Military Review

Afghan issues

Afghan issuesIn late April, in two of his speeches, first at the Eurasian Media Forum in Astana, and then in the framework of the Istanbul Process in Almaty, President Nursultan Nazarbayev made a number of strategically important statements on the Afghan issue.

In Astana, the President stated: “I will say right away that I do not accept“ catastrophic theories ”. I absolutely do not think that the countdown timer has already been turned on, bringing the region closer to a certain “X hour” in 2014, when the active phase of the international coalition operation in Afghanistan ends. I am sure that nothing like this will happen. Although there are willing or frightening similar scenario. Frankly speaking, today in the external perception of the Central Asian region there is a strong inertia of the past. ” This is a very subtle statement given that there is always a serious conflict of interests around Afghanistan. One of the important moments of this struggle is now connected with the possible scenarios of the development of the situation after 2014, when the troops of the international coalition will have to leave Afghanistan.

It is known that catastrophic scenarios are very popular primarily among some Russian political scientists. They very often emphasize that the withdrawal of the United States from Afghanistan will inevitably lead to the power of the Taliban, that in this connection there are large-scale security threats to the countries of Central Asia. There are also active ideas about training militants of Central Asian origin in Afghanistan who, after 2014, are ready to take active steps against the states of the region. Often, parallels are drawn with the Soviet army’s withdrawal from Afghanistan in 1989 and the Najibullah regime’s fall in 1992 and the subsequent offensive of chaos in that country, which contributed to the Taliban’s rise to power.

Accordingly, it is logical to conclude that the countries of the region need to prepare for a possible recovery of the situation that existed on the eve of 2001. Then Afghanistan was divided into two parts, with Russia and Iran supporting the Northern Alliance, and Pakistan - the Taliban.

Here we must keep in mind that the essence of the geopolitical struggle of interests in the region is mainly connected with the desire of Russia and China to prevent the penetration of the interests of third countries, by which they mean primarily the United States, into Central Asia, which is strategically important for them. At the same time, the modern leadership of Iran, naturally, would not want a strategic encirclement of its territory to occur. It saw in the actions of the Taliban and Pakistan behind it a direct threat to their interests.

That is, until 2001, the interests of Russia and Iran coincided with the interests of the northern national minorities in Afghanistan, who were seriously worried about the prospects for establishing Pashtun hegemony. At the moment, the essence of the struggle of geopolitical interests has not changed, but there have been changes both inside and around Afghanistan.

When the withdrawal of the international coalition troops in Afghanistan was announced in 2014, it was all said that it was likely that the situation with the opposition of national minorities (Northern Alliance) and Pashtuns (Taliban) would be restored. It is on this basis that future plans were made regarding the development of the situation in Afghanistan. Hence the intention of Russia in 2011 to achieve the inclusion of Iran into the SCO, which China then opposed. This was also connected with the emergence in 2011 – 2012 of various projects for the restoration of structures of the former Northern Alliance in Afghanistan.

The idea of ​​including Iran in the SCO was important precisely in the context of the development of the situation in Afghanistan, because Iran historically had an influence on many Afghan groups, mainly from among the Hazara Shiites, as well as Tajiks. Without his participation, restoring the Northern Alliance would be extremely difficult.

However, in 2011, an acute phase of confrontation between Iran and the international community on nuclear issues began. Naturally, in this situation, Beijing did not want to bind itself with the obligations of protecting Iran, which would be inevitable if the latter became a member of the SCO. Moreover, the Chinese had their own broader agenda in relations with the Americans, at least on the issue of the export-trade balance or the development of the situation in Southeast Asia. In Beijing, they were also extremely cautious about talking about the US withdrawal from Afghanistan, and therefore, as from the region.

In addition, in 2012, it became obvious that as such, there would be no complete US withdrawal from Afghanistan. On the one hand, the Americans themselves announced that they would leave thousands of servicemen from 8 to 12 as instructors. On the other hand, in Tokyo, it was confirmed that the international community will continue to finance Kabul, including the maintenance of the army in 150 thousand people and, most interestingly, the police in almost 300 thousand

Both of these circumstances suggest that it is premature to talk about both the US withdrawal from Afghanistan and that they were defeated there. Rather, we can say that the Americans are implementing the so-called Iraqi scenario. Recall that at first they waged an active war against the local rebels, then announced the withdrawal of troops, although they left 60 thousand soldiers for another two years, then brought them out. At the same time, there is an unstable balance in Iraq, which is ensured by the fact that the main communities, Kurds, Shiites and Sunnis actually have autonomy, including their own armed forces, and the United States acts as an arbitrator.

