Military Review

Day of the Baltic Fleet of the Russian Navy

28
Day of the Baltic Fleet of the Russian Navy

May 18, 1703 is considered the founding date of the Baltic fleet. On this day, a detachment of 30 boats with soldiers of the Preobrazhensky and Semenovsky regiments under the command of Tsar Peter I and Alexander Menshikov defeated the ships of the Swedish squadron of Vice Admiral Numers. This defeat forced the Swedish command to withdraw the squadron and leave the mouth of the Neva River forever. The Russian state took possession of the entire Neva and received a strategically important exit to the Gulf of Finland. To protect him, Sovereign Peter Alekseevich on May 27, 1703 founded a fortress on the island of Yanni-Sari (Hare Island). So the Peter and Paul Fortress and the city of St. Petersburg were founded - the future capital of the Russian Empire and the first Russian port on the Baltic Sea.


During the Northern War, the Russian army under the command of Field Marshal Boris Sheremetev approved the position of Russia in Izhora land (Ingermanlandia). This made it possible to proceed to the purification of Lake Ladoga and Lake Peipsi from the Swedish Navy. Swedish ships rendered a great help to their troops, hindered the advancement of the Russian army. It was decided to compensate for the absence of warships, which were just being built, using small ships. Detachments were formed from small river vessels — boats, rooks, carbas, planes, etc. Soldiers ’teams were put into the river courts. It is clear that in the linear battle the Russian units could not withstand the Swedish 10-20-gun ships with teams of experienced sailors. Therefore, the Swedish command did not expect serious opposition on the water, considering themselves masters of the situation. But the enemy underestimated the resourcefulness and courage of the Russian soldiers. They began to use river vessels not only for the transportation of goods, but also for attacks on enemy ships, which began to be captured on board the ship.

In May 1702, a detachment of Russian ships in a narrow strait that connected the Chudskoye and the Pskov Lakes, engaged the Swedish squadron under the command of Commander Lescherna. In the course of a fierce battle, the Russians seized the Flundran yacht for boarding, and then Vivat and the Watchman. 15 June 1702, the Russian ships under the command of Colonel Ostrovsky attacked the squadron of Vice-Admiral Numers at the mouth of the Crow River on Lake Ladoga. The moment was chosen successfully, the Swedes went ashore to plunder the surrounding villages. The Russians damaged the Swedish flagship - brigantine "Joya", the enemy was forced to retreat. Then the Russian flotilla under the command of Colonel Tyrtov attacked the squadron of Numers at Korela (Kexholm). The Swedes lost several ships and were forced to withdraw from Lake Ladoga to the Gulf of Finland.

Russian troops were able to besiege the fortress Noteburg (Oreshek). Two Swedish strongholds - Noteburg at the headwaters of the Neva and Nyenskans near its mouth, prevented the Russians from entering the Baltic Sea. At the end of September 1702, the siege of Noteburg began. 11 (22) October 1702, during a fierce assault, which lasted for twelve hours, the fortress was captured. Prince Mikhail Mikhailovich Golitsyn became the hero of the assault. When the Swedes repulsed all the attacks and Tsar Peter ordered to retreat, refused to carry out this order and continued the attack. Capturing Nut allowed launching an operation to capture the territory of the middle Neva and exit to the mouth of the river.

In the spring of 1703, the army commanded by Sheremetev reached the lower reaches of the Neva, and after a weekly siege against 1 (12) in May 1703, took the fortress of Nyenskans. The Swedish command had no information about the fall of the fortress, so after a few days a squadron under the command of Numers appeared at Nyenskans, she had to support the garrison. Swedish ships calmly anchored off the coast. The Russian command was warned about the appearance of the Swedish ships 9, they were noticed by a patrol under the command of Sergeant Mikhail Schepotyev, who was stationed on the island of Vitsasaari (Gutuyevsky Island). When the Swedish squadron filed a conventional sign - two gun shots, Sheremetev ordered to respond with two shots of fortress artillery. The password was correct. The fortress regularly in the morning and in the evening gave the conditional cannon signals, which convinced the Swedes that Nienshants still holds. May 6 from the squadron advanced two ships - 10-gun bot "Gedan" ("Pike") and 8-gun gun "Astrild" ("Star"). But before nightfall they did not have time to walk to the fortress and got up waiting for the morning.

