Military Review

Hard day for Mr. Powers. U-2 over the Soviet Union

11
Hard day for Mr. Powers. U-2 over the Soviet Union



Pilots recalled that night flights over Soviet territory were the hardest. Habitual feelings of emptiness and loneliness were followed by attacks of icy horror: under the wing of an airplane, a black abyss stretched around for hundreds of miles, with occasional patches of farm and village lights. Only occasionally, at the control points of the route, the lights of large cities flashed - and again, thick bottomless darkness, over which the starry sky rotates.

Full radio silence mode. Close space suit in which it is difficult to move and take a sip of water. Lack of clear navigation landmarks. And the alarm buzz of the warning warning of irradiation by enemy radar stations — throughout the entire route, Soviet radars continuously monitored the intruder; dozens of fighter regiments and anti-aircraft batteries eagerly watched U-2 sailing at an unattainable height, waiting for a successful moment when the scout finds himself in the zone of their defeat. Alas…





Fear is unprofessional. All the attention of the pilot should be riveted to the dashboard - on the ceiling of the flight, the safe range between the speed of stalling into a spin and the speed of the appearance of the wing flutter (strong vibration threatening to destroy the structure) was only 10 miles per hour. Periodically, in order to increase the range, it was necessary to turn off the engine and go into planning mode - in this case, exhausting physical loads and fear of losing height appeared. To fall below 16-17 kilometers meant certain death.

During daylight, pilots often observed the cigars of the MiGs — like a swarm of evil wasps, the planes of the Evil Empire flew somewhere below, periodically plunging into the sky in a desperate dynamic jump ... in vain, the U-2 flies too high.
Mr. Powers grinned and turned on the navigation lights. Let the Russian Mongols rage in their powerless malice - their backward technologies are powerless in front of the power of the American aviation.



Black unmarked beauty - high-rise reconnaissance "Lockheed" U-2, which received the unofficial nickname "Dragon Lady". The nickname has a very meaningful allegory: “At the utmost height in the stratosphere, U-2 behaves as if you were waltzing with a beautiful lady. But save you from entering the zone of turbulent flows - the lady will turn into an angry dragon. ” The description corresponds exactly to the technical features of the aircraft design: unique capabilities required special technical solutions.

A disproportionately large wing span for a jet aircraft (on the first 24 modification, later on the 31 meter - with a fuselage length of 15 meters), unusual lengthening (degree of elongation) - if modern jet planes do not exceed 2-5 units, then U-2 reconnaissance this coefficient was 14. A real glider with a turbojet!

Extremely lightweight design: refusal to completely seal the cockpit (internal pressure is equivalent to pressure at 10 thousand meters - hence the pilot’s high-altitude suit), the absence of the usual fuel tanks (kerosene was poured directly into the wing console), tandem chassis: a pair of main struts - bow and tail retractable into the fuselage. During take-off, two additional drop racks were used at the ends of the planes; when landing, the plane fell on its side and rested on one of the wing tips, made in the form of a titanium sled.

The chassis design has become a real torment for the ground staff. During takeoff, the technicians had to run after the plane, until the U-2 took a steady vertical position, after which they had to pull out the bushes - and the additional landing gear with a screech fell on the concrete runway, looking after the plane taking off.

The design of the cockpit brought no fewer problems (especially the long-nosed U-2 modifications) - having pulled a deaf pressure helmet on the head, the pilot was deprived of the opportunity to observe the runway. As a result, the Dragon Lady take-off and landing operations turned into a real Hollywood blockbuster - behind the scout, a sports car was rushing with dispatchers, who operatively controlled the position of the aircraft in space.


US Air Force Base Al-Dafra, United Arab Emirates. Nowadays


Another feature: because of its huge wing and lack of power, the Dragon Lady was critically dependent on the weather. Spreading its huge black wings, the reconnaissance sailed calmly in the stratosphere, but when landing, even a weak gust of crosswind could lead to a catastrophe.
Lightweight construction was not very robust - the overload limit for U-2 was estimated to be only 2,5 g.

It is noteworthy that the unique machine was created in the shortest possible time (the start of work is the 1954 year, the first flight of 1 in August of 1955), without the use of any composites and other "high technologies". The fuselage shape was borrowed from the Stratfighter F-104 fighter. The Pratt & Whitney J57 turbojet engine is the standard powerplant for many types of aircraft (F-100 Super Saber fighter-bomber, B-52 bomber, etc.). The only difficulty arose with the fuel - in order to exclude its “boiling up” at high altitudes, Shell developed a special fuel mixture with a high boiling point.


Spy equipment


Lockheed high-altitude reconnaissance U-2А, 1955 year (data on U-2S, 1994 year modification are given in brackets)
Crew - 1 man

Maximum take-off weight, kg - 7260 (18 600);

Engine: Pratt & Whitney J57 (General Electric F-118);

Thrust: 50 kN (86 kN);

Maximum speed ≈ 800… 850 km / h;

Cruising speed: 740 km / h (690 km / h);

Practical ceiling: 21 300 meters. According to eyewitnesses, the plane could rise above ≈ to 25-26 thousand meters);

Flight duration: 6,5 h. (More than 10 hours). Starting with version “F”, equipment for air refueling is installed.


***

... Convulsively bouncing in the cab of the truck, Gary Francis Powers frowned at the Ural landscape. He did not like the harsh nature of these places, did not like the disgusting quality of the road surface, did not like the truck and its driver. But he didn’t particularly like the medallion dangling on his chest in the form of a silver dollar. Especially for such cases - inside the needle with curare poison.

To hell! It was decided: his life is more precious than all the world's secrets.

As soon as he fell into the hands of the KGB, Powers tore off the ill-starred amulet from the neck and, throwing it on the table, said: “Inside is a dangerous substance. I don’t want a Russian to die because of my negligence. ” It was a good sign - the pilot of the spy plane was open for cooperation.


Let's go!


... That day everything went wrong since the morning: the flight was delayed by 20 minutes - all navigation astronomical calculations lost their relevance, had to re-calculate the height of the Sun for each of the control points of the route. In addition, the route itself caused considerable fears - taking off from an air base in Pakistan, the entire European part of the USSR should cross diagonally - from the southern borders in the mountains of Tajikistan to the Arctic latitudes of the Kola Peninsula. Further, it was necessary to go to the West and land at the Norwegian airbase in Bodø.

It was 28-th Powers' raid over the territory of the USSR - and Powers, as an experienced pilot, was well aware that the risk increases each time. The Soviets are offended by the boorish behavior of spy planes and are certainly looking for a solution to the problem. Powers saw how more and more “forbidden areas” appeared on the map of the Empire of Evil - places where, as a result of processing U-2 photographic materials, the positions of the stationary C-25 SAMs were discovered.

Mr. Powers was aware of a possible threat, but did not know how dangerous it was to fly on that fateful day — the C-75 Dvina mobile anti-aircraft missile systems appeared in service with the Soviet air defense units.
The complex beat up on 30 kilometers, and was able to intercept any aerial targets (from combat aircraft to cruise missiles and automatic stratostats), moving at speeds up to 1000 m / s on oncoming and follow-up courses. A combat unit of an anti-aircraft missile with a mass of 200 kg left no chance for violators of the airspace of the Soviet Union.

Powers' aircraft was shot down over the Sverdlovsk Region, 1 in May 1960, in 08: 53 Moscow time. At this point, U-2 was at the height of 20 000 m and followed the course set in the direction of the next control point - the city of Kirov.

The explosion tore off the U-2 wing, damaged the engine and tail. Rising from shock, Powers discovered that he was sandwiched between the seat and the dashboard. Now, with the ejection, his legs will tear off. However, he would not use the catapult anyway - one of the familiar technicians warned Powers that something was wrong with his plane: an object resembling an explosive device was mounted behind his back. It is his, and not the catapult, that activates the saving lever under the armrest of the pilot's seat.
Powers was not at all surprised at the shocking discovery. "Shot in the head" from the CIA? That's the way it should be: when you try to escape, a dozen kilograms of powerful blasting will kill an unwanted witness and destroy all secret equipment inside the fuselage.

Well, I do not! Today he will survive. Tumbling in a fatal fall from an 20-kilometer altitude, Powers managed to independently reset the lantern and leave the plane wreck at an altitude of about 10 km.


Workplace pilot U-2


And at this time ...

The incident with the destruction of U-2 over Sverdlovsk was accompanied by many bright and tragic events.
No one had any doubts that C-75 could cope: in six months, Powers - October 7 1959, the complex "took off" over China reconnaissance "Canberra" * from a height of 19 kilometers. Despite the keen desire to declare its success, the USSR said in a hurry that “Canberra” had fallen for technical reasons. Indeed, why cover the six with a trump card, if you can later cover an ace?
* American high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft Martin RB-57D Canberra

The beginning of 1960 of the year brought another success - the C-75 SAM system destroyed the high-altitude stratostat at 20 altitude with more than kilometers.

But in the case of the Powers aircraft, it was not going according to plan. Realizing that the victory was almost in their hands, the commanders of aviation and air defense literally burned with impatience and threw everything into the battle that they came across - after all, the one who had time to intercept U-2 first would be shed in golden rain of rewards and rewards. The situation was complicated by a holiday: in the garrisons they were preparing to celebrate May Day, the personnel received the dismissals - the alarm of war literally took people by surprise.