Indirectly, this is confirmed by the information on the financing of the Afghan police. The fact is that in Iraq, the new American policy began with the formation of the Sunni tribal militia (about 200 thousand fighters) from among the former opponents of the American presence and payment for their services. It can be assumed that hundreds of thousands of police officers in Afghanistan are precisely the formations of regional leaders, including Pashtun tribes, who actively participated in resisting a foreign presence.

Naturally, the payment of services of the local police involves the legitimization of personal groups of influential people in the provinces of the country. In response, they must ensure security in the territories under their control. This is a very old practice of ensuring the loyalty of local forces, especially the Pashtun tribes. AT stories Afghanistan was only once under the emir Abdurrahman, when the tribes were under strict control of the central government and did not need to negotiate with them.

The recent history of the capture by militants of the radical opposition in the middle of March, among whom were immigrants from the former USSR, the district of Warduj in the northern province of Badakhshan, is very telling. This story fits perfectly into the concept of chaos in Afghanistan after 2014. Moreover, Badakhshan has easy access to the Tajik-Afghan border. However, in early April, militants from Warduja were knocked out, and the Minister of Defense Bismillah Khan personally commanded the operation.

The Afghan Minister of Defense, a Tajik by nationality, a longtime associate of Ahmad Shah Massoud, is a representative of the so-called Panjshir clan. For the Tajik military-political elite in Afghanistan, Badakhshan is a strategically important place, it provides connections to the Tajik mountainous region north of Kabul, where the Panjshir Gorge is located, with Tajikistan. In fact, this is their area of ​​responsibility. If they suddenly lost Badakhshan, this would weaken their position in the future alignment of forces in Afghanistan.

If we assume that the Iraqi scenario is to some extent implemented in Afghanistan, then the strength and influence of a group will be determined by its capabilities and responsibility for the situation in the territory under its control. Such an approach is in the interests of the main political forces in the country. They would not want to start a new civil war, the current situation is much more profitable, especially given the large-scale funding from the international community. Therefore, the Panjshertsy Tajiks are clearly involved in the process of reaching agreements on the future structure of Afghanistan, where the Americans with their 10 thousand advisors and financial capabilities will act as arbiters.

But if so, then there is no point in waiting for the apocalypse after 2014. Therefore, the statement of the President

Nursultan Nazarbayev is very verified and proceeds from the interests of Kazakhstan’s multi-vector policy. In particular, pointing out that we should not expect problems after 2014, the Head of State noted that the security system in the region, which consists of the CICA, SCO, CSTO, OSCE, is balanced, which “gives integrity to the whole system”. By this, our position compares favorably with Uzbekistan, which in 2012, just left the CSTO.

Of course, a certain security risk always exists. Especially when there is such a competition between the great powers, but Kazakhstan can afford to be above the fray. It is worth paying attention to the President’s statement that “to treat Central Asian countries as objects of external influence, without taking into account their national interests, is nothing more than a demonstration of geopolitical myopia.” It is extremely important that the Head of State clearly emphasized that we remain an independent subject of foreign policy. Because to be the object of a conflict of interests between the great powers is an extremely undesirable development of the situation, as, indeed, take the side of someone in this conflict. The loss of independence in foreign policy or its dependence on the political situation is the lot of weak countries.