When Peter was informed about this, he himself and Menshikov, for “no one else was, nobody knew the sea”, decided to carry out an operation to capture the enemy ships. The Russians took advantage of the fog, rainy weather and the fact that the Swedes did not expect an attack. In addition, when the enemy noticed the Russian boats, raised anchors and set sail to go to his squadron, a strong headwind was blowing, preventing movement. Part of the Russian boats came from the sea. The battle began. Despite the strong gun and artillery fire, the boats were able to get close to the Swedish ships. The soldiers went to board the ship. The sovereign was one of the first to burst onto an enemy vessel. Both ships were captured. Loss speaks about the rage of the fight: only 77 people survived from the Swedes from 13 (according to other sources, 102 remained from the 22 people). Russians lost 75 people, 20 killed (1 officer), 55 injured (6 officers).

The Swedish squadron, discouraged by the loss of two ships, was gone. Captured ships became part of the Russian fleet. 30 May Peter marked this first naval victory with a triple volley. Peter and Menshikov were awarded the Order of St. Andrew the First-Called by the military council. All participants in the battle were awarded: the officers - gold medals with chains, and the soldiers - silver medals without chains. On one side of the medal there was a bas-relief portrait of Tsar Peter I, and on the other side there was a fragment of the battle and the inscription: “The Unbeatable Happens. 1703.

December 19 1995 by the order of the Commander-in-Chief of the Navy of the Russian Federation 18 May is declared the day of the creation of the Baltic Fleet and since the year 1996 is celebrated as the Day of the Baltic Fleet.

Of stories Baltic Fleet

It must be said that 18 May 1703, as the day of the creation of the Baltic Fleet, the date is very conditional. It can be easily transferred to an earlier period. Even at that time, when the Baltic Sea was called the Varyazhsky or the Venetian Sea (the Slavic tribes were called the Vendes, the Vendians), the Slavic ships plowed the expanses of this sea. Researchers note that the Slavic element was very noticeable among the Vikings. If in the south of Russia horse heroes were heroes, then the heroes of the Novgorod epic epic Sadko and Vasily Buslaev were seamen. Since ancient times, Northern Russia had special connections with the sea.

The Baltic Sea was of strategic importance right from the very beginning of Russian statehood. The famous journey from the Varangians to the Greeks began in the Baltic. Ladoga and Novgorod became the first capitals of the Sokol-Rurik family. In the XI and XII centuries. Novgorod entrenched on the southern shores of the Gulf of Finland, which later became known as Vodskaya Pyatina. In the years of the greatest dawn of the Old Russian state, under the control of the great princes of Kiev, there was a significant part of the Baltic states and Finland. In particular, the city of Yuriev (aka Tartu and Derpt) was founded by the Grand Duke Yaroslav the Wise.

At this time, Russia, both on the Black (Russian) and the Baltic (Varyazhsky) seas, used rooks (lodges) for conducting combat operations. These were sailing-rowing vessels capable of carrying from 40 to 100 people. They were used for both freight and military purposes. In addition, the following types of ships were known: planes, pens, canoes, beads, etc. The main tactical method of combat was boarding. For several centuries, Novgorod the Great was in fact a great power, whose possessions extended beyond the Urals. Novgorodians successfully used the river-sea type vessels, on which it was possible to cover enormous distances relatively quickly. The main enemy of Novgorod was the German Order and the Swedish Kingdom. The history knows not one sea voyage which the Novgorod army made. So, in 1187, the city of Novgorod seized and plundered the most important political, religious and economic center of the then Sweden - Sigtuna. In addition, Novgorodians actively used the ships to move to the east, beyond the Stone (Ural) and for trips to the lands of the Horde. Detachments of ushkuynik more than once walked with fire and sword on the Horde possessions (ushkuniki "dabbled in" and on Russian lands).

The confrontation with Sweden and Livonia continued even after the subordination of Novgorod to the Moscow state. Moscow also organized ship raids against the Swedes. An attempt to establish a solid foothold on the shores of the Baltic Sea and to create a regular navy on it was undertaken during the reign of Ivan the Terrible. In 1557, under the Tsar’s decree, the construction of the first Russian port in the Baltic began in the Luga Bay. Supervised the construction of a district officer Dmitry Shastunov, and a military engineer Ivan Vyrodkov helped him. In order for Russian trade to go through this port, Ivan Vasilyevich forbade Novgorod and Pskov merchants to trade in the Livonian cities of Narva and Revel. Now the “Germans” were to come to the Russian port. In 1558, the Livonian War began, as a result of which Russia was to receive a significant part of the Baltic states. Initially, the fighting was successful, Livonia was defeated and mostly captured. During the fighting, Narva was captured, which became the main trade gate to the Russian kingdom. The turnover of the city grew rapidly, and the number of ships entering Narva grew to 170 per year. And in order to resist Poland and Sweden at sea, which launched a wide privateer's activity against the ships going to Russia in the Baltic, Tsar Ivan the Terrible took on the service of the Dane Carsten Rohde. He formed a squadron and spoiled a lot of blood to the enemies of Russia (First Russian Fleet - Pirates of the Terrible Tsar).

