This work owes its appearance to a large number of video materials on the Internet, which demonstrate the destruction of tanks from RPGs in Syria and Georgia (mainly T-72), which made a negative impression on the author. As a result, he tried to model the layout of the tank, which could provide greater protection for the crew than the T-64 / -72 / -80 tanks.
The basic concept of a unified main battle tank T-100-140
Figure 1. The appearance of the tank T-100-140. Front projection is given in comparison with T-80UD
The idea of the proposed tank, conventionally designated T-100-140, is to create a promising main battle tank with maximum unification of components and assemblies with existing T-84 and Oplot-M tanks, but using a fundamentally new layout with separated electromechanical transmission and 140 -mm smooth-bore “Bagheera” cannon with fully automatic ammunition.
The proposed layout allows you to place in the stern of the tank traction motors, transmission and control compartment. At the same time, the driver has the opportunity to leave the tank through the regular aft door (hatch) at any position of the turret (which is impossible on the T-90CM and Oplot-M). In case of emergency (for example, a tank is stalled under water), the driver may be evacuated from the tank through the crew compartment. The commander and gunner can also urgently leave the tank through the aft door.
The aft arrangement of electric drives in single units with gearboxes allows their quick replacement and reduces vulnerability in frontal shelling or blasting on a mine. The arrangement of a single engine block with a generator in the bow improves the security of the tank when the frontal armor of the hull is broken through and allows for quick replacement of the engine block without dismantling the transmission.
The additionally spaced transmission also allows you to increase the length of the track bearing surface, which provides the 60-ton car with a satisfactory specific ground pressure not exceeding the specific pressure of T-80 / T-84 tanks with the same width and type of track (standard track from T-80 580 width mm). The support surface extended by almost 1000 mm allows the tank to overcome wider moats.
The basic concept of the tank: T-100-140 is to create a promising main battle tank with an optimal balance between:
• crew safety and comfort;
• powerful armor protection;
• functional weapons;
• good mobility;
• simplicity and ease of maintenance.
The main disadvantages * of T-64, T-72, T-80, T-84, T-90CM and Oplot-M tanks, partially or completely excluded on the T-100-140 tank:
1. High probability of irretrievable losses due to the open location of fully combustible charges in the BO and the control compartment (22 / 28 units in the MH / AZ, the rest of the ammunition).
2. High probability of the driver's (MV) defeat by secondary fragments of armor, in the event of a projectile falling into the upper frontal part (VLD) of the tank hull (even if it is not penetrated) or when a mine is detonated.
3. Increased fire hazard due to the presence of fuel tanks in the control compartment and the fighting compartment (BO), not separated by special armored fences.
4. Impossibility of emergency escape of a tank by a driver through BD on T-64, T-80, T-84 and Oplot-M tanks. This is due to the vertical location of the shells in the carousel, blocking the transition of the driver in the BO.
5. The inability to use elongated shots, due to the limited space for projectiles in the AZ / MH (in the proposed T-100-140, this issue is also not yet fully resolved).
6. The presence of a weakened zone in the mine area of the MV sight gauge, due to the specific layout of these machines (this issue was resolved at the experimental “187 facility”).
7. Unbalanced tower, as a result of the constant increase in the size of the frontal armor without adding counterweights in the rear part (this does not apply to T-90CM).
8. The weakened zone in the area of the mask of the gun and coaxial machine gun. Because of the required space for landing, MV on this place is limited by the size of the tower and there is no possibility to install additional armor.
9. The minimum possibility of increasing the size of the armor of the VLD hull and turret, due to the weighting of the front of the tank or the need to exclude the manhole hatch (on T-64, T-72, T-80, T-84, T-90 and Oplot-M impossible)
10. There is no small-caliber rapid-fire cannon to fight combat helicopters, high-speed lightly armored targets and tank-dangerous manpower of the enemy.
11. Limited view of the MW in a combat position, there is no rear view camera (except for the T-90CM).
12. The absence of tank guided missiles (TUR) with homing on the target on the principle of "shot-forgotten."
13. The difficulty of installing guns caliber 140 or 152 mm and placement of their ammunition.
14. The 6-roller chassis can be inferior to the X-NUMX-roller T-7-100 in smoothness, which affects the accuracy of the tank on the move.
15. Smaller traction characteristics of a mechanical transmission at low revs compared with an electromechanical transmission.
* - Probably, the word “flaws” is not quite appropriate for T-64, T-72 and T-80 tanks, rather, these are “bottlenecks” that became the price for tight restrictions in 1960 during their development, most of which there was a severe mass limitation tank. Nevertheless, to invest in 40-42 tons with high mobility and the most powerful frontal armor and gun in the world at that time is a great achievement of Soviet developers and tank builders.
The main disadvantages of the proposed project of the T-100-140 tank, which the author could not solve:
1. The large mass of the tank 60 tons - a fee for powerful armor, 140-mm gun, electromechanical spaced transmission and an extra pair of rollers.