For Kazakhstan, the development of the economy is of paramount importance, and one of the priorities is the restoration of the former transit potential of all of Central Asia. And on a qualitatively new basis, taking into account the changes that have occurred in the development of the region. Therefore, the President focused on transport projects, from the Western China – Western Europe road to the Trans-Afghan gas pipeline (the TAPI project). It is clear that in the latter case there are still many questions, including in the field of security, but there is a general trend towards the priorities of economic development. The same Afghanistan should learn how to make money by itself. We all need to try to get away from the logic of rigid confrontationlast decades.
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  1. fortunophile
    fortunophile 15 May 2013 16: 01
    Kazakhstan will have a hard time after the withdrawal of the coalition, but I think and even am sure that Russia will shoulder a shoulder. It is necessary now, ahead of the Customs Union framework, to work out issues of joint border protection, issues of mutual military assistance and other aspects.
    By the way from yesterday
    TBILISI, May 13 - News-Georgia. Three Georgian soldiers who served as part of the ISAF’s international security assistance force in Afghanistan were killed on Monday by terrorist attacks, Georgian Defense Minister Irakli Alasania said.

    "A group of five terrorists entered the base. The Georgian military retaliated and killed all the terrorists on the spot. As a result of the attack, three Georgian soldiers were killed, and there are also several wounded."

    Yesterday it passed that 20 was injured. Georgians, except in Afghanistan, have nowhere else to settle down.
    1. Geokingxnumx
      Geokingxnumx 15 May 2013 16: 23
      Quote: fortuneophile
      Yesterday it passed that 20 was injured. Georgians, except in Afghanistan, have nowhere else to settle down.

      25 injured but already yesterday 12 people returned to stand in! исползивали такую тактику говорят!
      1. fortunophile
        fortunophile 15 May 2013 16: 27
        Quote: GEOKING95
        25 injured but already yesterday 12 people returned to stand in!

        Thanks for the addition. Mishiko increased the number of soldiers several times, well, that's your business. Honestly, I liked it when I read yesterday how your military "guard" (I don't remember the position) said that, if necessary, the wounded would be placed in German hospitals hi When they don’t save money on treating soldiers, it’s worth it, in any country soldier
    2. FC SKIF
      FC SKIF 15 May 2013 22: 12
      "Everything is fine, beautiful marquise" - this is the general line of the party.
      Quote: fortuneophile
      The development of the economy is of paramount importance for Kazakhstan, and one of the priorities is the restoration of the former transit potential of all of Central Asia. Moreover, on a qualitatively new basis, taking into account the changes that have occurred in the development of the region.

      It's funny, the "transit" will be used primarily by the mujahideen in the loose territory of Central Asia, and so "Everything is fine, beautiful marquise"
    3. Alibekulu
      15 May 2013 23: 33
      Quote: fortuneophile
      Kazakhstan will have a hard time after coalition withdrawal
      But I see everything, just the opposite .. It will seem heresy to you, but I personally see a lot of advantages for Kazakhstanis in the mythical "Taliban threat" .. Remember the old Russian proverb "That's why the pike is in the sea so that the crucian carp does not sleep." Look at the situation in the Kazakh army .. Was so much money invested in the army, would the last parade, which amazed many, be held, so much weapons would be purchased - if not for this "threat from the south" ??? !! And the situation with the military-industrial complex .. What-no (even from the Russian side, it looks ridiculous), but there is and is developing: although the "Eurocopters" are screw-driver, but they are going .., we also build ships in the Caspian ..., with the Ukrainians, armored personnel carriers completing and for the An-140 signed an agreement on joint production and after-sales service, a large-scale modernization of Soviet equipment is being carried out with the Israelis .. (by the way, Aksakala there was a question about the BMPT "Terminator" - just with the help of Western "firms" you can bring it to mind .., we cooperate with the Turks and others .. In general, a lot of things, it takes a long time to list .. Of course, the actions of the Taliban can negatively affect the situation in Kazakhstan, but they can become a significant incentive for the development of our state.
  2. Standard Oil
    Standard Oil 15 May 2013 16: 10
    We must proceed from how Kazakhstan can be useful to Russia and no more.
    1. fortunophile
      fortunophile 15 May 2013 16: 16
      Quote: Standard Oil
      We must proceed from how Kazakhstan can be useful to Russia and no more.

