Military Review

Prototypes in combat. Heavy tank KV-220

25
Shortly after the start of mass production of heavy tank KV-1 leadership of the People’s Commissariat of Defense and the Council of People's Commissars decided to continue work in this direction and initiated several similar projects. The main goal of these works was to create a new heavy tank, the armament and protection of which would exceed the armor and gun of the existing KV-1. On June 17, 1940, a resolution of the Council of People's Commissars was issued, according to which in the coming months it was required to design and build four new tanks based on the KV-1, each of which would embody one of the selected concepts for the development of the heavy tank line.


From the Kirov plant they demanded to assemble two KV-1 tanks with thicker armor (1 millimeters) and different weapons - 90 and 76 caliber mm guns for 85 November. Later, by December 1, the plant had to make two tanks with even thicker 100-mm armor and the same set of weapons. It was assumed that the manufacture of four armored vehicles with different protection and different weapons will determine the most promising combination of armor and guns. Due to production reasons, only two new heavy tanks were compared. At the beginning of November, a few days late, the Kirovsky Plant completed the manufacture of a tank with 90-mm armor and an X-NUMX mm F-32 cannon. He received the designation T-76. The second tank, called T-150, left the workshop exactly one month later. He had armor 220 millimeters thick and F-100 gun caliber 30 mm.

Tank T-220, better known now under the name KV-220, was a modernized and modified KV-1. According to some data, in the military acceptance documents, the T-220 project also appeared under the name KV-220-1. The design of the new heavy tank in the main points consistent with the design of the original KV-1. In this case, the requirements for increasing the level of protection entailed changes in weight and size. The main plates of the welded armored hull (frontal parts, sides and stern) had a thickness of 100 millimeters. In addition, a pair of front plates was a bit thinner - 80 mm. The roof and the bottom of the armored base was made of sheets from 30 to 40 millimeters thick. When reinforcing the booking, the designers of the Leningrad Kirov Plant took into account the need to preserve the internal volumes of the armored hull. Therefore, the dimensions of the command and control, combat and engine compartment compartments remained the same, and the additional thickness of the armor affected only the external dimensions of the tank.



Calculations have shown that with a similar increase in booking, the tank will weigh up to 62-63 tons, which will require a new engine. To accommodate a more powerful engine, the armored case had to be extended by more than two meters, from 6675 to 8830 millimeters. The width at the same time increased slightly. The increased length of the hull was compensated by an additional support roller on each side and fourth supporting rollers. The design of the chassis has remained the same - road wheels with individual torsion bar suspension, steering wheel in front and leading rear.

To preserve the ride quality of the KV-220, at least at the level of the original KV-1, it was equipped with a new diesel engine. Instead of the old 500-horsepower engine, the KV-220 installed a new B-5 with horsepower 700. Thanks to the new engine, the power density of the tank remained at the level of the KV-1 - 11-12 hp. per ton. Speed ​​characteristics also remained the same - the maximum speed on the highway is at the level of 33-34 km / h and up to 20-22 km / h over rough terrain. The estimated cruising range of the KV-220 tank was 200 kilometers along the highway and up to 150 over rough terrain.

When developing a tower for a new tank, there were some difficulties. The breech dimensions of the X-NUMX-mm F-85 cannon did not allow it to fit into the dimensions of the original turret of the KV-30 tank. The use of the turret from the KV-1 tank, in turn, was considered inexpedient due to the not too favorable distribution of the internal space. Therefore, we had to design a new tower, the design of which used the best practices of the two previous projects. The hexagonal armored unit was significantly larger than the turret of the KV-2 tank, but much smaller than the KV-1 turret. The frontal parts of the turret had a thickness of 2 millimeters, the sides and the stern were 90 mm. According to the experience of the KV-75 tank on the KV-2 turret, an additional hatch on the stern armor sheet was provided for servicing the cannon and loading the ammunition. It is noteworthy that, thanks to a new tower, the KV-220 turned out to be about 220 centimeters lower than its predecessor KV-40.

Prototypes in combat. Heavy tank KV-220




To aim and monitor the situation in the turret of the KV-220 tank, a PT-1 commander's panorama, a PT-6I periscope sight, and a TOD-6 telescopic sight were installed. The tank was equipped with an intercom and a radio station KRSTB, taking into account the possibility of using the 71-TK-3 station instead.