2. The tank's high height is about 3300 mm. Previously, it is possible to reduce its overall height due to the introduction of a rising pedestal for a remote 12,7 mm machine gun and a panorama of the commander. With this solution, in the stowed position, the height of the tank can be reduced to approximately 2600-2700 mm (the level of the upper part of the 30-mm gun).
3. The higher cost of the tank, complicating its potential mass production.
4. The impossibility of using sub-caliber shells with a length of more than 800 mm. Although, in the barrel bore, the length of the sub-caliber shot in the collection is almost 1200 mm.
5. The presence of all the shells in the AZ under the polycom of the fighting compartment, due to the impossibility of placing full ammunition 38 rounds caliber 140 mm only in the stern of the turret.
6. The increased length of the aft niche of the tower compared with the T-84 "Yatagan". On the other hand, it provides a counterweight to the additional mass of increased frontal armor and a longer 140-mm tank gun.
7. It is possible that the accuracy of the tool stabilization on the move is reduced due to the greater length of the 140-mm gun (55 calibers –7700 mm), as a result of the greater moment of unbalance of the longer barrel (At T-90СМ and Oplot-M, the length of the 48 gun caliber –6000 mm ). This is one of the important reasons why Americans and Germans love 44-caliber 120-mm guns (5280 mm) - shorter barrel length, easier to stabilize, respectively, better shooting accuracy on the move. And they “catch up” with armor penetration due to powerful shells from depleted uranium.
8. The diagram does not have a mechanical synchronizer (a shaft with a coupling system) between two traction motors for driving in a straight line and for transferring the power of two motors to one track at turns (perhaps someone will prompt a solution).
9. Estimated cruising range in 400 km (without mounted barrels), due to the location of two traction motors in the rear of the tank, occupying additional space.
10. There is no standard anti-missile system that attacks a tank from above (like Javelin).
11. There is no standard system of active protection complex (KAZ) of the type “Drozd” or “Arena”.
12. Larger than T-90CM and Oplot-M, the unprotected roof surface (the area of the engine and automatic charge pack). However, the penetration of these unprotected surfaces does not threaten the life of the crew.
13. The driver’s rear ramp (Fig. 5.) Protects it only from 30-mm projectiles and RPG-7 type grenades.
The armament of the main battle tank T-100-140
Fig. 2. Department of management and fighting department of the T-100-140 tank in a section
The upgraded elongated turret from the T-84 "Yatagan" tank with an increased size of frontal armor provides accommodation for more powerful weapons. To enhance the frontal armor of the turret, a machine gun coupled to the gun was removed from the combat compartment and transferred to the external combat module.
The proposed composition of the armament of the tank T-100-140:
1. 140-mm smoothbore gun L55 "Bagheera" with separate automatic charging. For powder charges - in the aft part of the 38 tower (19 pairs) and for projectiles - in the lower part of the fighting compartment (similar to T-90CM, on 38 shells - 19 pairs). The automatic loader can work in two modes: “normal” and “paired shot”.
The latter provides an accelerated rate of fire for two similar shells of each cassette. While waiting for the first shot, the 2 projectile and charge are in standby mode for the second shot (the 2 projectile waits in the cassette right under the gun, without interfering with its rollback). The rate of fire in the normal mode - 8-9 shots / min., In the "twin shot" mode - the average 10 shots / min. and 12 shots / min. - between two projectiles of one cassette.
Vertical gun pointing angles: -5 ... + 16 (similar to T-84), horizontal: 360 deg.
2. The armament of the external combat module consists of an 30-2 automatic 72-mm cannon with dual-band power (2x150 shells) and a PKTM 7,62-mm machine gun (2000 ammunition). To simplify the design and reduce the total mass of auxiliary weapons plays the role of coaxial with a gun. That is, the module is rigidly mounted on the tower, and its armament is induced only in the vertical plane. The aiming is synchronized with the line of aiming of the gun L55 and has a single line of stabilization with it.
Vertical guidance angles of auxiliary armaments are significantly increased: -5 ... + 45 (similar to Terminator BMPT).
3. The anti-aircraft anti-aircraft installation, stabilized in two planes, with the 12,7-mm machine gun “The Rock” or “Kord” (4x150 of cartridges). Vertical guidance angles: -8 ... + 60 (similar to T-84), horizontal guidance angles: 360 degrees.
Ammunition of the main battle tank T-100-140
Fig. 3. Tank ammunition
Figure 4. T-100-140 tank guided missiles in the marching and fighting position
Due to the fact that one of the drawbacks of smooth-bore tank guns (compared to rifled ones) is their lower firing accuracy at long distances, two XURNUMX caliber 38 mm and # 140 are added to the standard ammunition of the 4 tank shells. 2), folding in two parts in the bore using an automatic loader. Missiles are designed to accurately hit the target at a distance of 3 m (TOUR number 5000) and to 3 m (TOUR number 8000)
1. Standard TOUR “Combat” (caliber 140 mm) with tandem warhead (CU), combat length 1150 mm (750 mm + 420 mm), launch range to 5000 m. Guided by an operator or commander. Penetration: DZ + 800 mm.