The next attempt to gain a foothold in the Baltic was made by Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich during the Russian-Swedish war (1656 — 1658). In the Smolensk region, on the upper tributaries of the Zapadnaya Dvina - the Obsch and Kasple rivers a flotilla of several hundred plows was built. This Russian flat-bottomed sailing-rowing vessel had a length of 20-45 meters and a width from 4 to 10 meters. It could carry up to 50 soldiers with weapons and supplies. The plow could have been armed with several small cannons. In addition, under the leadership of the boyar Athanasius Ordin-Nashchokin, they founded a shipyard in Tsarevich-Dmitriev and began building naval ships. However, the war did not bring victory. Shipbuilding program has been minimized.

It was possible to get to the Baltic Sea only during the Northern War (1700-1721). Tsar Peter the whole war actively built the fleet and achieved great results. In 1701, hundreds of plots began to be built on the Volkhov and Luga rivers, as well as on the Pola River, which flows into Lake Ilmen. At the same time, the government requisitioned all private vessels on the Ladoga and Onega lakes, the Svir and Volkhov rivers in favor of the armed forces. In 1702-1703 the Swedish Naval Forces were driven out of the Ladoga, Pskov and Peipsi Lakes. In 1702, the first battleships for the Baltic Fleet were laid at Syaca Shipyard: two small frigates “Fan Sas” No. 1 and No. 2, i.e. “Syaskie”, the first and the second (they were of poor quality, therefore they were later transferred to firefighters). In the same year, two more small frigates were laid - the “Mikhail the Archangel” and “Ivan-city”. A total of 1702 ships were built at the Syasskaya shipyard in 1706 - 48 for years, then the construction of warships was transferred to Olonets. In 1702, the Olonets shipyard was laid. 22 August 1703, the shipyard launched the first ranking ship of the Baltic Fleet - the 28-gun "Standard" frigate and several other small warships. In October, 7 28-gun frigates were laid, in 1704, seven more frigates. A few years later, the shipyard began to produce small battleships.

In May 1703 began to build Petersburg and the Peter and Paul Fortress, and in the winter 1703-1704. Kronstadt fortress. In 1704, the Admiralty Shipyard began to be built on the Neva River. The Baltic Fleet is involved in repelling the attack on Kronstadt, in the siege of Vyborg. From this point on, the Baltic Fleet took an active part in the campaign at the Baltic theater of military operations, actively conducted landing operations, transported troops, engaged in their supply. In 1714, the Russian fleet won the Battle of Gangut, captured the Aland Islands. Victories were won at Ezel (1719), Grengam (1720). By 1720, the Russian fleet was one of the five strongest in the world, having 25 combat-ready battleships, second only to the number of pennants only to such traditionally strong sea powers as England, France, the Ottoman Empire and Denmark. Russia surpassed Sweden in the Baltic, which until that time had a complete superiority in this area.

In the future, the Baltic Fleet, as part of the Russian state, experienced ups and downs. During the period of palace coups, the fleet was not honored. Money went to more important needs than the construction of new ships and the maintenance of existing in combat readiness. Theft, entertainment, and ostentatious luxury were more important than the military. Thus, at the end of 1731, less than half of the ships of the Baltic Fleet were fully or partially combat-ready. From the 36 of the battleships Petersburg could bring the 8 ships into the open sea, to the coastal navigation - another 5. The position of the galley fleet only was more or less satisfactory. Dramatically decreased the level of combat training. The level of discipline has fallen, affairs in the issuance of cash and clothing allowance have been bad, and embezzlement and bribery of maritime officials flourished.

During the reign of Anna Ioannovna, the situation improved somewhat. They laid the new ships, restored the Port of Arkhangelsk and the shipbuilding of Solombala. Solombalsk shipyard turned into the second, and then the main construction base of the Baltic Fleet. Over the period 1731-1799. in St. Petersburg (with Kronstadt) 55 ships were launched, and in Arkhangelsk - 100. There was also an increase in the combat readiness of the fleet. The main fleet bases in 18-19 centuries. were Kronstadt, Helsingfors and Revel.

The tense international situation in Western Europe in the 2-th half of the 18 century forced the government to increase the fleet’s combat capability and give it considerable attention. During the Russian-Swedish Wars 18-19 centuries. and the Crimean War 1853-1856 The Baltic Fleet fulfilled its task of protecting the capital of the empire and the Baltic coast. In the course of the fighting in the Baltic during the Crimean War, for the first time in world practice, mines created in the Russian fleet were used. The Anglo-French fleet in 1855 was planning to seize the Russian capital, but after finding a large number of mines, it retreated. The enemy command concluded that it was impossible to conduct combat operations in the waters of the Baltic Sea and conduct an operation to seize Petersburg.