Inside the fighting compartment, we managed to place a 91 unitary projectile for the main gun. A single DT machine gun, caliber 85 mm, was paired with a 7,62-mm cannon. Two more same machine guns were placed on the turret of the commander's turret and in a ball mount on the front hull plate. Total ammunition of all three machine guns - 4032 cartridge (64 disc magazine). When operating in the army, it was supposed to give the crew submachine guns for self-defense. The crew composition of the KV-220 tank corresponded to the crew of the KV-2: driver, gunner, commander, loader and his assistant.

In January, the 1941, an experienced KV-220 tank, was ready for testing. However, on the last day of this month, during the first exit to the landfill, an engine crash occurred, which shifted the test schedule. After repairs, during the first few months a prototype of a new heavy tank could only make trips around the landfill and demonstrate its driving performance. As it turned out at the very beginning of the tests, the F-30 gun was not ready for fire tests. And the gun itself, and its suspension devices needed refinement, which took a lot of time.

It is worth noting that an experienced KV-220 tank didn’t get a cannon ready for firing as a result. Work on the tool was delayed until the spring of 41, and by that time the design office of VG Grabina received several more priority tasks. After the KV-220 showed all its capabilities except for combat, it was decided to use it in the KV-3 project. In order to test the possibility of using the existing technical solutions on new heavy tanks of even greater mass, an experienced KV-220 was equipped with additional cargo. The 70-ton machine (approximate combat mass of the prospective KV-3) overcame 1300 kilometers, but the testers were not happy. The reloaded tank became less mobile, and serious problems appeared in the undercarriage design. For example, the engine had to be operated almost all the time at maximum modes, while torsion bars and suspension balancers gradually deformed under the weight of the machine.

20 May 1941, the KV-220 tank was sent for repair. In the course of these works, damaged chassis parts were replaced, and a new engine was installed. The B-2CH diesel engine, equipped with supercharging, had 850 horsepower. and because of this, the tank improved its driving performance slightly. In the last days of May, the KV-220 left the repair shop and again went to the landfill. For the remaining three weeks before the war, the updated armored vehicle traveled more than five hundred kilometers. As for the gun, it was not ready in June 41-th.

After the start of World War II, the experienced KV-220 tank remained at the Kirov factory. In the first months of the war, all the prototype tanks available at the factory were used in various tests. By the beginning of October, the production rates of tanks at the plant had dropped significantly on 41, and therefore the management of the company and the design bureau decided to send unnecessary prototypes to the front. Due to the lack of a ready-made F-30 cannon, during repair, the KV-220 removed the turret and replaced the armored unit from the KV-1 serial tank with the appropriate weaponry.

5 October 1941, the only KV-220, equipped with a tower from the KV-1, went to the 124-th tank brigade. The further fate of the armored vehicle is difficult to track. A number of sources cite memories of a company commander from the D.I. brigade. Osadchy, however, from the words of the tanker, it is impossible to establish exactly which of the converted prototypes is meant. So, Osadchy speaks of the tank’s combat mass over 100 tons, which none of the tanks sent to the front had. From other words of the former commander, it is also impossible to draw certain conclusions. According to Osadchy, it is known that one of the prototypes of heavy tanks with the inscription “For the Motherland!” On the tower was destroyed by the enemy in December 41. Apparently, because of the detonation of the ammunition, the entire crew died, and a tower flew from the tank. Precise data on the further fate of the other two experimental machines that went to the front are not available.

Now it is difficult to say how successful the KV-220 project was. For his time, he had a very good defense and a weapon of sufficient power. The only copy of the KV-220 tank was obviously destroyed by heavy field artillery fire, not by tank guns, which makes it possible to draw appropriate conclusions about its level of protection. In the context of the KV-220 project, the situation with the creation of the F-30 gun looks the worst. As practice later showed, a millimeter 85 caliber cannon proved to be quite an effective means for defeating medium tanks and enemy fortifications. Later, however, with the emergence of a large number of German heavy tanks, more powerful guns were required.

Probably, the chassis of the KV-220 tank could carry a new turret with a larger-caliber gun, and the characteristics of this car as a whole look quite interesting. However, at the start of the war, the Soviet Union was not in the mood for fine-tuning heavy tank projects. Therefore, the KV-220 and its two "brothers" based on the same KV-1 (T-150 and KV-3) never reached mass production, remaining at the stage of testing and forced combat use of prototypes.