The operation took place in a great hurry and with a strong nervous tension. Igor Mentyukhov was the first to intercept - on that day the pilot overtook the newest Su-9 interceptor from the factory. The aircraft did not have weapons, and the pilot did not have a high-rise compensation suit. The order was simple: to destroy the enemy with an air ram (the pilot himself should have perished - everyone understood that without a high-altitude suit he had no chance). Alas, the interception did not take place due to an error in the afterburner activation time.

Fortunately, the anti-aircraft gunners of the Urals Military District did everything right and aptly - having received a missile into the tail, U-2 fell like a stone from heaven. However, it didn’t do without a tragic accident - at that moment, when the warped wreckage of the Dragon Lady was already rushing to the ground, the next division of the air defense missile system launched a second volley - it seemed to the anti-aircraft gunners that the U-2 was still flying. At this time, a pair of MiG-19 Boris Ayvazian and Sergey Safronov arrived at the scene. Under the intense "friendly fire" of the C-75 air defense system, the more experienced Ayvazyan abruptly threw the plane down to meet the launching missiles - and safely escaped the strike. The second pilot was unlucky - his MiG-19 was shot down, Sergei Safronov was the only victim of that stories.


And then there was a trial. The most humane court in the world. The Soviet Union mocked plenty of the West, setting up a couple of funny traps.

For example, the cunning Soviets kept silent about saving Gary Powers. Deciding that an undesirable witness is dead, US President Dwight Eisenhower told the world a moving story about a “strayed airplane” that performed “meteorological research.” He sang a mournful ballad about the “peaceful skies”, sworn solemnly that no flights over the territory of the USSR had ever been committed, that he was giving his honest word - the Word of the President of the United States.

Representatives of the USSR nodded their heads in agreement, and then at the trial they filed a pilot who, plainly, told foreign reporters that he had been shot down over the Central Urals. He was carrying out a military mission, so spyware was installed on his U-2. President Eisenhower was disgraced abruptly.





The wreckage of the aircraft and spy cameras were put on display. Nearby on the shelves lay other curious "artifacts" - a pistol with a silencer, packs of Soviet rubles, a detailed map of the USSR, and so forth "a la James Bond." It was really funny. The reputation of the CIA was stained.

As for Gary Powers himself, a young man of 30 years, the Soviet representatives treated him with a certain degree of understanding and respect, as a defeated enemy.

Powers was an average American hard worker. This was a man not very erudite, but technically well-grounded, who was used to the steering wheel, height, speed. He was the son of a shoemaker and a housewife who lived quite poorly on a farm with other children. Not only physical impacts, but not even a loud word or a threatening knock. They simply asked him - he answered. Frankly enough.

- investigator Mikhailov, interrogated the American pilot

All this was conceived during the trial - exemplary behavior, voluntary recognition and cooperation with the investigation. Sentence: 10 years of imprisonment, of which Powers hardly served 1,5 - in February 1962, he was exchanged for Rudolf Abel.

Powers returned to the United States and continued to work in military aviation, taking a test pilot at Lockheed Martin. In the last years of his life, he worked as a helicopter pilot at the KNBC news agency; in 1977, Gary Francis Powers died in a plane crash at his workplace.

Epilogue

The legendary U-2 "Dragon Lady" revealed the true location of Baikonur, leaked secret information about the rings of the Moscow air defense system, meticulously counted the number of Soviet ships, submarines, airplanes and air bases. Thanks to its superintelligence officer, the CIA gained quite clear ideas about the state of Soviet industry, the system of closed cities and towns, military training grounds, and other strategic facilities in our country and not only. Scouts regularly participated in spy missions in different parts of the world - China, Southeast Asia, the Middle East, Africa and South America. Nothing could escape the attentive eyes of U-2.

According to statistics, of the 90 planes built ~, half was lost for various non-combat reasons, another six were shot down over the territory of the USSR, Cuba and the People's Republic of China.

Paradoxically, airplanes of this type continue to be actively used today - the newest modifications TR-1 and U-2S serve in troubled regions around the world. Now their tactics have changed - instead of arrogant intrusions into the airspace of other countries, the Dragon Lady calmly soars along their borders, looking curiously hundreds of kilometers deep into foreign territory.




Powers #2





Wreck of the Powers aircraft in the Central Museum of the Armed Forces
Author:
11 comments
Ad

Our projects are looking for authors in the news and analytical departments. Requirements for applicants: literacy, responsibility, efficiency, inexhaustible creative energy, experience in copywriting or journalism, the ability to quickly analyze text and check facts, write concisely and interestingly on political and economic topics. The work is paid. Contact: [email protected]

Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must to register.

I have an account? Sign in

  1. wasps
    wasps 16 May 2013 08: 42 New
    +8
    Article +, very interesting!
    1. BDRM 667
      BDRM 667 16 May 2013 23: 37 New
      +1
      Quote: vespe
      Article +, very interesting!

      Go!...
      1. BDRM 667
        BDRM 667 16 May 2013 23: 43 New
        +1
        Quote: BDRM 667
        Go!...

        And we arrived ...
  2. cobalt
    cobalt 16 May 2013 08: 45 New
    10
    Glory to our engineers, designers and air defense fighters. It’s not good to fly all kinds of enemies over our homeland, especially May 1.
    1. Proud.
      Proud. 16 May 2013 10: 05 New
      +4
      Thank you for the video. Although I have enough of my own on the computer, I looked again. I am proud that I served in the Air Defense Forces of the Air Defense of the Country-Forever!
      1. Dimkapvo
        Dimkapvo 16 May 2013 18: 54 New
        +1
        Greetings!
        1. Proud.
          Proud. 16 May 2013 23: 49 New
          0
          And all the best to you!
    2. postman
      postman 16 May 2013 16: 25 New
      +1
      Quote: cobalt
      Glory to our engineers,

      In your initial picture (splash screen), for some reason, the video is not SA-2 Guideline (C-75 “Dvina”)



      a "Circle" (2K11, SA-4, Ganef)


      request
      1. postman
        postman 16 May 2013 16: 36 New
        +4
        S-75, as the USSR provided Vietnam with luminous dishes (couture based on F-4)
      2. cobalt
        cobalt 16 May 2013 19: 00 New
        0
        I know, I found a video about the S-75 air defense system, but the first frame is like that, with the Circle, but there is a story about Powers in the video, I looked at it.
        1. postman
          postman 16 May 2013 19: 03 New
          0
          Quote: cobalt
          but there’s a plot about Powers in the video,

          In my opinion, there was a star on the illiteracy screen saver.
          I have a film, old, black and white, without sound, the former chipboard, there are U-2 and Vietnam.
  3. Canep
    Canep 16 May 2013 08: 45 New
    +4
    The pilot was very lucky that he remained alive.
  4. pensioner
    pensioner 16 May 2013 09: 18 New
    17
    Powers frowned at the Ural landscape. He didn’t like the harsh nature of these places,

    In fact, in the area of ​​its landing, the harsh Ural landscape is a continuous agricultural field. Apparently the thawed collective farm field was not completely upset because there was nowhere to hide. I'm in 1986 participated in haymaking at the Kosulinsky state farm (well, what else should scientists do in the summer, if not on vacation? Correctly help agriculture). So on the tractor we worked precisely the tractor driver who captured Powers. How fun it was to listen to him! At first he said that they say a small, puffy little one. After 300g, it’s the same as us, after 500g - “... like he climbed into a plane with such growth”, after 900g - “... he’s in Russian like you and me.” After 1000g (I consider it to be 1 year old), his wife came running with a frying pan: "Again, take the pavers? How long will you still have them ... will be?". Well, here it was necessary to show the miracles of disguise and break speed records. The woman was furious ..
  5. lazy
    lazy 16 May 2013 11: 03 New
    0
    and also this example shows that it is necessary to work ahead of the design idea, that they found a decent answer for the U-2 is good, but the fact that he all the same did a few dozen flights with impunity is poor. in this context, the history of the creation of the “Valkyrie” and the MiG-25 is interesting, it would just be interesting to go to the “Valkyrie series if we did not have the MiG-25
    1. Santa Fe
      16 May 2013 12: 36 New
      +2
      Quote: lazy
      it’s just interesting that the Valkyrie would go into production if we hadn’t got a moment-25

      no, I wouldn’t go
      by that time, “city killers” —SWW type “George Washington” —was on combat patrol. A much more powerful, reliable and effective weapon

      I personally am convinced that the instant-25 was late for years on 10 - hence all its problems. by the time of its appearance, no one was flying in the stratosphere
      the only successful application of Mig is Mig-25rb. fierce car! a ton of bombs from unattainable heights.

      MiG-25RB torn to pieces the Iranian oil terminal on the island of Hark, 80-ies
      1. pensioner
        pensioner 16 May 2013 14: 33 New
        0
        Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
        MiG-25RB torn to pieces the Iranian oil terminal on the island of Hark, 80-ies


        I really didn’t know, I didn’t know! Where to read?
        1. Santa Fe
          16 May 2013 17: 12 New
          0
          Quote: retired
          I really didn’t know, I didn’t know! Where to read?

