Today we will talk about how the US blackmailed Stalin with the opening of a second front. And why the peninsula of Crimea is still an apple of discord.
History of the Jewish Question
It all started long before the war. In 1920, after the liberation of Crimea from the troops of General Wrangel, Soviet sages faced the question - what to do with it? Before the revolution, the peninsula was a summer dacha for royal families, landowners and nobles. Agriculture on the fertile lands involved German immigrants and Jews, endowed with numerous benefits. The privileges of the new government immediately selected. And in the Crimea they thought - why should we feed Moscow? Through societies and unions, for example, the German “Bunde-Story” or the Jewish consumer cooperative “Amateur”, ex-migrants began to look for ways out to compatriots abroad.
Germany after the Versailles Peace Treaty lay in ruins. But Jewish lobby in the United States interested in the Crimea. In Simferopol, taking advantage of the plight, the sly sneaky charitable Jewish organization "Joint" climbed. The exact name is the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee. Agro-Joint, which actively assisted the Crimean Jewish colonists, began to actively operate. He financed the arrival of new settlers and the training of national personnel in local educational institutions of the Crimea.
Already in 1923, in the USSR and the USA, independently of each other, they began to discuss the idea of resettling Jews from Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia to land in the Black Sea region and creating national autonomy there. The head of the Jewish section of the RCP (b) actively lobbied for this idea. Abram Bragin. Already fatally ill, Lenin even visited the “Jewish Pavilion” at the All-Union Agricultural Exhibition 1923 of the Year sponsored by the Joint. In November 1923, Bragin prepared a draft document according to which for the 10 anniversary of the October Revolution it was proposed to form an autonomous Jewish region in the Northern Crimea, southern steppe part of Ukraine and the Black Sea coast up to the borders of Abkhazia, with a total area of 10 million dessiatinas. There should have been resettled already 500 thousand Jews. He was supported by Bukharin, Trotsky, Kamenev, Zinoviev, Rykov.
If you can not win - buy
At the end of the 20's, seeing the position of Moscow, "Joint" began to negotiate with the Kremlin to issue a very decent loan secured by the Crimean lands. The agreement was signed at the beginning of 20 of the entire top of the RSFSR. The Joint allocated 900 thousands of dollars a year during 10 years under 5% per annum. Also planned payment of additional amounts to 500 thousand dollars a year. Total - about 10 млн. still secured with gold, full-weighted dollars. To repay the Soviet state was from 1945 to 1954 year.
- Millions of hectares of the Crimean land were divided into shares. Two hundred largest financial and political surnames of America - Rockefeller, Marshall, Warburg, Roosevelt (and his wife Eleonora), Hoover and others bought these shares, - the chairman of the interdepartmental commission for research of archives of the KGB of the USSR with the rank of vice-premier told the “Moment of Truth” program Mikhail Poltoranin. That is aThe merikish Jewish lobby turned out to be the largest landowner of the Crimea.
Almost parallel to the flat areas of the Crimea there was the resettlement of the Crimean Tatars. Mutual insults began between arrivals and Tatars, sometimes turning into pogroms.
- Tatars deployed trains with Jews from Simferopol back to Ukraine, Belarus, Bulgaria. Pogroms have already settled Jewish families. It ended with the fact that Stalin said - "we can not kindle the flames of interethnic hostility." And in 1934, he created Birobidzhan, - says Mr. Poltoranin.
The branch of the "Joint" in the USSR was liquidated by the Decision of the Politburo of the CPSU (b) from 4 in May of 1938. But in the United States, they did not abandon the idea of taking the Crimean lands. And a new act of tragicomedy broke out during World War II.
Change the "second front" on the cake
Since the beginning of World War II, American newspapers have written very little about the atrocities of the fascists in our occupied territories. But in all details painted the defeat of the Soviet troops. Public opinion was not in favor of our country. Moreover, there is a catastrophic lack of money for the purchase abroad of food, medicine, weapons. After all, Lend-Lease for our country was not at all free.
In order to solve these two daunting tasks, Stalin gave the go-ahead to the creation of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee (EAC). The chairman of the presidium was the artistic director of the State Jewish Theater. Solomon Mikhoels. Responsible Secretary - Shahno Epstein, the vice-chairman is a poet and playwright Itzik Fefer. In 1943, the EAC delegation went on a tour of the Americas and England. For an almost semi-annual trip to the fund of the Red Army, about 32 million dollars were raised. More than 500 thousand people attended lectures and rallies of representatives of the USSR. Information blockade has been broken.