On the materials of the sites:
http://aviarmor.net/
http://bronetehnika.narod.ru/
http://armor.kiev.ua/
http://battlefield.ru/
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  1. redwolf_13
    redwolf_13 21 May 2013 08: 17
    +3
    Yes, it’s a pity, but a good tank would have turned out and he would have beaten the enemy perfectly. Grabintsy guns are the best guns in the world
    1. Hudo
      Hudo 21 May 2013 09: 41
      +5
      What is actually good? For virtual games? The increased mass of the tank with a problematic gearbox negates the advantage in firepower.
      1. poizor
        poizor 21 May 2013 17: 55
        +3
        Well, what to do, not everyone knows about the carrying capacity of bridges. and for heavyweights of 60+ tons, there were only a few bridges that held such weight. I will not say anything about transportation by train ...
      2. Bosk
        Bosk 21 May 2013 19: 40
        0
        The tiger, with its mass, also had many problems ... but with all its shortcomings, it is still considered one of the most dangerous tanks of the Second World War.
    2. Patton5
      Patton5 21 May 2013 15: 44
      0
      Less than that, it’s kv-1s, one I can’t understand; the t-34 was revolutionary why the designers from Leningrad didn’t go this way (rational angles of inclination of armor plates) with this approach it was possible to save weight without compromising security
      1. Bosk
        Bosk 21 May 2013 21: 50
        0
        Quote: Patton5
        (rational angles of inclination of armor plates)

        We gradually came to this, say the same IS-3, we can only regret that this happened at the end of the war.
  2. avt
    avt 21 May 2013 10: 06
    +3
    Quote: redwolf_13
    and so a good tank would turn out and he would beat the enemy perfectly

    KV, with all its advantages, was quite problematic in terms of transmission and, with an increase in mass, in principle, a good tank could not work. Confirmation is the transition to IPs.
    Quote: Hudo
    The increased mass of the tank with a problematic gearbox negates the advantage in firepower.

    This is exactly what happened with the T-220 and the T-150. Yes, and the KV-85 was a kind of "fireman" version with a small series.
  3. Marconi41
    Marconi41 21 May 2013 10: 15
    13
    I remembered the joke:
    American, German and Russian argued who rides what.
    American: I'm going to work at Buek, visiting Ford, to Europe on Mustang
    German: to work - at the swagina, visiting Audi, to Europe at Merc
    Russian: to work - by metro, by bus - and to Europe ... to Europe by tank!
    1. Genady1976
      Genady1976 21 May 2013 17: 15
      +1
      good laughing plus you big yes
  4. USNik
    USNik 21 May 2013 10: 51
    +3
    The 70-ton vehicle (approximate combat mass of the promising KV-3) covered over 1300 kilometers, but the testers were not satisfied. The loaded tank became less mobile, and serious problems appeared in the design of the chassis. For example, the engine had to be operated at full speed almost all the time, and the torsion bars and suspension balancers were gradually deformed under the weight of the machine.

    Bggg, ours back in 41 realized that a clumsy, slow, unreliable tank was not needed in the troops. But the Germans did build the Tiger and successfully lost. soldier
    1. Bongo
      Bongo 21 May 2013 11: 09
      +5
      It is strange that in the article not a word about the tank 107-mm. gun ZIS-6 with ammunition from the field M-60. It was she who was considered the main quality for armament of promising tanks of the KV series.
    2. Snoop
      Snoop 21 May 2013 11: 25
      +2
      Well, yes, but the dampness of the Tiger did not prevent it from successfully hitting our T-34-76, KV-1, and later the T-34-85. Another thing is that in those conditions for 41 years, there was no time for promising technology. Now, if only these tanks were released at least to a limited extent before the war :)
      1. Bongo
        Bongo 21 May 2013 11: 28
        +5
        Most of the T-34 and KV available at the beginning of the war were lost not in battle, but because of breakdowns and lack of fuel.
        1. carbofo
          carbofo 21 May 2013 23: 33
          -3
          Quote: Bongo
          Most of the T-34 and KV available at the beginning of the war were lost not in battle, but because of breakdowns and lack of fuel.


          There is no need to exaggerate, let’s say that a significant amount was lost due to lack of fuel and technical problems, the mat part could not withstand the lack of material and technical support.
          Including those captured by the enemy or destroyed by crews in the absence of the ability to repair or evacuate equipment.
          At the same time, we do not forget that at that moment we were retreating and the ability to evacuate the tanks was limited.
          1. Bongo
            Bongo 22 May 2013 13: 53
            +5
            And what am I exaggerating? This is a well-known fact. In addition to material and technical support, it is worth noting the weak training of crews and low reliability of equipment.
      2. Black Colonel
        Black Colonel 23 May 2013 17: 26
        +2
        The Tiger had excellent optics and a 2 km gun hit the target. And comparing the T-34 and T-VI is not logical, because tanks of different weight categories.
  5. avt
    avt 21 May 2013 11: 18
    0
    Quote: Bongo
    It was she who was considered as the main quality for the armament of promising tanks of the KV series.