      Kazakhstan is our ally in the fight against this evil spirits. This is a mutually beneficial cooperation, it is easier to fight shoulder to shoulder with a common enemy, and not individually. It’s a pity that you don’t understand it hi
      1. sergaivenski
        sergaivenski 15 May 2013 19: 40
        I will allow myself to object: Kazakhs, as Asians, simply will not do anything themselves (!)
        It’s better that Russian Vani puff (they think so), otherwise how can one explain the fact that
        ethnic Russians from Central Asia run somewhere !!! When the USSR was, then to Central Asia
        invested a lot of money. One development of virgin land is enough to remember. My father, now
        koyny, traveled a lot on business trips, participating in the construction of energy facilities. When the Russians
        Kazakhs did something, when the Russians stopped doing anything,
        then the Kazakhs either washed off somewhere, or were engaged in extraneous affairs in general !!!
        1. Marek Rozny
          Marek Rozny 22 May 2013 23: 44
          Quote: sergaivenski
          Kazakhs, as Asians, just will not do anything themselves (!)

          Nationalist bullshit.
          Quote: sergaivenski
          Better Russian Vani puff (so they think)

          bullshit of a man who never talked with a Kazakh.
          Quote: sergaivenski
          ethnic Russians from Central Asia flee

          if it's about Kazakhstan - it's bullshit. 3/4 of Russians stayed in KZ and most of them are not going anywhere. And there were enough random people in KZ. Until 1991, people went here to earn money, not suspecting that after "X hour" they would find themselves "not in Russia."
          Quote: sergaivenski
          huge money invested in Central Asia

          Kazakhstan was a donor republic of the union budget, and not a recipient. From what Kazakhstan gave to the country, pennies returned. And they didn’t go mainly to Disneyland, but to deepening mining and equipping their own Slavic immigrants, who arrived to work in this industry. Rather, some Ryazan lived at the expense of other regions of the USSR - Kazakhstan, the Caucasus, Siberia, Ukraine, if we were to start a conversation, who invested in whom. You also say that Ryazan sent oil to Baku and Kazakhstan, grain to Ukraine and Kazakhstan, gold and diamonds to Yakutia, coal to Karaganda and tangerines to Georgia.
          Quote: sergaivenski
          When the Russians did something, then the Kazakhs did something. When the Russians stopped doing something, then the Kazakhs either washed off somewhere or were engaged in extraneous affairs in general !!!

          just bullshit.

          Bottom line: a bunch of garbage and not a single normal sober thought.
    2. aksakal
      aksakal 15 May 2013 16: 26
      Quote: Standard Oil
      We must proceed from how Kazakhstan can be useful to Russia and no more

      - So here it is mercantile and like walking kicked and went on laughing
      Well, think better, even if it’s not useful, and so what? Has anyone canceled good neighborly relations? You also do not support allied and Eurasian ideas in this connection? You can directly answer what you mean by
      Quote: Standard Oil
      no more
      Well speak out, though neighing laughing
      1. chpnik
        chpnik 15 May 2013 21: 24
        Definitely, Kazakhstan is our ally and, naturally, it is easier to fight shoulder to shoulder with a common enemy, and not one by one. I completely agree.
  3. Andrey57
    Andrey57 15 May 2013 16: 44
    Aksakal, do not pay attention, well, the stupid man said obvious laughing
    1. Rezun
      Rezun 15 May 2013 17: 11
      Andrei, how can one not pay attention7? It's not small children who speak out here. But on holidays they nostalize for the "Union of the Unbreakable ..." - but they themselves constantly "bury" it.
  4. krez-74
    krez-74 15 May 2013 16: 49
    The right of Kazakhstan is to build its own development and statehood by itself! Russia's duty is not to get involved in another mess, looking for friends and interests!
  5. Canep
    Canep 15 May 2013 17: 33
    Kazakhstan is much easier now, and the situation is easier than it was in the 90s. At that time I served in the army and saw with my own eyes the combat readiness of the army, the gangster lawlessness, and everything else that accompanied the dashing 90s. Now the army has not been sitting in parks for years without diesel fuel, exercises are regularly held, and the officer’s salary is not $ 70 per month.
  6. Boricello
    Boricello 15 May 2013 19: 39
    I myself live in Kazakhstan and see the picture not from the outside. Our dear and "beloved" real Asian. He tries to flirt with everyone and always remains a fool. And if he so wanted to be friends with Russia, he would not have done everything in order to oust the Russians from Kazakhstan. If earlier we were ousted by administrative obstacles and infringement of rights (albeit tacitly), now we are often told: "Get out to your Russia, the invaders."
    1. Marek Rozny
      Marek Rozny 22 May 2013 23: 14
      1) In what specific cases did Kazakhstan remain a "fool"?
      2) What is Nazarbayev doing to "oust" the Russians?
      3) What "administrative obstacles" and "infringements of rights" were used to oppress the Russians in Kazakhstan?
      4) When you were personally told "Get out to Russia, occupier!" and under what circumstances?
  7. Boricello
    Boricello 15 May 2013 19: 39
    I myself live in Kazakhstan and see the picture not from the outside. Our dear and "beloved" real Asian. He tries to flirt with everyone and always remains a fool. And if he so wanted to be friends with Russia, he would not have done everything in order to oust the Russians from Kazakhstan. If earlier we were ousted by administrative obstacles and infringement of rights (albeit tacitly), now we are often told: "Get out to your Russia, the invaders." In the end, he will outsmart himself once again. Turkey is now taking 1 role in Kazakhstan. Tonka fucking Blayer is our advisor (doesn't remind Libya?) And the most offensive thing is that Russia does not seek to increase its influence in our region, and there is a possibility of pressure on the Elbasy, but it is not used ... Now he sings songs to please the Turks and Colorado beetles that it is not necessary to intimidate us with negativity from Afghanistan, but how he will press him again he will start bowing ...
    1. Andrey KZ
      Andrey KZ 15 May 2013 21: 00
      You, Boris, probably one ave. Durok said: "Get out to your Russia, the invaders," and now you are offended by the whole people. Only once did one clan tell me that I had to work for him for free, so the Kazakhs who were standing next to him they didn’t tear the eggs off. I don’t deny myself because of ONE! freak from my Kazakh friends.
    2. Alibekulu
      16 May 2013 00: 21
      Quote: Boricello
      I myself live in Kazakhstan and see the picture not from the side.