But the Americans would not be them if they did not derive their fully material benefits from such a show. The creation of “Crimean California” —an independent Jewish state — is a recurring theme at the meetings of Mikhoels and Fefer at meetings with the American and English establishment. Millionaire D. Rosenberg bluntly stated: "The Crimea interests us not only as Jews, but also as Americans, since the Crimea is the Black Sea, the Balkans and Turkey." Also, the Soviet delegation hinted that the first loan that Lenin issued could not be repaid. It is only necessary for the Kremlin to give the go-ahead to the creation of a Jewish state. Then they will even throw some money on the development of the Jewish Crimea - almost 10 billion dollars.
The idea has penetrated deep. Already in February, an interesting document was prepared in the EAC, which was put on the table by the First Deputy Chairman of the Council of People’s Commissars Vyacheslav Molotov. The document is worthy to quote it.
“During World War II, a number of questions arose related to the life and structure of the Jewish masses of the Soviet Union. Before the war in the USSR, there were up to 5 millions of Jews from the western regions of Ukraine and Belarus, the Baltic states, Bessarabia and Bukovina, as well as from Poland. In the temporarily seized by the fascists of the Soviet areas, it must be supposed that at least 1,5 a million Jews were exterminated.
At one time, the Jewish Autonomous Region was established in Birobidzhan, with the prospect of turning it into a Jewish Soviet Republic, in order to solve the legal and legal problem for the Jewish people. It must be recognized that the experience of Birobidzhan, due to a number of reasons, primarily the insufficient mobilization of all possibilities, as well as its extreme distance from the location of the main Jewish laboring masses, did not produce the desired effect. But, despite all the difficulties, the Jewish Autonomous Region has become one of the most advanced regions in the Far Eastern region, which proves the ability of the Jewish masses to build their statehood. Even more, this ability is manifested in the development of the created Jewish national regions in the Crimea.
In view of the foregoing, we would consider it expedient to create a Jewish Soviet Republic in one of the areas where this is possible for political reasons. It seems to us that one of the most suitable areas would be the territory of Crimea, which most closely meets the requirements both in terms of capacity for resettlement and as a result of successful experience in the development of Jewish national areas there. The creation of the Jewish Soviet Republic would once and for all resolve, in the Bolshevik manner, in the spirit of Leninist-Stalinist national policy, the problem of the state and legal status of the Jewish people and the further development of its age-old culture. No one has been able to solve this problem for many centuries, and it can be solved only in our great socialist country.
The idea of creating a Jewish Soviet Republic is extremely popular among the widest Jewish masses of the Soviet Union and the best representatives of fraternal peoples.
The Jewish mass of all countries of the world, no matter where they are, would help us in building the Jewish Soviet Republic. Based on the foregoing, we offer:
Create a Jewish Soviet socialist republic in the Crimea.
In advance, before the liberation of the Crimea, appoint a government commission with a view to developing this issue.
We hope that you will pay due attention to this issue, on the implementation of which depends the fate of an entire nation.
Presidium of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee of the USSR S. MIHOELS.
Secretary Sh. EPSHTEIN.
Presidium I. FEFER.
15 February 1944, Moscow ”
- Mikhail Nikiforovich, historians reproach you for not seeing the documents to which you refer when speaking of the “Crimean California”. Do they really exist?
- Yes, there are documents in the archives. At one time, when I worked in the declassification commission, we decided that the documents from 1917 to 1945 would be disclosed. Except, of course, documents on our agency. We declassified the documents, but Alexander Yakovlev, Dmitry Volkogonov, came to Yeltsin, and the president, once again, classified them secretly, illegally. They did this in order to pull documents out of the archive, only when they need to, distort the history of our country and pour dirt on it.
Vice for Stalin
Note that the Crimea is still in the hands of the Nazis, and the guys who have been to the United States are ready to create their own country and, most likely, to appoint themselves as its leaders. Molotov sent the project back. And in June, 1944 was held a meeting of a millionaire, president of the Chamber of Commerce Eric Johnston and the US ambassador to the USSR Averell Harriman with Stalin and Molotov. The Americans made a generous offer - to invest in the economy of the Crimea those most notorious 10 billion dollars. Instead, create a republic in which Jews from all over the world could come, turning it into the world's largest resort with a yield of almost 2 billion dollars.
Goodwill envoys demanded the already mentioned Mikhoels for the post. Stalin believed that Lazar Moiseevich Kaganovich cope. Plus, the money should go not only to the Black Sea coast, but to other regions that have suffered from the occupation. Americans did not want to pay so.
They tried to pressure Stalin from the other side.
- In 1943, Stalin complained Josip Broz Tito what's in tehran Roosevelt told him (Stalin) that The United States can no longer continue to supply Lend-Lease, because the Jewish lobby, which is very strong in America, requires me to create a project for the creation of the Crimean California. We (the United States) also cannot open a second front unless a decision is made on Crimea, - Mikhail Poltoranin refers to the conversation.
The pressure on Stalin, as we see, was enormous. The terms of payment on the promissory notes on the Crimean land were approaching. “Crimea is almost ours. The Soviets have no money, ”they rubbed their hands in the USA.