In the second half of the 19 century, the Baltic Fleet was equipped with armored ships. The fleet suffered heavy losses during the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905), when the best ships died in the 2-th Pacific Squadron. In 1910-s, the fleet was revived due to a large-scale shipbuilding program. The Baltic Fleet defeated the Baltic Fleet during the First World War. In 1920-1930, the fleet was reorganized and modernized.

The Baltic fought valiantly during the years of World War II. The fleet defended the Moonsund Islands, Tallinn and the Hanko Peninsula, participated in the heroic defense of Leningrad (1941-1943), supported the advance of the Red Army in the Baltic States (1944), East Prussia, and East Pomerania (1944-1945). During the Great Patriotic War, the Baltic Fleet was destroyed by forces of surface and submarine fleets, sea aviation more than 1200 warships, transport and auxiliary vessels of the enemy, over 2,5 thousand aircraft. More than 100 thousand Baltic people fought on land fronts, having traveled a long way from Leningrad to the island of Bornholm.

The fleet played a major role in scientific discoveries and expeditions. Baltic naval commanders, heroes of sea battles, admirals F. F. Ushakov, M. P. Lazarev, P. S. Nakhimov, V. A. Kornilov, S. O. Makarov and N. O Essen, pioneers and travelers V. I Bering, F. F. Bellingshausen, G. I. Nevelskoy, the great scientists A. S. Popov, the physicist B. S. Jacobi, and many other prominent people.

Currently, the Baltic Fleet still performs the task of protecting Russia's borders from the north-west. Its main bases are Baltiysk and Kronstadt. The basis of the ship structure of the Baltic Fleet consists of two squadron destroyers of the project 956 “Persistent” (the flagship of the fleet) and “Restless”. At the beginning of the 21 century, the fleet combat fleet was replenished: the patrol ship (frigate) Yaroslav the Wise, the corvettes Steregushchy, Soobrazitelny, Boiky, the submarine of the 677 Lada project St. Petersburg. In the near future, the fleet should replenish the 20380 “Resistant” corvette.


Corvette "lively"
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  1. aszzz888
    aszzz888 18 May 2013 07: 23 New
    +7
    Well, we waited for a bright day!
    HAPPY BALTIC HOLIDAY!
    We all drink, but the Fleet will not be dishonored !!!
    1. Dmitry T
      Dmitry T 18 May 2013 08: 16 New
      +7
      I join in the congratulations. I want to say that I treat the Baltics with special trepidation, since I did military service there. And without a shadow of reflection I’ll say that these were the best two years of my life, since our fleet not only teaches how to fight, making boys real brave and valiant men, but also unites hearts. It was there that my family was born. Therefore, for me it is doubly a holiday. I am proud to have worn the chevron of the Baltic Fleet. Happy Baltic!
      1. lecturer
        lecturer 18 May 2013 09: 40 New
        +4
        Allow me to join in all the congratulations with the words: "Baltic, seven feet under the keel!" and "Brothers, greetings from the Black Sea people!"
  2. horoh
    horoh 18 May 2013 07: 23 New
    +5
    Baltic people with HOLIDAY !!!!!!
  3. Boa kaa
    Boa kaa 18 May 2013 07: 37 New
    +8
    Good morning! Morning of the 310th anniversary of the progenitor of all Russian fleets. The history of the Baltic Fleet is beautiful and rich in victories. But history is not enough to know and be proud of. It should become a pillar in the revival of the spirit of the unity of the nation, its marine thinking. Today, the Baltic Sea does, in my opinion, three main things: it trains and raises fleet officers, builds ships, and develops naval science. It is very symbolic that the General Staff of the Navy moved to the historical building of the Admiralty. Let us hope that the spirit of the great ancestors will help the current leaders of the fleet in reviving the former power of the Russian fleet.
    Happy birthday to you, BALTIC!
  4. gispanec
    gispanec 18 May 2013 07: 47 New
    +4
    Always was not indifferent to the fleet! Happy holiday !!! drinks
  5. sergo0000
    sergo0000 18 May 2013 07: 59 New
    +4
    Visors with anchors,
    Jacket, dagger at the hip,
    On the St. Andrew’s banner,
    We are equal, "Hooray!"
    Midshipmen, sailors, youths,
    All on deck alone
    Our hometowns are halls,
    Like a stone wall
    Congratulations to you all over the country.
    Service is also work,
    May XNUMXth
    Happy Baltic Fleet Day!
  6. George
    George 18 May 2013 09: 03 New
    +4
    Happy Baltic!
    1. Apollo
      Apollo 18 May 2013 09: 15 New
      +6
      My heartfelt congratulations and best wishes to the military personnel and veterans, as well as their families, on the Baltic Fleet Day of the Russian Navy !!! drinks