          For example. in principle, the story is famous
          http://www.airforce.ru/aircraft/mikoyan/mig-25rb/page_07.htm
          1. postman
            postman 16 May 2013 17: 23 New
            0
            Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN

            For example. in principle, the story is famous



            And others about this not gu-gu:
            http://www.russfalcons.ru/index.php?newsid=23
            http://army.lv/ru/mig-25/primenenie/502/97
            http://aviamuseum.org/RU/MIG25RBS.html
            http://sergib.agava.ru/russia/mikoyan/mig/25/r/mig25r.htm
          2. pensioner
            pensioner 16 May 2013 21: 38 New
            +1
            Well, thank you! Actually, in the 80s I was very closely following the international situation, which was helped by the environment. His wife is a historian (archivist 1st form of admission), a friend is a journalist (partisan), another friend of the Ministry of Internal Affairs (officer, special battalion, the predecessor of riot police). He also participated (at his institute) in the development of the Moscow Region. Decent. Then he also followed in the footsteps of his wife. But only later. After adjustment.
      2. postman
        postman 16 May 2013 17: 16 New
        +1
        Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
        MiG-25RB torn to pieces the Iranian oil terminal on the island of Hark, 80-ies

        ?
        Maybe the eight Tu-22 Iraqi Air Force?
        Iraqi Air Force combat strength as of 1980 (presumably)

        Aircraft Type Number
        MiG-21 MF \ PFM 90
        Mirage F.1EQ 36
        MiG-17 30
        Su-7 40
        Su-20/22 30
        MiG-23 \ 27 80
        Jet Provost 12
        Hunter FGA.9 \ FR.10 15
        IL-28 8
        Tu-22 10
        Gazelle 45
        Alluet III 40
        Mi-4/8 70
        Super Frelon 11
        An-2, -12, -24, IL-14 40
        Tu-134, IL-76 7

        Deliveries began in the 1980s (end), but there were no pilots, (craftsmen).
        The active use of the MiG-25 has begun only in 1982 year.
        Iraqis went along the “Indian” or “Finnish” path, perfectly combining Soviet and Western European aircraft. In 1979, deliveries of combat helicopters Mi-25 and the famous MiG-25 interceptors. The latter were based only on one airbase, Shoaibach, and at first were piloted almost exclusively by Soviet 'instructors'.
        .
        Three major Iranian oil storage facilities on the island of Hark were also set on fire.
      3. Containers
        Containers 17 May 2013 02: 15 New
        0
        could not 25RB participate there.
  6. broneboy1
    broneboy1 16 May 2013 13: 37 New
    +2
    good article
  7. gizz
    gizz 16 May 2013 13: 37 New
    +1
    Interesting behavior of the technician. Pretty much, in general, risking it, nevertheless, saves the pilot. Interestingly, in modern USA there are such people?
  8. nnz226
    nnz226 16 May 2013 14: 22 New
    +1
    Air defense slogan: "Everything that flies must be shot down!" God forbid, and so on!
    1. cobalt
      cobalt 16 May 2013 18: 56 New
      +2
      I heard the following saying: "Air Defense Forces, we don’t fly ourselves and don’t give others"
  9. postman
    postman 16 May 2013 14: 39 New
    +1
    Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
    The usual sensations of emptiness and loneliness were replaced by attacks

    There was (is) MINIMUM 5 VERSIONS. It’s not boring. tongue
    U-2B,U-2D,U-2CT,U-2RT,TR-1B,TU-2S
    August 17, 2007 Jonathan Karl (ABC News' Chief White House Correspondent in December 2012) flew.
    Two days of training at the Beale Air Force Base, and go, you can request an impression: Jonathan Karl @jonkarl (tweeter)

    Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
    without the use of any composites, etc. "high technology".

    Ancestor: Lockheed F-104 Starfighte. The aerodynamics of the aircraft was revolutionary and he was distinguished by “futuristic” (for that time) forms.
    Fuselage materials are mainly made of 75ST aluminum alloy and COMPOSITES.
    Also composites (well, and titanium) in the manufacture of the wing

    It is noteworthy that at 104 itself the wing edge (rear and front) was so thin (0,016 in / 0.41 mm) and sharp that it was dangerous for ground teams, and protective covers (tarpaulin with foam rubber) should be installed while standing on the ground and service.

    Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
    was only 10 miles per hour

    Vne = 12 mph, 19 km / h

    Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
    then the scout U-2, this coefficient had a value of 14.

    23:01

    Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
    MiG silhouettes - like a swarm of evil wasps, Evil Empire planes were flying somewhere below, periodically piercing the sky in a desperate dynamic jump ... in vain

    Large-scale exercises of the air force in 1955, following which the commander of the Moscow Air Defense District, Marshal K. Vershinin, pompously reported to the Presidium of the CPSU Central Committee that at night, 96% of the targets were "intercepted" by Soviet pilots at distant approaches to guarded objects without the use of spotlights and even without the use of radar stations on board aircraft.

    July 4, 1956 U-2 ("product 347") crossed the Soviet border, flew over Belarus, then turned north to Leningrad.

    In November, the 1957 in service new fighter Mig-19PM appeared new rocket RS-2U.
    It's not a fighter, it's about missiles (some rare until the early 70's.) -captain Vasily Polyakov, who first destroyed the RB-47 in the summer of 1960, used his Mig-19 cannons to attack.
    To intercept, it was necessary to fly the U-2 over the airfield, and even tell when it will be (maybe while the fighter was gaining altitude and occupying the corridor - U2 and B-47 were flying away far away)
    1. postman
      postman 16 May 2013 14: 42 New
      0
      Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
      In service with the USSR air defense units, S-75 Dvina mobile anti-aircraft missile systems appeared.

      in fact, our air defense did not notice him, not only at the border, but even over Baikonur, where he “looked” on the way to Chelyabinsk. By the way, anti-aircraft missile battalions were already deployed in the Baikonur region, so on May 1, 1960, an American could theoretically be shot down there, however ... however, no one simply saw him there.
      The types of radar stations available at that time in the arsenal of the USSR had very limited capabilities (target detection at ranges up to 200 km. And altitudes up to 20 km.). Moreover, many factors negatively influenced the radar efficiency: the parameters of the target’s movement and its physical properties, solar activity, the state of the atmosphere, and even the level of training of the operators. Therefore, the radio regiments could not recognize the U-2 and confidently "lead" it.

      The episode that took place on April 9, 1960, i.e. 3 weeks before Powers flight. Then the American U-2 "walked" to Balkhash and Baikonur, and then calmly returned to Iran. At first, 4 Mig-19 fighters were raised to intercept the mysterious object, and then another 2 Mig-17 fighters. When one of the “nineteen” tried to jump out of a practical regiment and rise to the height of a mysterious object, the fighter lost control and crashed. In the crashed plane, Senior Lieutenant Vladimir Karachevsky was killed. The 9th Guards Fighter Aviation Regiment, which owned the dead plane, General E. Savitsky, the commander of fighter air defense aircraft, arrived, who competently established that the interceptors were chasing a phantom, because "there simply cannot be such an airplane that they supposedly saw."

      The incident became known in Moscow and was discussed at a meeting of the Politburo of the CPSU Central Committee in the presence of competent specialists - aircraft designer A. Mikoyan and Chairman of the State Committee of the Council of Ministers for Aviation Technology P. Dementyev. Experts were unanimous: aircraft at altitudes of more than 20 km. they cannot fly due to severe speed limits - at a low flight speed they will fall into a tailspin, and at high - they will break off their wings due to the high speed pressure. And therefore, all empty talk about a certain unknown high-altitude scout must be stopped. Neither the Politburo of the Central Committee of the CPSU, nor the best aviation experts of the Soviet Union, nor the best KGB and GRU intelligence officers - none of these honorable historical characters knew anything about the American U-2 until May 1, 1960, when rocket-launchers of the 57th anti-aircraft missile brigade were in the sky above Chelyabinsk-40 "overwhelmed" the American 14th (fourteenth!) In a row anti-aircraft missile S-75.
      1. postman
        postman 16 May 2013 14: 43 New
        +1
        NOTE:
        On September 10, 1957, one of the most mysterious operations of American intelligence in the skies of the USSR took place. Some high-altitude aircraft made a flight from Iran over the Caspian Sea, followed by access to the route Stalingrad-Armavir-Grozny-Tbilisi-Iran, flying a total of about 3050 km over the territory of the USSR. The aircraft reconnaissance missile range in Kapustin Yar and aviation range in Vladimirovka. 100 km. a certain object separated from Vladimirovka from the intruder plane, which quickly left the visibility range of the Soviet radars, having developed a speed of about 1800 km / h. It looked as if the intruder was simulating an attack on a ground object by a cruise missile. Despite all the efforts of the Armed Forces of the USSR to get its fragments at their disposal and a large-scale search operation, undertaken for the sake of this, the wreckage of the mysterious high-speed object was never found. The type of intruder aircraft is still unknown, since the launch height (19 km.) Clearly exceeded the ceiling of the Stratojet, and the high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft U-2 did not have weapon suspension units (However, one cannot completely exclude the mistakes of ground-based radar operators, whose professionalism often left much to be desired.
        =========== Well, and so something else on the little things ..
      2. Santa Fe
        16 May 2013 16: 00 New
        +2
        Quote: Postman
        Specialists were unanimous: aircraft at altitudes of more than 20 km. can't fly

        Shoot the pilots for alarmism!