2. TOUR with laser hsn, caliber 140 mm, length in combat position 1500 mm. The missile is designed to destroy attack helicopters and enemy tanks at a distance of 8000 m, it has a tandem cumulative fragmentation warhead (fragmentation - for remote destruction of combat helicopters with special fragments in the event of a miss). Guidance mode - with the help of the GOS "shot-forgotten." Penetration: DZ + 800 mm.
3. A high-capacity ROUND with a system for countering active protection complexes (such as the Russian Arena or the Israeli Trophy). The rocket is equipped with a trap imitator that is being shot away when approaching the target. The length in the combat position 1500 mm, tandem warhead, launch range to 5000 m. Guided by an operator or commander. Penetration: KAZ + DZ + 900 mm.
All TOURs are located in the automatic ammunition at the bottom of the combat compartment in standard cassettes for shots (as shown in Figure 4). The maximum amount of TUR in an automatic combat pack (No. 2 and No. 3 with a length of 1500 mm) can be 19, the maximum number of standard TOUR No. 1 “Combat” is 38.
The layout of the main battle tank T-100-140
Rice 5. Layout of the hull and turret of the T-100-140 tank with a transverse engine 6TD-3
The layout feature of the T-100-140 tank is the use of separated electromechanical transmissions. In this embodiment, the 6TD-3 engine block with electric generators (2 EG are located under the engine due to the low height 6TD-3) is located perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the tank in front of the hull. The power unit, located between the main armor and the internal armored partition, provides additional protection for the crew when penetrating the frontal armor of the hull (envelope from WLD to the inner wall of the tank - almost 3000 mm!).
The drive wheels, gearboxes and electric drives are located in the rear side parts of the machine. The transmission provides additional protection to the driver when penetrating the side armor in the rear part (the envelope from the side screens to the inside of the electric motor is 1500 mm). Settlement capacity of fuel tanks (without external barrels) 1580 liters.
The height of the hull and turret is increased compared with the T-84, Oplot-M and T-90CM, but in length the new tank is increased only by 500 mm compared to the T-84.
Fig. 6. Comparative lateral projections of T-100-140 and T-84-120 tanks
The length of the bearing surface of the T-100-140 tracks on 1000 mm is longer than that of the T-84. Dismantling and replacement of the engine and transmission is made separately.
Fig. 7. The layout and dismantling of the engine and transmission T-100-140
In addition to all of the above, the proposed arrangement provides the possibility of "electric towing" and "electrical probing" of the T-100-140 tank with the help of the second such tank.
Comparative technical characteristics of the main battle tanks
Fig. 8. Comparison of weakened zones in the frontal projection of T-100-140 and T-80UD tanks (highlighted in red)
Do I need an electromechanical transmission now for a promising tank?
Initially, the T-100-140 considered a more compact spaced hydraulic mechanical transmission, but the author later abandoned it in favor of a separated electromechanical transmission - due to the possible increased fire risk, theoretically possible when penetrating the armor or the bottom of the tank and breaking the high-pressure hydraulic lines with subsequent spraying and the ignition of hydraulic oil in BO and control department.
Of course, electromechanical transmission has a number of well-known shortcomings, such as:
1. Weighting tank;
2. The high cost of this transmission in production;
3. Lack of a used solution and an electrical equipment set for installation in a tank;
4. It takes much more space in a tank than manual transmission;
5. The complexity of the simultaneous transmission of the torque of two electric motors per track when turning;
6. Additional cooling of the traction motors and the generator is necessary;
7. Reducing the maximum speed of the tank and others.
But there is a second side to the coin. The electromechanical transmission has several very important "hidden advantages". By implementing this transmission in a promising tank now, these “pluses” will become the basis for a large potential for further tank modernization in the future. Example: T-64 and T-72 tanks have been in service for more than 45 (40) for years and are still easily upgraded.
Consider these "hidden advantages" on the example of the T-100-140 tank (in its place can be any other promising development):
1. Higher traction characteristics at low speeds, which can help overcome a steeper slide + “Electrode” (was implemented on the German Maus tank in 1945 year).
2. Ease of control + the possibility of braking by electric motors - will allow, with a minor complication, to duplicate the controls of the tank on the site of the tank commander. This will allow the commander, in an emergency mode, to fully manage the tank. In normal mode, the commander will be able to urgently stop the tank in case of a sudden threat (if I’m not mistaken, such an emergency brake system was installed on the 2-7 + on the Leopard).
In the tank commander control mode, information from the front video cameras will be transmitted to the commander’s monitor. If the front video cameras are damaged, the review will be fully provided with the existing panorama of the commander, stabilized in two planes. When using a panorama as a surveillance device for moving an anti-aircraft 12,7-mm machine gun in a combat situation, it can function as a course gun. This solution will also make it easy to go to a crew of two (in the tower), if such a “fashion” comes in the future.
3. Serial development of an electromechanical transmission will allow, in a short time, with relatively minor changes, to re-equip a tank with an electromagnetic or electrochemical tank gun (there is quite a lot of information about promising developments in different countries in the field of electromagnetic and electrochemical tank guns).