  7. uzer 13
    uzer 13 18 May 2013 09: 14 New
    +5
    We must remember the kind words of Peter and his associates. These are precisely those who created the Russian fleet.
    1. Horde
      Horde 18 May 2013 11: 23 New
      -5
      Quote: uzer 13
      We must remember the kind words of Peter and his associates. These are precisely those who created the Russian fleet


      let's remember
      -Peter imposed rampant drunkenness among the nobility, binges were for several DAYS, many died from this
      -Peter forced the people to smoke tobacco, NO DAMAGE for all the time, but then of course there are MILLIONS of lives.
      -Peter changed the RUSSIAN LIFESTYLE by introducing the Gregorian calendar, introducing into the Russian circulation LATINISMS and other foreign words, which is very similar to today, it just makes you sick of Americanisms, I can imagine how our ancestors spat at that time.
      -the introduction of non-Russian costume, a departure from the traditions of RUSSIAN ARCHITECTURE (TEREMA) WAS REPLACED BY THE FOREIGN WESTERN AND GREEK ARCHITECTURE STYLES.
      -punishment of your own son - UNAUGHTIBLE HARDNESS.
      -system of education, which did not teach ANYTHING, but only stupid.
      -physical destruction of the Russian people through all sorts of adventurous enterprises such as the Prut campaign.
      -Significant time this king lived abroad because he did not like Russia.
      -As a result of the lengthy Northern War, it turned out that the WORLD was NOT CONQUERED, as it should be in an honest heroic war, but PURCHASED for gold. PETER WAS EVEN NOT EVEN A SILVER.
      - the impostor appropriated the title of EMPEROR over which they openly laughed in the west.
      -Peter finally ENROSED the people under Peter, the peasants lost ALL RIGHTS and finally turned into slaves.
      -And the last one, if any of our leader, ruler is openly praised in the West, then it is UNCLEAFLY either a thief, or an impostor, like Peter is a tyrant ARE THE TREATER of the Russian people.
  8. Horde
    Horde 18 May 2013 09: 42 New
    -1
    aaepeme5pksvbvsdkavkadkad5ezayl5ezayeslkvvadk4v
    1. omsbon
      omsbon 18 May 2013 10: 13 New
      0
      love
      1. Horde
        Horde 18 May 2013 10: 15 New
        0
        [quote = omsbon] [quote = Horde] aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa!
        it's a failure sorry
    2. Horde
      Horde 18 May 2013 10: 26 New
      0
      The next attempt to gain a foothold in the Baltic was made by Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich during the Russo-Swedish War (1656-1658). In the Smolensk region, on the upper tributaries of the Western Dvina - the Obsh and Kasple rivers, a flotilla of several hundred plows was built. This Russian flat-bottomed sailing-rowing vessel had a length of 20-45 meters and a width of 4 to 10 meters. It could carry up to 50 soldiers with weapons and supplies. Strugs could arm several small guns.


      I bring an old map of the forgotten 1st Northern War of 1656. The siege of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich by Russian troops according to TI QUIET laughing Swedish Riga. The map shows that the Russian army possessed a significant number of small ships, which in the traditional history of TI are considered as "flat-bottomed river plows." In fact, it is clear that large Russian ships are quite comparable to small Swedish ships, in addition, all the ships have a DEVELOPED RANGE with two or even three masts, ships with such sails, of course, could only sail on the sea, and multi-masted ships are not used for sailing on rivers. Why do TI Schnicks talk that the navy appeared only under Peter? This is another LIE of traditional history.
      In addition, pay attention to the name of the DUNA river. Fomenko came out right, believing that DON is not the name of the river, but his own name is a river, as our distant ancestors used to say, therefore DON, DANUBE, DNIPR, DONETS, DNISTER, DVINA have one Russian semantic root. On the right above the side of the card on the emblem you can see the Crescent is an IMPERIAL SYMBOL, as well as a religious one.


      and this is a restoration of flat-bottomed river plows of the Cossacks
      1. tlauicol
        tlauicol 18 May 2013 20: 22 New
        0
        It's okay to lie - all the ships were in the upper reaches of the Z. Dvina were built and lowered near Riga. And you say: "ships with such sails, of course, could only sail on the sea, and multi-masted ships are not used for sailing on rivers. Why do TI shniks talk, that the navy appeared only under Peter? This is another LIE of traditional history. "
        Yes, and they didn’t take Riga. And the officers at Olesha were also foreign. In vain you took up arms against Peter.
        and a foreigner drew a map, he could draw a ship of the line, why be surprised
        1. Horde
          Horde 18 May 2013 21: 03 New
          0
          Okay to lie then -

          easier respected what is the lie then? Where have you seen multi-mast river vessels?
          it is not known how the Russian vessels went along the Dvina, or maybe through the Neva and the sea we do not know about that.
          Yes, and did not take Riga.