    Which was made in 5 copies and stopped making because of the unavailability of a heavy tank.
    1. Bongo
      Bongo 21 May 2013 11: 26
      +5
      Correct if wrong, the article about her mentioned?
      If you believe Shirokorada, they were already made 800p., All later went to the Martin.
  6. avt
    avt 21 May 2013 11: 38
    0
    Quote: Bongo
    Correct if wrong, the article about her mentioned?
    If you believe Shirokorada, they were already made 800p., All later went to the Martin.

    They began to produce them in series on July 1, 1941 at 92 plants and I have never met any mention of 800 units. And the article seems to be about T-220 and not about KV-4 and KV-3.
    1. Bongo
      Bongo 21 May 2013 11: 46
      +6
      HF-4, HF-3 and HF-220 were developed almost simultaneously.
      A. Shirokorad "THE GENIUS OF THE SOVIET ARTILLERY" Page 149.
      1. family tree
        family tree 21 May 2013 17: 28
        +4
        Serial production of ZIS-6 guns began on 1 July and, according to plant report 92, “in July-August 1941 produced five serial ZIS-6 guns, after which their production was discontinued due to the unavailability of a heavy tank.” All statements that several hundred ZIS-1941 were released in 6 are not documented.
        Svirin M.N. Stalin's armor shield.
        There are no ends to be found.
        In January 1941, the experimental KV-220 tank was ready for testing. As it turned out at the very beginning of the tests, the F-30 gun was not ready for fire tests. Both the gun itself and its suspension devices needed refinement, which took a lot of time.

        The main issue for the KV-200 was the artillery system, which Plant # 92 undertook to provide. The prototype of the F-30 gun was released at the end of 1940 and was successfully tested (albeit with some problems that had to be solved during the tests) in February-March 1941. At the end of April 1941, the F-30, which by that time was renamed in ZIS-12, submitted to ANIOP for field tests, but before the war it was not tested. This happened for several reasons. Shortly before the war, 95 mm and 107 mm guns were also tested, which had the best characteristics of armor penetration and the impact of a high-explosive projectile. In light of the threat of "heavy" German tanks with anti-cannon armor, priority was on their side, which entailed all sorts of obstacles in its advance to mass production. Presumably, there is no need to remind how it turned out after only a few months. However, the experience of working on the F-30 came in handy for the Grabin Design Bureau in 1943, when 85-mm guns for installation on the T-34 medium tank were presented for the competition.
        So, in February 1941, the experimental tank KV-220 was presented for factory tests. It immediately became clear that the F-30 guns were unbalanced and it was impossible to conduct targeted fire from it. As mentioned above, the F-30 was brought up only in April 1941, when other artillery programs became more priority.
        This is from here http://www.aviarmor.net/tww2/tanks/ussr/kv220.htm. In general, they are trying to do the best, if they have not completed one thing. What about tanks, what about guns.
  7. Aleks tv
    Aleks tv 21 May 2013 14: 46
    +2
    It was interesting to read.
    Thanks to Kirill for the rare info.
  8. Sour
    Sour 21 May 2013 21: 22
    +1
    Quote: USNik
    Bggg, ours back in 41 realized that a clumsy, slow, unreliable tank was not needed in the troops. But the Germans did build the Tiger and successfully lost.

    The main problem of the "Tiger" is not in its performance characteristics, but in its cost - a million Reichsmarks. This is 12 times more expensive than the Messerschmitt-109 and only 4,7 times cheaper than the 7th series submarine capable of operating off the US coast. There could not be many such tanks, by definition, and the outcome of the Second World War was decided by mass technology.
  9. Yemelya
    Yemelya 21 May 2013 21: 28
    +1
    It is noteworthy that, thanks to the new KV-220 tower, it turned out to be about 40 centimeters lower than its predecessor KV-1

    Something is not like. Maybe the KV-2 was meant.

    The crew of the KV-220 tank corresponded to the KV-2 crew: driver, gunner, radio operator, commander, loader and his assistant.

    The KV-2 crew consisted of 6 people.

    dimensions of the control compartment, combat and engine-transmission compartment remained the same

    Combat clearly increased. This phrase is valid only for about. 150.
  10. Yemelya
    Yemelya 21 May 2013 22: 58
    0
    about. 220 or KV-3 with a KV-1 tower (in the background):
  11. suslopha
    suslopha 22 May 2013 19: 31
    0
    interesting stuff!