        Comrade the postman to roll a dvushka for admiration for the enemy’s technique ( wink )
        Quote: Postman
        “overwhelmed” the American with the 14 (fourteenth!) as a result of the C-75 anti-aircraft missile.

        lies, rockets fired all 8
        Quote: Postman
        The type of intruder aircraft is still unknown, since the launch height (19 km.) Clearly exceeded the ceiling of the Stratojet, and the high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft U-2 did not have weapon suspension units

        but what about the tall Canberra?
        1. postman
          postman 16 May 2013 16: 52 New
          +2
          Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
          Shoot the pilots for alarmism!

          "SPECIALISTS". Pilots have nothing to do with it, but on the MIG-19 I was ready to shoot down without a high-altitude suit
          Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
          lies, rockets fired all 8

          what do you prove?
          I have:
          ANALYSIS OF CONSTRUCTION FEATURES AND COMBAT POSSIBILITIES OF DIFFERENT MODIFICATIONS OF S-75/2 SAM SAMS CRI RF RF
          Anti-aircraft missile system S-75M.
          1st chapter of "System-75 Improvement" The list of modifications of the RSN-75V station, V-755 and V-760 missiles, ground equipment is given
          Comparative assessment of the probability of hitting a target with a warhead (warhead) 12B6 and a standard warhead V88M
          Estimates of accuracy of guidance of V-750 missiles. (Based on the results of joint tests) .1958
          TTZ for the modernization of the S-75M air defense system (Volkhov) at the 3rd stage. 1970 g
          Well and so on


          Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
          but what about the tall Canberra?

          Scared
          Martin B-57 Canberra
          Practical ceiling: 13 745 m Combat radius: 1530 km
          1. Santa Fe
            16 May 2013 17: 25 New
            0
            Quote: Postman
            "SPECIALISTS"

            The experts did not panic:
            aircraft at altitudes of more than 20 km. cannot fly due to severe speed limits

            This is all the flyers panic: phantom planes at altitudes above 20 km seem to them. Lies!! Alarmists - to the wall!
            Quote: Postman
            what do you prove?

            Well, I’m more modest, but airwar usually differs in the quality of materials
            http://www.airwar.ru/history/locwar/xussr/pauers/pauers.html
            The official reports on the destruction of Powers featured the figure - seven. That is, on the intruder (and in fact, as we know, not only on it) seven missiles were fired. In fact, eight missiles were consumed. The eighth missile launched on its Su-9 fighter a division of an adjacent anti-aircraft missile unit.

            Quote: Postman
            Scared
            Martin B-57 Canberra
            Practical ceiling: 13 745 m Combat radius: 1530 km

            Martin RB-57 Canberra
            practical ceiling: 22860 m
            http://www.airwar.ru/enc/spy/rb57.html

            everything possible was squeezed out of the structure: the wing span was increased by 12 m, 2 were added for additional Pratt Whitney J60-P-9 RDs ... this is a child prodigy !!))
            1. postman
              postman 16 May 2013 17: 51 New
              +2
              Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
              Martin RB-57 Canberra

              Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
              everything possible was squeezed out of the design:

              possibly.
              ONLY here is the CONTACT FOR DEVELOPMENT and DELIVERY concluded in 1962 by General Dynamics and the US Air Force (wing)
              took two Martin B-57B-MA airborne No. 52-1589 and 53-3864

              At the end of 1963, the first two RB-57Fs were sent for testing with the USAFE 7407th Support Squadron in Rhine-Main AB, West Germany.

              Production was completed in March 1967.
              1. Santa Fe
                16 May 2013 17: 57 New
                +1
                Quote: Postman
                At the end of 1963, the first two RB-57Fs were sent for testing with the USAFE 7407th support squadron in Rhine-Main AB, West Germany.

                This is modification "F"

                But there was RB-57D
                Role reconnaissance
                Manufacturer martin
                First flight 3 November 1955
                Introduction April 1956

                Retired 1979 (EB-57D)
                Status retired
                Primary users United States Air Force
                Republic of China Air Force
                Number built 20
                Developed from English Electric Canberra

                Performance
                Maximum speed: 600 mph at 45,000 ft.
                Cruise speed: Approx. 420 knots at 65,000 ft.
                Combat radius: Approx. 2,000 miles ()
                Service ceiling: Approx. 70,000 ft. (Xnumx m)

                Winged hat RB-57D on the background of the atomic mushroom, Bikini, 1958
                1. postman
                  postman 16 May 2013 19: 00 New
                  0
                  Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
                  Combat radius: Approx. 2,000 miles ()

                  Where did they take off and how could they be related to the incident

                  Quote: Postman
                  On September 10, 1957, one of the most mysterious operations of American intelligence in the skies of the USSR took place. A certain high-altitude plane made a flight from Iran over the Caspian Sea with the subsequent exit onto the route Stalingrad-Armavir-Grozny-Tbilisi-Iran, flying in total over the territory of the USSR about 3050 km.


                  ??
      3. ded10041948
        ded10041948 16 May 2013 23: 38 New
        0
        Excuse me, where did such nightmarish numbers come from (14 missiles)? In 1960, armed with 57 air defense missiles (command post - the city of Berezniki, about 90 km from Chelyabinsk-40) was the S-75 Dvina complex (6 cab version), and 37 air defense missiles (the city of Kyshtym, about 60 km from Chelyabinsk-40) is the same. With a flight altitude of 20000 meters, the destruction zone for these complexes is about two kilometers across, since the upper boundary of the missiles that were armed with these complexes (B-750) at that time is 22 km, and the ultimate range of destruction is 32 km. U-2 could fire a maximum of two divisions from each brigade. Instrument firing cycle "Dvina" is 6 seconds. U-2 at a cruising speed of 200 m / s passes the affected area in about 9-10 seconds. During this time, two missiles can be fired as much as possible, the third will be known to be outside the affected area. One of the divisions of 37 air defense missiles was in scheduled maintenance mode (We managed to “live” transfer to Ready Number One, we were on target, but a fraction of a second before the missiles were launched, the SNR transmitter “knocked out” and firing became impossible due to the design features of the complex). The second division of the same brigade managed to launch only one missile "after" the target. It was she who damaged the target, forcing her to begin to decline. Two divisions of 57 zbr fired on an already declining aircraft. One and the second fired three rockets each. Of the three missiles of one division, one worked for an already falling target, not really finishing it, and the other two went on self-liquidation due to a big miss. The second division generally fired at our MiG-19s, which were raised to interception and did not manage to leave the zone. As a result, the wingman’s plane was “broken into the trash” (all three missiles worked on it), the pilot died. Another missile was fired at intercepting the Su-9 intruder (the 37th zbbr division, 30 km from Koltsovo, was fired). Due to the lack of shooting skills at targets with speeds of the order of 2M, long range to the target, the ultimate shooting parameter and the timely anti-ballistic maneuver, the rocket went into self-destruction, the plane was not injured. Total, as expressed in air defense, "Consumption - eight," of which four were fired at U-2, but only two missiles were fired at the target.
      4. ded10041948
        ded10041948 17 May 2013 00: 22 New
        0
        Postman:

        Excuse me, where did such nightmarish numbers come from (14 missiles)? In 1960, armed with 57 air defense missiles (command post - the city of Berezniki, about 90 km from Chelyabinsk-40) was the S-75 Dvina complex (6 cab version), and 37 air defense missiles (the city of Kyshtym, about 60 km from Chelyabinsk-40) is the same. With a flight altitude of 20000 meters, the destruction zone for these complexes is about two kilometers across, since the upper boundary of the missiles that were armed with these complexes (B-750) at that time is 22 km, and the ultimate range of destruction is 32 km. U-2 could fire a maximum of two divisions from each brigade. Instrument firing cycle "Dvina" is 6 seconds. U-2 at a cruising speed of 200 m / s passes the affected area in about 9-10 seconds. During this time, two missiles can be fired as much as possible, the third will be known to be outside the affected area. One of the divisions of 37 air defense missiles was in scheduled maintenance mode (We managed to “live” transfer to Ready Number One, we were on target, but a fraction of a second before the missiles were launched, the SNR transmitter “knocked out” and firing became impossible due to the design features of the complex). The second division of the same brigade managed to launch only one missile "after" the target. It was she who damaged the target, forcing her to begin to decline. Two divisions of 57 zbr fired on an already declining aircraft. One and the second fired three rockets each. Of the three missiles of one division, one worked for an already falling target, not really finishing it, and the other two went on self-liquidation due to a big miss. The second division generally fired at our MiG-19s, which were raised to interception and did not manage to leave the zone. As a result, the wingman’s plane was “broken into the trash” (all three missiles worked on it), the pilot died. Another missile was fired at intercepting the Su-9 intruder (the 37th zbbr division, 30 km from Koltsovo, was fired). Due to the lack of shooting skills at targets with speeds of the order of 2M, long range to the target, the ultimate shooting parameter and the timely anti-ballistic maneuver, the rocket went into self-destruction, the plane was not injured. Total, as expressed in air defense, "Consumption - eight," of which four were fired at U-2, but only two missiles were fired at the target.
        The reference to E. Savitsky, A. Mikoyan and P. Dementyev is generally incorrect.
        In 1956, flight tests of the T-3 (prototype Su-9) were completed and in 1959, more than 150 units of the Su-9 were already in combat units. By the way, the Su-9, which was picked up for interception from the Koltsovo airfield, was driven from Novosibirsk to Baranovichi (Belarus). Su-9 had a practical ceiling of more than 20km and a speed of 2,1M. What is it that turns out, the commander of an air defense fighter aircraft does not know what his pilots are flying on? Yes, and the aircraft designer and other specialists should know such things by their position!
        1. postman
          postman 17 May 2013 22: 58 New
          0
          Quote: ded10041948
          Excuse me, where did such nightmarish numbers come from (14 missiles)?