          according to this map, Russia had 80000 soldiers near Riga, according to TI of the military of Aleksey Mikhailovich, the SILEST Swedish soldiers were in the fortress of 9 thousand. it is very doubtful that having such an advantage the fortress was not taken.

          a foreigner drew a map, he could draw a battleship, why be surprised


          Could of course draw an aircraft carrier, but apparently he painted what he saw with his own eyes a huge army with siege artillery and a navy.
          1. tlauicol
            tlauicol 19 May 2013 05: 39 New
            0
            They didn’t take Riga, ships built on the river, even in the upper reaches of its tributaries. Googlite. And the Neva and Oreshek-Noteburg were then Swedish
            1. Horde
              Horde 19 May 2013 18: 29 New
              0
              Quote: Tlauicol
              They didn’t take Riga, ships built on the river, even in the upper reaches of its tributaries. Googlite. And the Neva and Oreshek-Noteburg were then Swedish


              googled, you are right against Google, now you can’t trample Wikipedia, the truth of last resort ... laughing
  9. omsbon
    omsbon 18 May 2013 10: 07 New
    +2
    Many thanks to those who, having not forgotten the precepts of Peter, preserve and multiply the glory of the Baltic Fleet!
  10. Dimitr
    Dimitr 18 May 2013 10: 11 New
    +2
    The Baltics have a happy holiday! Three cheers !!!
  11. Prapor Afonya
    Prapor Afonya 18 May 2013 14: 05 New
    +1
    Happy Sailors, Baltics !!!
  12. uzer 13
    uzer 13 18 May 2013 14: 06 New
    +2
    There may be different opinions about Peter 1 and we do not all know about that era. The needs of this historical time give rise to a particular historical person or statesman. The methods of reorganizing the social system of Russia were harsh and cruel, this is true. But no more cruel than in neighboring European states. Peter continued the course begun by Ivan the Terrible towards the unification of the state and the strengthening and centralization of state institutions. The task was daunting — to bring Russia out of the Middle Ages and lay the foundations of modern civilization. Peter understood that he could not do everything conceived, so he was in a hurry with reforms. complicated by the fact that there were very few people whom he really could hope for. The main thing he managed to do, he managed to turn Russia on a different course, since he himself was not only a tsar, but also a sailor.
    1. Horde
      Horde 18 May 2013 16: 17 New
      +1
      There may be different opinions about Peter 1 and we do not all know about that era


      you are straight, like an elusive joe from one branch to another.
      Opinions can be different, but the facts about Peter are unambiguous.
      -the first battle near Narva at Peter 50 thousand troops at Charles that about 18 thousand. or even less, nevertheless, this commander throws troops at the most tense moment and flees away, where they do not shoot.
      -Prut hike 50tys. again, Peter’s troops, but he managed to tear the battle to the Janissaries, as a result returned LESS THAN 20 thousand.
      -North War lasted 21 years. Russia had 20 miles. population plus allies, Sweden barely 1.5miles of the population as a result of peace Russia paid 1.5mils for the Baltic lands. Sweden’s gold despite a clear superiority in power.
      WHAT IS THIS COMMANDER FOR SUCH?
      - The Persian campaign three years after the death of Peter, all the Caspian lands that Peter conquered are again lost; after the death of Peter, Petersburg — the main conquest and pride of Peter — ceased to exist.
      Peter continued the course begun by Ivan the Terrible on the unification of the state and the strengthening and centralization of state institutions. The task was ambitious - to bring Russia out of the Middle Ages and lay the foundations of modern civilization.


      all this is nonsense of traditional history, my advice is to stop reading the traditional history written by the Germans, then you can begin to understand what's what.
      1. uzer 13
        uzer 13 18 May 2013 16: 54 New
        0
        I can say about the battle of Narva that the Swedish army at that time was well-trained, disciplined and armed and had more than 30 years of military experience. The commanders were professional military. Not a single European state had anything like that. And Peter didn’t have anything like that. even metal for making tools. His soldiers in the very recent past were farmers, and the officers didn’t understand the Russian language. The army had no combat experience. But the defeat near Narva was a good lesson from which the correct conclusions were drawn. As for the Baltic lands and money- then these are dark things that require additional research. Various agreements were repeatedly concluded on these lands, and all the monarchs were in some kind of kinship relationship. They forgot to tell us how they were guided in making their decisions.
        1. Horde
          Horde 18 May 2013 19: 17 New
          0
          uzer 13 Today, 16:54