In 1945, in the year when the repayment of Lenin credits began, the notorious George Marshall wrote a secret letter to the former ambassador and now to Minister Harriman.
"US Commerce Secretary A. Harriman
The President approves your plans. He added the following to them. Coexistence in the territory of Crimea of the base of the Soviet Black Sea fleet and the Jewish Republic, open to the free entry of Jews from all over the world, seems inconsistent, fraught with unpredictable consequences. This from the very beginning raised his doubts about the reality of the “Crimean project”. Crimea should become a demilitarized zone. Let Stalin know that he must be prepared to relocate the fleet from Sevastopol to Odessa and the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus. Then we will believe that the Crimean Jewish Republic is a reality, not a propaganda myth. J. Marshall. "
Apparently, then Joseph Vissarionovich got one idea how to cheat those who consider themselves smarter than other Americans.
Versailles, Palestine, Khrushchev
- Stalin reminded the world Jewish lobby of the congress in Basel, which took place back in 1887 year. It was decided that homeless Jews should create their own state in Palestine. In the mid-forties of the last century, the British ruled there. And then Stalin in the 1946 year gave the command to supply weapons to the Jews who fought against the Arabs and the British. Tens of thousands of machine guns, machine guns, howitzers went to Palestine through Bulgaria. The opinion of Stalin - let Israel be in Palestine, and not in the Crimea, - says Poltoranin. As a result, 15 May 1948 was proclaimed the creation of Israel. The country was recognized by the United States and the Soviet Union, and on May 18, the USSR first established diplomatic relations with Israel on May 1948.
But, despite the fact that the Jews got Palestine, the idea of "Crimean California" did not die.
- In June, 1948, Golda Meir was appointed Israeli ambassador to the USSR, and on September 3 arrived in Moscow. For two weeks, she organized two meetings in Moscow on 50 thousands of people each. These were people from Leningrad, Moscow, even from Siberia. At meetings, they demanded to fulfill a promise to America and to give Crimea. As a result, it was decided to evict the “fifth column” from the Crimea. In the summer of 1953, the Arctic Circle - 17 steamers went to New Earth. It was the beginning of the operation, codenamed “White partridge,” Poltoranin specifies.
Stalin also planned to evict Jews from the major cities of the country, in particular from Moscow. Minister Furtseva already made lists. But suddenly - the mysterious death of the leader.
In 1954, Khrushchev gives the Crimea to the Ukrainian SSR. RSFSR, read - The Soviet Union ceased to bear legal responsibility for bills signed by the Russian government in 20-s. No one returned the money to the Americans. And after 1991, the Joint has again actively developed its activities in Ukraine, including in the Crimea.
Arguments of historians
Director of the International Center for the History and Sociology of the Second World War and its Impacts at HSE, Doctor of Historical Sciences Oleg BUDNITSKY
- The creation of Jewish autonomy in the Crimea was the idea of some of the leaders of the EAC. But there was no reason for this, and everything remained a wish. In 20-s, Jewish collective farms in the Crimea and other regions of Ukraine were actually created through Agro-Joint. But all this collapsed during the period of collectivization ...
Unfortunately, I am not familiar with the documents on the issuance of a JDC loan secured by the lands of Crimea. This umbrella charitable organization created to help the Jewish population during the First World War. She did not conduct business. Only helped the Jews to create state farms and rural communes, which was beneficial for the Soviet government. Therefore, to imagine a loan secured by the Crimean lands is very strange. I believe that this was not.
To say that the Americans cared for the creation of a Jewish state in Crimea is mythology. They even refused to bomb the access roads to Auschwitz in order to stop the delivery of Jews to the camp. According to the US, this is distracting Aviation from more important tasks. And imagine that the Americans are threatening Stalin with the termination of Lend-Lease due to autonomy in the Crimea - anti-Semitic and anti-American fabrications.
Gennady KOSTYRCHENKO, historian, author of the book "Stalin's Secret Policy":
- The question of creating an independent Jewish state has never stood. The letter of the JAC to Stalin dealt with the creation of the Jewish Soviet Socialist Republic. This, in my opinion, was a mistake. In his speech, Stalin emphasized: "Some Jewish comrades think that the Red Army is waging war for their future, and the Red Army is liberating the Soviet Union."
As for a certain loan on the security on the Crimean land, it was impossible. The land has already been nationalized. Agro-Joint actually financed and supported Jewish settlers. But almost half of the money was donated. And the second half of the Soviet Republic was to compensate. All debts in 30's were repaid. There were no other loans.
To say that Roosevelt threatened Stalin to stop supplying Lend-Lease and not to open a second front until the issue of “Crimean California” is resolved is fiction. Nowhere is this fixed, it is not in the documents of the Tehran and Yalta conferences.