          1. Once again, we give the floor to Igor Mentiukov:
          In total, 14 anti-aircraft missiles were launched during the suppression of the flight of the spy plane.

          2. All materials about the events that took place on May 1, 1960 in the Urals are in the Central Archive of the Ministry of Defense (TsAMO) of Russia: fund 72, inventory number 974693, case number 36, box number 24066.

          No. 1. Report of the Commander-in-Chief of the Air Defense Forces, Marshal S. S. Biryuzov, to the Minister of Defense of the USSR R. Ya. Malinovsky, May 2, 1960 (p. 1–5).
          No. 2. Report No. 0012 dated May 2, 1960, to the commander of the 4th Air Defense OA, to the Commander-in-Chief of the Air Defense Forces, Marshal S. S. Biryuzov (pp. 7–12).
          No. 3. The combat report of the commander of the 4th Air Defense OA No. 0015 dated May 5, 1960 to the Commander-in-Chief of the Air Defense Forces, Marshal S. S. Biryuzov (pp. 17–35).
          No. 4. Report of the Chief of Staff of the 4th Air Defense Division, Major General A. Syukhin, to the Commander-in-Chief of the Air Defense Forces, Marshal S. S. Biryuzov (pp. 37–43).
          No. 5. Report of the Acting Second Commander of the 57th Anti-Aircraft Missile Brigade Colonel S. V. Gaiderov to the Deputy Commander-in-Chief of the Air Defense Forces, Colonel General A. F. Kuleshov (chairman of the commission (pp. 66–69).
          No. 6. Report on the actions of the 4th Air Defense OA forces on the destruction of the U-2 US aircraft, Colonel-General of the Artillery A. F. Kuleshov, Lieutenant-General of the Air Force N. Seleznev and Major General G. S. Legasov of May 6, 1960 (report of the commission of the commander in chief of the Air Defense Forces).
          No. 7. Additional testimony of a pilot of a downed U-2 American aircraft G. Powers (pp. 74–76).
          No. 8. Reporting cards of live firing of shooting divisions.
          No. 9. Cards of military operations of the ZRV 4th Air Defense OA on May 1, 1960 (case 36/6)



          The first division dried up the footcloths and enjoyed the May sun, the order was elementary * fucked up, they were not shot solely because of the general euphoria of the final victory.
          The second division barely managed to recover and start firing - the first missile was a dissent, the second was a dissent, the third - well, thank God, flew away.

          The 3rd division found a greasy declining target - three rockets in the wreckage.
          A pair of MiG-19s - Ayvazyan-Safronov - takes off IN 7 MINUTES after the defeat of Powers (all the debris is already on the ground).
          The 4th division detects them, there is no report on the defeat of the target, they launch three missiles, successfully, Safronov’s plane crashes in the city park a quarter of an hour later than Powers.
          Mentiukov completely away from everyone twists a spiral to lower to Koltsovo.

          It is detected by the neighboring part, they manage to launch one rocket already at the exit from the zone of possible launches.

          And in the same document (No. 9): 5th Anti-Aircraft Missile Division (commander - lieutenant colonel I.I. Novikov) the 37th anti-aircraft missile brigade, despite the great range, produced single rocket launchbut to no avail, since the target was outside the zone of defeat of the strategic missile forces (all these data were entrusted to check carefully Colonel General Kuleshov on the spot and report the results). ”

          ===== This is how it is, it’s not for you VIKI pedi it is TUKUMENT =================

          Quote: ded10041948
          Due to the lack of shooting skills at targets with speeds of the order of 2M


          This does not apply to U-2. He flew very "reverently" and gently.
          cruising - 740 km / h, 2,5g max
          1. postman
            postman 17 May 2013 22: 58 New
            0
            Quote: ded10041948
            The reference to E. Savitsky, A. Mikoyan and P. Dementyev is generally incorrect.

            This is not me, this is in the Politburo.
            Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev, having learned that the six-hour flight of the intruder plane (flight 09.04.1960/1905/1970) went unpunished for him, was, as eyewitnesses said, very angry. Major General Yuri Votintsev, commander of the Turkestan air defense corps, was warned of incomplete official compliance, and army commander Ivan Fedyuninsky received a severe reprimand from the troops of the Turkestan military district. Moreover, it is interesting that at a special meeting of the Politburo of the CPSU Central Committee, the chairman of the State Committee for Aviation Engineering - USSR Minister Pyotr Dementyev - and general aircraft designer Artem Mikoyan (XNUMX-XNUMX) stated:

            There are no planes in the world that could 6 hours 48 minutes go at a height of 20 000 meters. It is not excluded that this plane periodically gained such a height, but then it would certainly decrease. It means that those means of anti-aircraft defense that were in the south of the country should have been destroyed.
            Quote: ded10041948
            What is it that turns out, the commander of an air defense fighter aircraft does not know what his pilots are flying on?

            It happens after all and such (all the more so with us), see above. can I raise the Politburo archive
            Quote: ded10041948
            Su-9 had a practical ceiling of more than 20km and a speed of 2,1M

            Do not believe VIKI, she is mistaken. Will we believe the producer?
            12500м
            http://www.sukhoi.org/planes/museum/su9_11_13/lth/
            I think so. the figure of 20000 came from ... from a dynamic ceiling, + of course without a payload
            1. ded10041948
              ded10041948 18 May 2013 00: 50 New
              0
              Basil!
              If you carefully count the ROCKERS COMING FROM THE GUIDES, you will get exactly the number 8. It is Novikov’s missile and Powers’s hem (the only missile launched), and the rest made a festive Fireworks display, the result is a MiG-19!
              Overshot the only missile launched on the Su-9 zrdn - the one that is 30 km from Koltsovo. As for the reporting data, I got the impression that they were written by the political leaders! Only links to the fact that the missiles did not start, since the launchers were in the “exclusion zone”, do not cause anything except a smile. Under those shooting conditions, the launch angle should not be less than 40 degrees, and they have four (!) "Guns" in the "zz". In short, the asses covered - as they could.
              My first battalion commander taught me: "Remember, salag," LIPA must be OAK! " It doesn't smell like oak here! There are only so many “fleas” there at the “start”, any stray mongrel will be envious! Believe the "start-up" of the 75 complex (albeit of later versions), which has been operating this equipment for 13 years from the Arctic to the South and 6 times at the firing range.
              As for the performance characteristics of the Su-9, then in VIKE they are somewhat underestimated. According to the pilots of the Baranavichy regiment, they were able to accelerate cars to 2,17M and keep them in horizontal flight at altitudes of 20200m - 20500m for 2-2,5 minutes (True, all this with the afterburner turned on, because of which kerosene lasted for 25 flights But this is an interceptor, its function does not include barrage). And this is about a BATTLE departure, and the Su-9 from Koltsovo was a ferry (no weapons were installed) and it was raised for a battering ram!
              Sincerely. GRANDFATHER.
              1. postman
                postman 18 May 2013 01: 19 New
                0
                Quote: ded10041948
                If you carefully recount RISKED GUIDED missiles,

                Regarding the "drying" of footcloths, it was a joke. Actually (according to the documents that I brought) and analysis with a calculator fool
                14.
                Well, it seems to me (now) that it is. Although I met a figure and more.
                As an option, request copies of the docks in the MO archive.

                Quote: ded10041948
                Believe the "start-up" of the 75 complex (though of later modifications),

                I believe.
                Mine (S-200)
                Shooting in Kazakhstan (student) -excursion
                Teachings after oath
                literature
                ---- this is my "experience" (of course it is rather weak: "How many raids do you have?" O: "2000 hours", "On the simulator" "And what?"

                Cousin in Libya 2,5 years (at the same time)

                Quote: ded10041948
                As for the performance characteristics of the Su-9, then in VIKE they are somewhat underestimated.

                I brought the manufacturer’s website, this (as the customs says) is the last resort ....
                It would be so 09.04.1960/XNUMX/XNUMX failed.
                Noah is not a pilot, maybe he’s wrong
                Quote: ded10041948
                all this with afterburner on

                In in. To "catch" U02, he would have to tell where and when he would fly

                Quote: ded10041948
                and he was raised for a battering ram!

                I think he was offered to ram during the haul. Or forgot?
                1. ded10041948
                  ded10041948 18 May 2013 01: 41 New
                  0
                  Send copies of "linden"
                  In the data on experimental flights, there is a mention of an altitude of about 23 km, I can’t remember the exact number and find the source.
                  “Rusk” was raised on alarm, so the pilot was even without a VKK (thanks for not being in the “citizen”)
                  There was nothing to bring down U-2 in the Balkhash - Baikonur area at that time. There was a huge hole in the air defense system the size of half of Kazakhstan.
                  ps If you want, write to the electronic. The address is the same [email protected]
                  1. postman
                    postman 18 May 2013 04: 27 New
                    0
                    Quote: ded10041948
                    In the data on experimental flights, there is a mention of an altitude of about 23 km, I can’t remember the exact number and find the source.