          Well, what can you say about the quote you quoted here? You faithfully retold the history textbook, but besides the carefully polished facts, there are others, for example, a map of the battle of the 1st Northern War, which I cited if you certainly paid attention, judging by the map, the Russian army has guns and sea ships, and as you can see a completely modern construction of the army, in defiance of the TI, which suggests that all this appeared only in the Petrine era from Europe. In addition, the Russian army made two trips to the Crimea in 90g 17v two times Vasily Golitsyn and two already under Peter, so what about your thesis that the Russian army did not have combat experience? She did. But the tsar turned out to be a worthless commander and not only a commander.
  13. AK-74-1
    AK-74-1 18 May 2013 14: 24 New
    +1
    Hello to the Baltic people and huge congratulations! And also the name Kravchuk (the new commander http://www.rg.ru/2012/09/18/reg-szfo/kravchuk-anons.html she is) I hope it will not be associated with recent events on the Black Sea.
    Once again, the Baltics are for you!
  14. Horde
    Horde 18 May 2013 16: 23 New
    -2
    There may be different opinions about Peter 1 and we do not all know about that era


    you are straight, like an elusive joe from one branch to another.
    Opinions can be different, but the facts about Peter are unambiguous.
    -the first battle near Narva at Peter 50 thousand troops at Charles that about 18 thousand. or even less, nevertheless, this commander throws troops at the most tense moment and flees away, where they do not shoot.
    -Prut hike 50tys. again, Peter’s troops, but he managed to tear the battle to the Janissaries, as a result returned LESS THAN 20 thousand.
    -North War lasted 21 years. Russia had 20 miles. population plus allies, Sweden barely 1.5miles of the population as a result of peace Russia paid 1.5mils for the Baltic lands. Sweden’s gold despite a clear superiority in power.
    WHAT IS THIS COMMANDER FOR SUCH?
    - The Persian campaign three years after the death of Peter, all the Caspian lands that Peter conquered are again lost; after the death of Peter, Petersburg — the main conquest and pride of Peter — ceased to exist.
    -Peter in Russia hated being called ANTICHRIST.
    WHAT IS THIS KING FOR?
    Peter continued the course begun by Ivan the Terrible on the unification of the state and the strengthening and centralization of state institutions. The task was ambitious - to bring Russia out of the Middle Ages and lay the foundations of modern civilization.


    all this is nonsense of the traditional history written for Russia by the Germans, my advice is to stop reading the traditional history, then you can begin to understand what's what.
    1. Uzoliv
      Uzoliv 18 May 2013 22: 00 New
      0
      Dear opponent with the nickname Horde.
      Regarding Narva. Historians still argue about the motives of Peter's action before the battle. I admit that he could just be scared, he is a living person. Subsequently, it is difficult to reproach him for the lack of courage, which means he has broken his fear - man!
      Prut campaign. There was not enough experience; tactical devices for waging war against such an enemy did not work out. Incidentally, in the last attack of the Turks on the Russian square, a number of Turkish units simply rebelled and refused to go into battle - the Russians stood to their death. And so the Turks went on negotiations. The Russian troops suffered significant losses not from the enemy, but from diseases and epidemics. And this state of affairs persisted until the 19th century, look at the nature of the losses of Russian troops in the Hungarian campaign of 1849.
      North War. Peter paid the money to Sweden - that's true. It was a diplomatic attempt to change Sweden’s foreign policy and make it an ally of Russia. Karl 12 had died by this time and with the change of monarch the foreign policy could change, such examples exist in European and Russian history.
      Prut campaign. Russia could not hold the land, because there were not enough resources to act in different directions - here he hurried.
      Petersburg After the death of Catherine 1 (and not after the death of Peter), Petersburg ceased to be a capital for a short while. But he continued to build - the pace slowed down. By the way, Samsonov wrote about this in an article here on the website dedicated to Minich. Anna Ioannovna (the real Russian princess - without a drop of German blood) moved the capital back to St. Petersburg and she adored Peterhof (like Peter).
      Antichrist. If they so hated the king, what did not kill?
      1. Horde
        Horde 18 May 2013 23: 16 New
        -2
        Regarding Narva. Historians still argue about the motives of Peter's action before the battle. I admit that he could just be scared, he is a living person. Subsequently, it is difficult to reproach him for the lack of courage, which means he has broken his fear - man!


        Let me remind you that in the year of the battle near Narva, Peter was already 29 years old at that time. By TI, Peter already had 2 Crimean campaigns, streltsy riots and all kinds of funny companies about which Tishniki whistle us, that Peter really loved them. fired and this over-age kid with his tail tail running away from the battlefield? The picture is disgusting. What is he GREAT then ???