      Face to face
      Faces not to see
      S. A. Yesenin, "Letter to a woman»
      LN Gumilev calls it "Aberration of proximity" This is a distorted perception of events. Since all the consequences of this or that phenomenon are not yet completely clear, the individual .., perceiving an extensive flow of information, is not able to distinguish the main thing from the secondary one .. On the other hand, the significance of many .. events is inflated by propaganda or public opinion, which affect his perception..
      Quote: Boricello
      "Get out to your Russia invaders."

      Again belay Damn, how tired it is already No.
      Thonka fucking Bleyer we have an adviser
      Eh .. look at this situation from the other side .. fool On the contrary, it’s very good that he receives a salary from our management ... good
      I would be very worried if Tony Blair paid money to our government .. Oh, so .. it's very cool bully
      sings songs about the fact that we don’t need to scare us with negativity from Afghanistan, but as he presses, he will begin to bow again ...
      Everything will be normal .. and do not expect ....
    3. Marek Rozny
      Marek Rozny 23 May 2013 01: 04
      Quote: Boricello
      Now Turkey takes the first role in Kazakhstan.

      what is this expressed in?
      Quote: Boricello
      Thonka fucking Bleyer we have an adviser (doesn’t it remind Libya?)

      Tony Blair is indeed Nazarbayev's "advisor". Only he does not give us advice on domestic or foreign policy. Blair's task is to lobby for Kazakhstan's interests in the West. And Blair coped with the main task assigned to him - the elimination of the political influence of the fugitive oligarch Mukhtar Ablyazov in Britain with excellent marks. Ablyazov was crushed by the brits, not allowing this "opposition" to take root. As a result, the British court declared the fugitive Kazakh billionaire banker a criminal, convicted him in absentia, and also took away assets from him in the amount of $ 4 billion in favor of Kazakhstan. At the same time, a British court stated that it would facilitate the process of returning money stolen from Kazakhstan to their homeland in other European countries. Did Blair work out the $ 8 million he paid? Definitely yes. Russia can only take lessons from Kazakhstan in a showdown with fugitive billionaires.
      By the way, Gerhard Schroeder is feeding from the hands of Moscow. Do not scream in a panic?