                    Just think a little:
                    If SU-9 practical ceiling 20
                    Well, Fuli Americans are wise with the U-2 (and where is the Su-9 and where is the U-2 now)?
                    What for? Millions to the wind.
                    Su-9 and forward. I already wrote about the "red wing" in the states.
                    http://www.fas.org/nuke/guide/russia/airdef/su-9.htm
                    gives 16800m
                    True, there is such a "strange" tablet:

                    / but is it not practical?
                    http://www.globalaircraft.org/planes/su-9_fishpot.pl
                    Ceiling: 55 feet (easy to translate)
                    ====================
                    The bottom line: we look at the manufacturer’s website (not well, of course, in practice and Liebherr is caught on the jambs): why should he (the manufacturer) underestimate?

                    Quote: ded10041948
                    ps If you want, write

                    Okay. After the weekend.
                    WHAT TO SEND?
                    RESEARCH OF THE POSSIBILITIES OF DAMAGING THE SA-75M SAM AIRPLANE SR-71, HAVING APPARATUS OF INSTALLING AN ACTIVE INTERFERENCE
                    belay
                    1. ded10041948
                      ded10041948 18 May 2013 21: 09 New
                      0
                      The manufacturer could not underestimate, because the design assignment was not fulfilled, and in the 56th it was possible for a moment to turn from the Chief Designer into the Main Janitor (and this is in the best case) in a flash. Remember Myasishchev.
                      The machine was largely experimental, it did not even have guns. Engine life - 25 hours, then in the fuel and energy sector for replacement. Combat mission: took off, fired and home, while the engine is running, and he ate on the afterburner like a starving hippo, but without the afterburner 1,3M and 12 km. As they say, feel the difference! Out of curiosity, look at his photo and projection. In comparison with it, the Mig-21 is a cow with wings! And in combat units everything was squeezed out of it. Kshniki reading saddle reports from horror. But the information about them until the age of 65 was with a mosquito horseradish, until they removed the signature stamp of "special importance, state secret."
                      As for the SR-71, then he pissed me off in the Arctic. Every week, on Thursday, at 14.20 p.m., the “Bustard” signal raced! Even rockets for this "bird" had to be prepared. And this is not paying attention to such "trifles" as "Option One" (this is the weather: there is no visibility even 2 meters, snow and wind more than 25 m / s. It’s good even though the frost decreases!). By the way, he never put interference.
            2. ded10041948
              ded10041948 18 May 2013 01: 19 New
              0
              Thanks for the comment. I read it. Replied. I forgot to clarify: a conversation with the pilots (one of them was Uncle Vadim (for me, at that time a bastard was a ninth grader), in my opinion - the squadron commander, major, but I could be wrong) took place in 1964 in Slonim, when he came to visit my father (May month, after Victory Day), and a couple of these handsome men passed over us. Before that, my father served in the city of Grodno and I never saw this car, and in 1963 he was transferred to Slonim.
              1. postman
                postman 18 May 2013 04: 41 New
                0
                Quote: ded10041948
                occurred in 1964 in the city of Slonim,

                Damn me still and "design" did not start .... a bit left hi
                BUT!
                I remember my childhood passed (when we went fishing), to talk: that the Chinese were burned at Damansky with lasers, somewhere around a million (or so). all the servants told
                Honestly (I) believed until 1977.
                ===========
                Veterans and they can boast.
                -------
                I’ll clarify with my cousin (KhAI, retired Air Force Colonel, Libya for almost 3 years, it was then, Odessa Aircraft Repair), I think I’ll clarify competently
                1. ded10041948
                  ded10041948 18 May 2013 21: 45 New
                  +1
                  With Damansky is also not so simple. After him there was some regular congress of the Komsomol. The Komsomol member posted a snapshot: "Heroes-border guards among delegates to the congress." So, in the picture of some starling on the chest, the Order of Alexander Nevsky! Now remember (or find and read) his Statute. Well, nothing for what they wrote about, they could not give it! And the Decree of the PVS of the USSR was not published mentioning such an award! So, think and draw conclusions!
                  A major pilot, what kind of veteran is he? He then (as I am now wondering) was 32-33 years old. On a military tunic - only the medal "For Military Merit". She was given at that time for 10 years of service. The rest are anniversary.
    2. Santa Fe
      16 May 2013 15: 53 New
      0
      Quote: Postman
      Vne = 12 mph, 19 km / h

      never exceed speed 10 knots
      Quote: Postman
      Jonathan karl

      And how did you get out of this?
      Quote: Postman
      23:01

      can not be!
      Quote: Postman
      as a result of which the commander of the Moscow Air Defense District, Marshal K. Vershinin, pompously reported to the Presidium of the CPSU Central Committee that at night 96% of targets were “intercepted” by Soviet pilots at distant approaches to guarded objects

      good plot for recent exercises in the South
      1. postman
        postman 16 May 2013 17: 02 New
        0
        Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
        never exceed speed 10 knots

        Knot - a unit of speed equal to one nautical mile per hour.
        It is applied in seaworthy and aviation practice.
        Since there are different definitions of nautical miles, accordingly, the node may have different meanings.
        Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
        And how did you get out of this?

        All roads lead to Mexico. I wanted to ride the same thing, they didn’t give it (due to health reasons)
        Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
        can not be!

        High-aspect-ratio wings give the U-2 some glider-like characteristics, with an engine out glide ratio of about 23: 1
        I did not correctly comprehend this phrase
        I gave the manual. Check it out.
        Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
        good plot for recent exercises in the South

        we read the tape (s) ru and watch the program "shock force"
        1. Old_kapitan
          Old_kapitan 16 May 2013 17: 55 New
          0
          Since there are different definitions of a nautical mile, respectively, a node can have different meanings.

          Not really yours. Miles are really different, in Scotland it generally depends on the region, but the sea one is 1852 meters.
          1. postman
            postman 16 May 2013 18: 53 New
            0
            Quote: Old_Kapitan
            Not really yours

            Our truth:
            1. Who said that when determining the speed of aircraft in knots in the USA (!) Or England (where the reference book was drawn up) it is NAVY Mile = 1852 meters used?
            Quote: Old_Kapitan
            but sea one - 1852 meters.

            2.
            International nautical mile = 10 cable = 1/3 nautical league
            UK nautical mile = 1853,184 meters (until 1970). Until 1929, in the UK, the nautical mile corresponded to 1853,184 meters. This is due to the fact that they wanted to simplify the conversion from English miles to nautical. 800 feet was added to one mile, resulting in an Admiralty Mile of 6080 feet. At the International Hydrographic Conference in Monaco in 1929, was adopted International Nautical Mile 1852,00 m long (according to another version 1852,01 m).
            United States nautical mile = 1853,248 meters or 6080,20 U.S. feet (before 1955). Since 1955, the United States began to consider the nautical mile equal to exactly 1852 meters.

            Quote: Old_Kapitan
            but the sea one is 1852 meters.
            1. Old_kapitan
              Old_kapitan 16 May 2013 19: 43 New
              0
              postman
              And who said that I'm about l / a? I'm about sea mile. From the quote you quoted from Wiki, it follows that only shaving until the 70 and Americans to the 55 was sausage, but as a result they came from 1852 meters.
              By the way, I didn’t hear something so that the speed of l / a was measured in knots, since the name of this unit itself is connected with the method of measuring the speed of a ship (vessel) in ancient times.
              1. postman
                postman 16 May 2013 20: 17 New
                0
                Quote: Old_Kapitan
                And who said that I'm about l / a?

                And I’m talking about la, in particular about U-2, in particular about Vne = 12 mph, 19 km / h
                Oleg writes (God knows why he just doesn’t write, writer, why take something from him yes )
                Quote: S_S
                amounted to 10 mph

                I corrected him:
                Vne = 12 mph, 19 km / h
                He told me:
                Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
                never exceed speed 10 knots

                Well, these nodes went.
                NOW COMPARE MY DATA and it

                Quote: Old_Kapitan
                Americans until the 55th sausage


                KAPTSOV (and reality): It is noteworthy that a unique machine was created as soon as possible (the beginning of work - 1954, the first flight on August 1, 1955.),

                Quote: Old_Kapitan
                You wiki quotes should

                I repented laziness, went easy, on Russian wiki.
                The sea mile is an ambiguous unit, with the following possible meanings:

                In English usage a sea mile is, for any latitude, the length of one minute of latitude at that latitude (1 sea mile = Earth radius x one minute in radian). It varies from about 1,855.3 meters (6,087 ft) at the equator (equatorial radius x pi / 180/60) to about 1,849.1 meters (6,067 ft) at the poles (polar radius x pi / 180/60), with a mean value of 1,852.3 meters (6,077 ft). [6] The international nautical mile was chosen as the integer number of meters closest to the mean sea mile.

                American use has changed recently. The glossary in the 1966 edition of Bowditch defines a "sea mile" as a "nautical mile". In the 2002 edition, the glossary says: "An approximate mean value of the nautical mile equal to 6,080 feet; the length of a minute of arc along the meridian at latitude 48 °."

