital flights and "lost cosmonauts": there are still rumors in the West that even before April 12, 1961, several Soviet cosmonauts traveled into space. But they all "died"
    They were “sent to space” by the newspaper
    Alexey LEDOVSKIY
    DATE OF “FLIGHT” November 1, 1957
    HOW KILLED (version of the Western media) Crashed on a manned ballistic missile at the Kapustin Yar training ground.
    WHO FIRST REPORTED Continental (Italy)
    WHERE HEARING FROM (what really happened)
    On May 25, 1957, a rocket with the dogs Red and Joyna was launched from Kapustin Yar. Due to depressurization of the cabin, the animals died.
    WHO IT IS: There is no information in the Central Archive of the Ministry of Defense.
    Sergey SHIBORIN
    DATE OF “FLIGHT” February 1, 1958
    HOW KILLED (version of the Western media) Crashed on a manned ballistic missile at the Kapustin Yar training ground.
    WHO FIRST REPORTED Continental (Italy)
    WHERE HEARING FROM (what really happened)
    On February 21, 1958, a rocket with dogs Palm and Fluff was launched from Kapustin Yara. Due to depressurization of the cabin, the animals died.
    WHO IT IS: There is no information in the Central Archive of the Ministry of Defense.
    Andrey MITKOV
    DATE OF “FLIGHT” January 1, 1959
    HOW KILLED (version of the Western media) Crashed on a manned ballistic missile at the Kapustin Yar training ground.
    WHO FIRST REPORTED Continental (Italy)
    WHERE HEARING FROM (what really happened)
    On October 1, 1958, a rocket with the dogs Zhulka and Knopka was launched from Kapustin Yar. When landing, the parachute did not work. The cabin crashed.
    WHO IT IS: There is no information in the Central Archive of the Ministry of Defense.
    Maria GROMOVA
    DATE OF “FLIGHT” June 1, 1959
    HOW DIED (version of the Western media): Died during tests of an orbital aircraft with a rocket engine.
    WHO FIRST REPORTED Continental (Italy)
    WHERE HEARING FROM (what really happened)
    April 19, 1959 launched the intercontinental ballistic missile "Storm". By the way, the "Storm" has been tested since 1957. Perhaps the first three "flight-ducks" echoes of these tests.
    WHO IT IS: There is no information in the Central Archive of the Ministry of Defense.
    Gennady Zavodovsky
    DATE OF “FLIGHT” May 15, 1960
    HOW DIED (version of the Western media): The 1KP ship was lost due to the failure of orientation systems.
    WHO FIRST REPORTED Continental (Italy)
    WHERE HEARING (what actually happened): on May 15, 1960, due to the failure of orientation systems, the first Soviet satellite ship was lost.
    WHO IS IT: In the 50s and 70s of the 2002th century, he worked as a test technician at the Institute of Aviation and Space Medicine. He died in XNUMX.
    Ivan KACHUR
    DATE OF “FLIGHT” September - October 1960
    HOW DIED (version of the Western media) The ship exploded at the start.
    WHO FIRST REPORTED Reuters (UK)
    WHERE HEARING (what really happened):
    September 16, 1960 - launch of the R-2 geophysical rocket with the dogs Palm and Malek on board.
    WHO IS IT: In the 50s and 60s, he worked as a test technician at the Institute of Aviation and Space Medicine. Then he left for Ukraine.
    Peter DOLGOV
    DATE OF “FLIGHT” October 11, 1960
    HOW DIED (Western media version) Explosion of a ship in orbit.
    WHO'S FIRST REPORTED Associated Press (USA)
    WHERE FROM HEARING (what really happened): on October 10 and 14, 1960, two unsuccessful launches of automatic stations to Mars were carried out: “1M No. 1”, “1M No. 2”.
    WHO IT IS: A test parachutist. The hero of the USSR. He died on November 1, 1962 at the next jump. He was not a member of the cosmonaut corps.
    1. postman
      postman 20 May 2013 17: 01 New
      0
      Alexey BELOKONOV
      DATE “FLIGHT” October 1960, 1961, 1962 (several versions of the death)
      HOW DIED (version of the Western media): Choked in space from lack of oxygen.
      WHO FIRST REPORT First source unknown - probably Reders DaIgest (USA)
      Corriere della Sera (Italy)
      WHERE HEARING FROM (what really happened): See previous paragraph.
      WHO IS IT: In the 50s and 80s of the 1991th century, he worked as a test technician at the Institute of Aviation and Space Medicine. He died in XNUMX.
      Alexey GRACHEV
      DATE “FLIGHT” November 28, 1960
      HOW DIED (version of the Western media) "The ship was lost in the depths of space."
      WHO FIRST REPORTED Corriere della Sera (Italy)
      HOW HEARING (what really happened): Unknown. There were no launches of space or ballistic missiles these days.
      WHO IS IT: In the 50s and 60s, he worked as a test technician at the Institute of Aviation and Space Medicine. He left Moscow in the mid-60s.
      Gennady MIKHAILOV
      DATE OF “FLIGHT” February 4, 1960
      HOW Died (Western media version): Equipment failure in orbit - there is no “exact” information.
      WHO FIRST REPORTED: Associated Press (USA)
      WHERE HEARING FROM (what really happened)
      February 4, 1961 - unsuccessful launch of an automatic interplanetary station to Venus. The station remained in Earth orbit.
      WHO IT IS: At that time, he worked as a test technician at the Institute of Aviation and Space Medicine. He left Moscow in the mid-60s.
      Vladimir Ilyushin: April 7, 1960
      HOW Died (Western media version): Crash during landing. The astronaut survived, but was captured by the Chinese.
      WHO FIRST REPORTED Daily Worker (UK)
      WHERE HEARING (what really happened):
      April 9, 1961 - unsuccessful launch of the R-9 intercontinental ballistic missile.
      WHO IT IS: Test Pilot. The hero of the USSR. He was not a member of the cosmonaut corps.
      =============
      brief analysis- ITALY leads .... request
      1. Santa Fe
        20 May 2013 17: 26 New
        0
        Quote: Postman
        I want to add a little to the topic of suborbital flights and "lost cosmonauts": there are still rumors in the West that even before 12 on April 1961, several Soviet cosmonauts visited space. But they all "died"

        a detailed description of the "retouched" photos of Soviet cosmonauts and the exposure of each myth.

        http://www.ufo.obninsk.ru/sled2.htm

        Most of these people did not exist, and those who really were in the cosmonaut squad, but "disappeared" by a strange combination of circumstances - all these people were expelled (health, committed misconduct, etc.) or died tragically on Earth, like Bondarenko
        1. postman
          postman 20 May 2013 17: 42 New
          0
          Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
          http://www.ufo.obninsk.ru/sled2.htm

          Read. it’s strange for me why the Italians were the leaders in the “ducks”?
          Maybe a candle factory (automobile) was bought for AvtoVAZ so that they shut up at a time?
          IMHO: after that, the "oh" (oh weird!) revelations from the Italian newspapers stopped
  8. postman
    postman 20 May 2013 18: 05 New
    0
    Oleg in your photo is not Soyuz 11A511 (before 1976), but Soyuz-U (11A511)
    After all, with the naked eye "visible"that the starting weight of 309,7tn
    crying
  9. luka095
    luka095 20 May 2013 23: 20 New
    0
    The version of the Soviet cosmonauts who died before Gagarin’s flight had a real basis - the possibility of negotiating with a ship in orbit was checked - the records were transmitted. Americans heard such experiments and claimed that there were people in space.
    They say that they shut up when ours scrolled the tape with the recording of Pyatnitsky’s choir ...