        Prut campaign. There was not enough experience; tactical devices for waging war with such an enemy did not work out. Incidentally, in the last attack of the Turks on the Russian square, a number of Turkish units simply rebelled and refused to go into battle - the Russians stood to their death.


        I have other information. From the memoirs of a French officer who was in the Petrine army at the time of the Prut campaign, the Army of Peter was a camp where everyday drinking was common, there were 2 thousand women of officer wives in the army, as well as women for comfort. After a lost battle, the Janissaries who could not stand such a relationship cut out all the women. Starting the campaign to Atamania, Peter did not bother with the necessary amount of food, thought that he would get everything from the local population, and when he didn’t receive it, the troops began to starve accordingly, so the combat readiness decreased. Peter ordered the table to be laid down in a battle and forced ALL officers to drink excessively, the battle was lost under such conditions. Vizir Bataja Pasha demanded a huge ransom, but Peter did not have money about 200 thousand.Fimkov Alexander Danilych, the richest man in Russia, paid in gold from his blood.

        http://timemislead.com/uncategorized/istoriya-prutskogo-pohoda-petra-i-neudobnay
        a-pravda

        the world’s conditions were difficult for Russia. For example, the criminal frivolity of the tsar cost Russia such a yoke, after the death of Peter the pride of the brilliant and GREAT city of St. Petersburg should be torn down, and the lands ceded back to the Swedes, it is clear that historians carefully extinct this fact from all sources, but this is so after the death of Peter three years later Petersburg, as a city and a fortress, no longer existed.

        Now research is being conducted on previously unknown sources and the picture of the reign of Peter and his ancestors and descendants begins to look completely different if you are interested
        http://www.chronologia.org/dcforum/DCForumID2/9033.html
  15. O_RUS
    O_RUS 18 May 2013 20: 29 New
    0
    Happy Baltics !!! I bow to you!

    Sailors of the 5th and 2nd SBMP KBF in September 1941
    At the end of August 1941, fascist hordes captured the Baltic states. The 8th Army and individual detachments of Baltic sailors restrained the fierce attacks of the invading Nazis. The command of the Baltic Fleet was forced to send units of sailors to the southern coast of the Gulf of Finland, in the combat area of ​​the 8th Army ....
    morpeh.ru
  16. gladysheff2010
    gladysheff2010 18 May 2013 21: 03 New
    0
    Happy Holiday of the Baltic Fleet’s 310th Anniversary! Cheers of Russia, staunchly defending its borders against hostile encroachments and traditionally stupid interpretations of our heroic past, is enemy propaganda or betrayal.
  17. mirror
    mirror 18 May 2013 21: 13 New
    0
    Happy Holidays, Baltic colleagues! The best years of life are service in the Baltic. For this is not a sin and drinks
  18. Ivanovich47
    Ivanovich47 18 May 2013 22: 21 New
    0
    FIRST NAVY OF RUSSIA GLORY!
    1. morprepud
      morprepud 18 May 2013 22: 46 New
      0
      Allow me to sign the Hymn of Russia:
      Russia is our sacred state
      Russia is our favorite country.
      Mighty will, great glory -
      Your wealth for all time!
      Be glorious, our free Fatherland,
      The brotherly peoples of the union age-old,
      Ancestors given wisdom of the people!
      Be glorious, country! We are proud of you!
      From the southern seas to the polar region
      Spread our forests and fields.
      You alone in the world! You are the only one -
      God's native land!
      Be glorious, our free Fatherland,
      The brotherly peoples of the union age-old,
      Ancestors given wisdom of the people!
      Be glorious, country! We are proud of you!
      Wide space for dreams and for life
      The future is open to us for years.
      Our loyalty to the Fatherland gives us strength.
      It was so, so it is and always will be so!
      Be glorious, our free Fatherland,
      The brotherly peoples of the union age-old,
      Ancestors given wisdom of the people!
      Be glorious, country! We are proud of you!
  19. Captain45
    Captain45 18 May 2013 23: 29 New
    +2
    From 1951 to 1955, my dad served as a tower gunner on the Admiral Lazarev cruiser of the twice Red Banner Baltic Fleet. Now he is already asleep forever, but the peakless cap with the Baltic Fleet ribbon is kept as a relic. Happy holidays and seven feet under the keel! For you! drinks drinks
  20. Muxauk
    Muxauk 19 May 2013 17: 51 New
    +1
    Happy holiday sailors of the Baltic Fleet!
  21. zeksus
    zeksus 19 May 2013 18: 16 New
    +1
    Happy holiday! GLORY TO RUSSIAN WEAPONS !!!!!!!!!!
  22. smershspy
    smershspy 20 May 2013 17: 53 New
    +2
    Happy holiday! Glory! There is something to be proud of! Glory to the Navy!