                The sea mile has also been defined as 6,000 feet or 1,000 fathoms, for example in Dresner's Units of Measurement. Dresner includes a remark to the effect that this must not be confused with the nautical mile. Richard Norwood in The Seamans Practice (1637) determined that 1 / 60th of a degree of any great circle on Earth's surface was 6,120 feet (vs the modern value of 6,080 feet). He added: "if any man think it more safe and convenient in Sea-reckonings" he may assign 6,000 feet to a mile, relying on context to determine the type of mile
                1. postman
                  postman 16 May 2013 20: 18 New
                  0
                  Quote: Old_Kapitan
                  By the way, I didn’t hear something so that the speed of l / a was measured in knots, since the name of this unit itself is connected with the method of measuring the speed of a ship (vessel) in ancient times.

                  1.The knot (pronounced not) is a unit of speed equal to one nautical mile (1.852 km) per hour, approximately 1.151 mph
                  2. The body speed in any liquid medium is measured
                  The speeds of vessels relative to the fluids in which they travel (boat speeds and air speeds) are measured in knots.


                  Aeronautical terms
                  Prior to 1969, airworthiness standards for civil aircraft in the United States Federal Aviation Regulations specified that distances were to be in statute miles, and speeds in miles per hour. In 1969 these standards were progressively amended to specify that distances were to be in nautical miles, and speeds in knots.

                  The following abbreviations are used to distinguish between various measurements of airspeed:

                  KTAS is "knots true airspeed", the airspeed of an aircraft relative to undisturbed air
                  KIAS is "knots indicated airspeed", the speed shown on an aircraft's pitot-static airspeed indicator
                  KCAS is "knots calibrated airspeed", the indicated airspeed corrected for position error and instrument error
                  KEAS is "knots equivalent airspeed", the calibrated airspeed corrected for adiabatic compressible flow for the particular altitude
                  Note that the indicated airspeed is close to the true airspeed only at sea level in standard conditions and at low speeds. At 35,000 ft, an indicated airspeed of 300 kts may correspond to a true airspeed of 500 kts in standard conditions.

                  Recallabout whose airplaneAre we talking?
                  Do not believe me, here:
                  US Federal Aviation Regulations, Part 1 Definitions and Abbreviations
                  http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2009-title14-vol1/xml/CFR-2009-title14-vol1-sec
                  1-2.xml
                  1. postman
                    postman 16 May 2013 20: 19 New
                    0
                    What is the reason I explained above. And so SAME that standard sea charts are located on the Mercator projection and the scale changes with latitude

                    Until the mid-19th century vessel speed at sea was measured using a chip log.
                    Until the 19th century (1/2), speed was measured in "chip logs"


                    where did the "nodes" come from

                    Aircraft Instruments
                    The main flight instruments are the central panel of six indicators: Airspeed Indicator, Attitude Indicator, Altimeter, Turn Coordinator, Heading Indicator and Vertical Speed ​​Indicator )
                    The Airspeed Indicator shows the speed in “knots” - Kts. All aircraft manufactured in the USA after 1976 have such instrument calibration. All international flight charts and aerodrome diagrams, as well as flight manuals, use Kts as a unit of speed. This is no coincidence. Advances in computer technology and the development of satellite systems make it possible to tie navigation to electronic maps of the real earth's surface. It is logical to use a unit of measure that is related to the globe, and not taken “from the ceiling”. Knots is short for Nautical Miles per Hour. It is written: kt, kts or KTS. Those. nautical mile per hour. Nautical Mile (nm or NM) is the shortest distance between two points on the globe along a large circle arc, the length of which is 1 minute (see Geography Textbook for 5th grade of high school). A distance of 60NM equals one degree of the earth's surface. If you keep the speed of 120 kts, then you will overcome one degree of the globe in 30 minutes. Very simple. You can even figure out the desired speed on the map without any ruler and calculator.

                    SEND PHOTO OF AMERICAN (!) LA speed measuring instruments?
                    1. Santa Fe
                      16 May 2013 21: 17 New
                      0
                      You guys are real bores
                      ))
                      1. postman
                        postman 16 May 2013 22: 04 New
                        0
                        Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
                        You guys are real bores
                        ))

                        Whose cow as they say mu-mu.
                        To count how many times a week you "force" me with NYSE: NOC?
                        repeat
                        You can call me "petty dirty trick"
                        But views, views then grow like mushrooms after the rain. (My% 10 probably), soon you will become a marshal

                        ZY.U-2 is my "secret" passion. Masterpiece. I wish he could be overwhelmed with C-200 ... I didn’t have to fly to 1991 even before, especially over Moldova
                      2. Santa Fe
                        17 May 2013 00: 07 New
                        +1
                        Quote: Postman
                        To count how many times a week you "force" me with NYSE: NOC?

                        forex chtol?
                        no, this is clearly not for me
                        Quote: Postman
                        ZY.U-2 is my "secret" passion. Masterpiece. I wish he could be overwhelmed with C-200 ... I didn’t have to fly to 1991 even before, especially over Moldova

                        I always liked the stratosphere.
                        On the threshold of space:
                        - Kissanger jump
                        - or here's the news http://habrahabr.ru/post/106307/
                        winked
                        Quote: Postman
                        UK nautical mile = 1853,184 meters (before 1970 g.). Until the 1929 year in the UK, the nautical mile corresponded to 1853,184 meters. This is due to the fact that they wanted to simplify the conversion from English miles to nautical. 800 feet were added to one mile and the length of the English nautical mile (Admiralty Mile) was 6080 feet. At the International Hydrographic Conference in Monaco in 1929, the International Nautical Mile of 1852,00 m length (according to another version of 1852,01 m) was adopted.
                        US nautical mile = 1853,248 meters or 6080,20 US feet
                  2. Old_kapitan
                    Old_kapitan 16 May 2013 22: 38 New
                    0
                    that standard sea charts are on the Mercator projection and the scale changes with latitude
                    Nevertheless, an international marine measure of length constant value и it equals 1852 meters. And nothing comes of it ...
                    where did the "nodes" come from

                    In the old days, speed was measured like this: a lag cable, released on the move from the stern, was broken by knots at a distance of 1 / 120 miles (50 feet). By counting the number of knots running in half a minute - 1 / 120 hours, you can directly find out the speed in nautical miles per hour.
                    Hence nodes.
                    1. postman
                      postman 16 May 2013 23: 51 New
                      0
                      Quote: Old_Kapitan
                      Nevertheless, the international marine measure of length is a constant value.

                      I didn’t deny it. Apparently they didn’t read about WHAT was written. It is about the airspeed of American aircraft (specifically about Vne), measured in 1954 (!) ng. For U-2
                      where the US AMERICAN MILE was used (1853,248) or land (United States Federal Aviation Regulations specified that distances were to be in statute miles, and speeds in miles per hour. BEFORE 1969)
                      SOURCE IS SILENT, which miles were taken (sea or land), but definitely AMERICAN
                      Quote: Old_Kapitan
                      In the old days, speed was measured like this: a lag cable,


                      I'm talking about chip log what did he write about?

                      Until the mid-19th century vessel speed at sea was measured using a chip log.

                      Sorry for the pictures did not stick. Everything is visible and clear

                      Do not forget the tablet. Do not knit with a single rope
                    2. postman
                      postman 17 May 2013 00: 05 New
                      0
                      Quote: Old_Kapitan
                      Nevertheless, the international marine measure of length is a constant value.

                      I didn’t deny it. Apparently they didn’t read about WHAT was written. It is about the airspeed of American aircraft (specifically about Vne), measured in 1954 (!) ng. For U-2
                      where the US AMERICAN MILE was used (1853,248) or land (United States Federal Aviation Regulations specified that distances were to be in statute miles, and speeds in miles per hour. BEFORE 1969)
                      SOURCE IS SILENT, which miles were taken (sea or land), but definitely AMERICAN
                      Quote: Old_Kapitan
                      In the old days, speed was measured like this: a lag cable,


                      I'm talking about chip log what did he write about?

                      Until the mid-19th century vessel speed at sea was measured using a chip log.

                      Sorry for the pictures did not stick. Everything is visible and clear

                      Do not forget the tablet. Do not knit with a single rope






                      William Bourne, Richard Norwood, James Craig

                      "Practice of a sailor"

                      AMERICANPRACTICAL NAVIGATOR

                      AN EPITOME OF NAVIGTION

                      ORIGINALLY BY NATHANIEL BOWDITCH, LL.D.

                      PUBLISHED BY THE US NAVY HYDROGRAPHIC OFFICE
                      UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF THE SECRETARY OF THE NAVY, 1958
                    3. Old_kapitan
                      Old_kapitan 17 May 2013 09: 27 New
                      0
                      But what about chip log I wrote about?
                      Did you want to shine with your mind? Then translate, please, chip log, where there about the node, otherwise I didn’t understand something with my IT English ...
                      Do not forget the tablet. Do not knit with a single rope
                      I didn’t explain the lag device to you, but why the node.
                      Sorry for the pictures did not stick. Everything is visible and clear
                      Are you going to explain to me, a sailor, on your fingers? Yes, you arrogant young man!
                    4. postman
                      postman 17 May 2013 15: 43 New
                      0
                      Quote: Old_Kapitan
                      Are you going to explain to me, a sailor, on your fingers? Yes, you arrogant young man!

                      I wanted to answer. But the “youth” ruined everything.
                      1. "Youth" -47
                      2. I am not going to explain ANYTHING. Thought discussion.
                      KEEP ON.
                      I don’t understand whether it is necessary to amuse my ego in such a way to get out? Has it become easier?
  • postman
    postman 16 May 2013 14: 49 New
    0
    50 years in the ranks of a bunch of modifications



    Modularity (this is to Oleg's words: “without any high” technologies)


    Unique intelligence gathering capabilities (even today)
    U-2 Sensor Capabilities
    Sensor Type Range

    SYERS electro-optical 120 km
    ASARS imaging radar 180 km
    SENIOR GLASS
    SENIOR RUBY COMINT / ELINT 280 km
    SENIOR SPEAR

    Energy equipment: 22 kVA to 36 kVA (in 1995)
    ABIT data transfer
    SIL diagnostic system
    What can I say pilot suits (spacesuits?) Are still in operation
    S-1031 (1955)
    S-1034 in 1964/65 and additional kit (for TR-1) in 1980/1981.
    Now they will change, maybe. do not provide chemical protection pilot- this is a violation of WMP, Appendix S, Appendix 10 ....
  • pinecone
    pinecone 16 May 2013 17: 19 New
    0
    Alternative versions

    http://blog.kp.ru/users/2763549/post223568808/
  • crambol
    crambol 16 May 2013 18: 05 New
    0
    Quote: Postman
    Since there are different definitions of a nautical mile, respectively, a node can have different meanings.

    Dear, do not scare the sailors! One and only nautical mile - 1 minute of the meridian arc - 1852 m!
    1. postman
      postman 16 May 2013 20: 24 New
      0
      Quote: crambol
      Dear, do not scare the sailors! One and only nautical mile - 1 minute of the meridian arc - 1852 m!

      God forbid.


      Only you can read what it is about and HOW AMERICANS LA measured the SPEED (and they measure it) and what is the American nautical mile, and until WHAT year did it work and?
      And compare with the date of construction of U-2!
      Prior to 1969, airworthiness standards for civil aircraft in the United States Federal Aviation Regulations specified that distances were to be in statute miles, and speeds in miles per hour. In 1969 these standards were progressively amended to specify that distances were to be in nautical miles, and speeds in knots.
      and then look at the value of Vne for U-2
      I’m better than the Mercator projections and zooming with the breadth of the earth, as well as the US Federal Aviation Regulations, Part 1 Definitions and Abbreviations


      angry
  • uzer 13
    uzer 13 16 May 2013 18: 29 New
    -1
    Aerial photographs taken with U-2, I saw with my own eyes. Made from a great height, they are not particularly detailed and very similar to the materials of German reconnaissance aircraft of the Second World War. The point was to systematically patrol the territory of the Soviet Union. Photographs taken at different times alone and the same areas allow you to track ongoing changes and determine where the construction of industrial and military facilities.
  • Captain cook
    Captain cook 17 May 2013 00: 23 New
    +1
    Good day to all!
    I’ve been reading this site for a couple of years, today I decided to register ...
    I work as an air traffic controller at a major international airport, I once graduated long ago (28 years ago) from the navigational department of the Civil Aviation Academy. To resolve your dispute about the exact units in which the aircraft’s speed is measured, I’ll say that it is measured in knots (nautical miles per hour - 1,852 km / h). It is the speed in knots that we ask the crews when we regulate the flow of aircraft. Russian crews on domestic aircraft receive both nodes and km / h.
    In general, a lot of mistakes in posts are very upsetting. Both spelling, and factual, and stylistic ... Sorry, it’s painful. Sometimes it seems that we are somewhere in Tajikistan.
    I apologize in advance if someone unintentionally offended.
    1. postman
      postman 17 May 2013 12: 10 New
      0
      Quote: Captain Cook
      To resolve your dispute about the exact units the aircraft’s speed is measured in, I’ll say that it is measured in knots (nautical miles per hour - 1,852 km / h)

      Hey.
      You probably didn’t understand. The argument (initially) was not about:
      "What measures the speed of an aircraft HERE (in the Russian Federation) и NOW (our time)"
      The sources of the dispute: "in what was the speed of the aircraft TAM (in the USA) and THEN (in 1955" measured)
      More specifically, about the difference in Vne, SPECIFICALLY for U-2, specifically for 1954-1955, when the manual for U-2 was drawn up
      1. Captain cook
        Captain cook 17 May 2013 18: 34 New
        0
        Quote: Postman
        Quote: Captain Cook
        To resolve your dispute about the exact units the aircraft’s speed is measured in, I’ll say that it is measured in knots (nautical miles per hour - 1,852 km / h)

        Hey.
        You probably didn’t understand. The argument (initially) was not about:
        "What measures the speed of an aircraft HERE (in the Russian Federation) и NOW (our time)"
        The sources of the dispute: "in what was the speed of the aircraft TAM (in the USA) and THEN (in 1955" measured)
        More specifically, about the difference in Vne, SPECIFICALLY for U-2, specifically for 1954-1955, when the manual for U-2 was drawn up

        Historically, the speed of aircraft in km / h was never measured, except for the USSR and the countries of the eastern bloc, which were forced to buy aircraft produced by the USSR. All other speeds were measured in knots, and distances in nautical miles. It was in the 20s, 30s and beyond, and now. Russia has now switched to a foot-based system for determining flight altitudes, we have been using nodes since the time when foreign-made aircraft appeared, if this is the case, then we will reach distances in nautical miles. By the way, the speed in knots is measured up to a height of about 8000 m, higher - by the number M (Mach number), due to the properties of air, in particular compressibility. Therefore, a plane flying along the highway at a cruising level will always report its speed according to Mach, and nothing else.
        1. postman
          postman 17 May 2013 22: 23 New
          0
          Quote: Captain Cook
          All other speeds were measured in knots, and distances in nautical miles

          I just said: in the NODES. This "Captain with experience" did not believe:
          Quote: Old_Kapitan UA
          By the way, I didn’t hear something, so that the speed of l / a was measured in knots, since the name itself


          Only in America until 1955 there were "other" miles (for nodes including), and they were also used (in this context, land)


          Quote: Captain Cook
          It was in the 20s, 30s and beyond, and now

          I'm talking about America and about U-2 and about 1954

          where the US AMERICAN MILE was used (1853,248) or land (United States Federal Aviation Regulations specified that distances were to be in statute miles, and speeds in miles per hour. BEFORE 1969)
          SOURCE IS SILENT, which miles were taken (sea or land), but definitely AMERICAN

          Quote: Captain Cook
          By the way, the speed in knots is measured up to a height of about 8000 m

          In fact, the speed in the nodes will be true at sea level, the higher, the greater the error
          Everything is clear from this picture:

          (approx. Yes, and the error from latitude increases, since our Earth is still not a SPHERE)

          Quote: Captain Cook
          due to air properties, in particular compressibility.

          I do not quite understand. HOW can speed be relatively motionless (conditionally, of course, the coordinate system depends on air density?
          are you about airspeed?

          The flight speed of the aircraft (and any moving body) is numerically equal to the distance flown by the aircraft per unit time.
  • Captain cook
    Captain cook 17 May 2013 23: 09 New
    +1
    And what speeds do you know?
    I know the air, the true, the instrument, the way. What you mean, especially about the influence of the spherical shape of the Earth, is a little surprising ... When piloting, airspeed is usually used, only it is important so as not to get into different unnecessary modes. The speed at which the aircraft travels relative to the air is called airspeed. At the same time, this speed indicator is divided by the true speed of the aircraft and the instrument speed. True speed is used for aircraft navigation, and instrument speed for piloting, it characterizes the pressure head, i.e. air density.
    Where it was about speed U-2 was meant air. Speed ​​ALWAYS measured in nautical miles. This is a tribute to tradition, so historically. The plane in English, by the way, is feminine :-))
    Here is a sign of the dependence of speed on flight altitude

    H (m) Vpr (km / h)% V and (km / h) Th A (m / s) M
    1000 530 5 556 +8,5 1230 0,45
    2000 530 10 588 +2 1180 0,48
    3000 530 15 609 -4,5 1160 0,53
    4000 530 20 636 -11 1150 0,55
    5000 530 25 662 -17 1140 0,58
    6000 530 30 689 -24 1130 0,61
    7000 530 40 742 -30 1110 0,67
    8000 530 50 795 -37 1100 0,72
    9000 530 60 848 -43 1090 0,78
    10000 530 70 901 -50 1070 0,85

    Where
    N - height
    Vpr - instrument speed
    % - difference between true and instrument speed
    Vi - true speed
    Th - temperature at altitude in a standard atmosphere
    A is the speed of sound
    M - number M
  • studentmati
    studentmati 17 May 2013 23: 30 New
    0
    Great article about a luxury aircraft !!! good But we managed to do no worse! But further "do" did not go, unfortunately.
  • Captain cook
    Captain cook 17 May 2013 23: 34 New
    0
    Do you mean M-55 Geophysics?
    http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CC-55_(%F1%E0%EC%EE%EB%B8%F2)
    http://topwar.ru/20346-vysotnyy-samolet-m-55-geofizika.html
  • studentmati
    studentmati 17 May 2013 23: 39 New
    0
    I mean the M-55 in modifications. "Geophysics" is already a search for civilian applications, from despair, a completely declassified project.
  • Alex
    Alex 25 August 2013 00: 01 New
    +2
    Great article and written in a lively journalistic style. Thank.