      Quote: Boricello
      And the most offensive is that Russia does not seek to increase its influence in our region,
      Have you ever thought that your thoughts somehow do not coincide with the thoughts of the Kazakhs? Does Mykymbai need "Russian influence"? Moreover, by this term it is clear what you mean - a banal Russification. That's all you need from "Russian influence". Personally, I don't need such a form of "influence". I am Kazakh, not Russian. I willingly speak Russian with Russians, but I'm not going to give up my language to please you. And if you lack such "influence" (or rather the Russian-speaking environment), then it is really time for you to change your place of residence. This is Kazakhstan. Multinational, multiconfessional, but Kazakhstan, not Russia. With all that it implies. And if in Russia you are not going to propagandize "Kazakh influence", then there is nothing here to breed demagoguery about the need for "Russian influence". There are enough worthy Slavs in Kazakhstan without you who do not lose their ethnic face, but who are patriots of Kazakhstan.
      The overwhelming majority of Russian Kazakhs are distinguished by a balanced character, the ability to combine "Russianness" and "Kazakhness", for which they are respected by the Kazakhs. And neither the Kazakhs nor the Kazakh Russians need any slag (since such provocateurs, willy-nilly, soil our Russians). Kazakhstanis should be a united team capable of solving any goals. You are stupidly picking a hole in our boat whining: "I don't want to sail with you" ... Change to another boat.
  8. Black
    Black 15 May 2013 19: 51
    We all need to try to get away from the logic of the harsh confrontation of recent decades.
    You can try, of course. Neither Kazakhstan, nor Russia, nor the named forces in Afghanistan need war and aggravation. Another thing is whether the United States needs it. It seems to me, they will not change the logic. This is a strategically important zone and the Americans will undermine the situation as much as possible (now you have to do almost nothing - Afghanistan has been turned into a large poppy plantation, look and chuckle as the infection flows into Russia!).
    And the time of bastard revolutions has not passed, there is still where to roam. So let's see how long Kazakhstan will be "above" the geopolitical confrontation.
  9. Vitaly Anisimov
    Vitaly Anisimov 15 May 2013 20: 03
    The borders with Kazakhstan are not covered .. (some beautiful outposts have built ..) there are not even simple armored personnel carriers .. and there are mines nearby ... (there is not much left, but there are in the 90s they tried) And if this horde ... from Syria decides to us. .they, after all, through the "former fraternal ones) are like a knife through butter ... And Nazarbayev is old already .. (and Kazakhstan has been sharpening its teeth on the border territories since the 90s ..), of course, we will fight back as much as we can ... (but I pass by the outpost and look ...)
    1. Marek Rozny
      Marek Rozny 22 May 2013 23: 32
      Have you ever wondered how much it will cost Russia to arrange the border with Kazakhstan? Even the United States cannot afford to create a total control system in the Mexican direction. And Russia certainly will not pull such a gamble on the longest land border in the world.

      With what fright did you decide that "hordes from Syria" would pour into Russia through the territory of Kazakhstan?

      Nothing will change in Kazakhstan after Nazarbayev leaves. In his place will come "Nazarbayev-2" from his close political circle. Most likely - Imangali Tasmagambetov, who is an unequivocal adherent of Nazarbayev's policy. And the people will support him in the elections, because Tasmagambetov has already established himself as a good manager and an adequate politician.

      Kazakhs do not think about revising borders. Yes, some regions in the Russian Federation consider the Kazakhs historically to be their own (the resettlement belt of Kazakhs from the Volga to Altai), and one million autochthonous Kazakhs live there, whose ancestors lived there long before the first Russian immigrants appeared. Do not freak out, but it is. But at the same time, the Kazakhs are calm about the fact that these regions are now part of Russia. What borders have remained to us since 1991 - let these remain. Redefining modern borders is stupid and an occasion for a war that neither Russians nor Kazakhs need. Both you and we have enough land to put things in order, so there is no reason to creep into the land of a neighbor. Turkmens, no, no, remind the Kazakhs that once part of western Kazakhstan belonged to them, this is a historical fact. But even the Turkmens are not going to make any demands to the Kazakhs. This is just a topic for historical forums, and nothing more.

      Russia will not have to fight off the Kazakhs. Kazakhs are not going to invade Russia. Only in an inflamed mind can such thoughts appear. Answers in the internet from the Kazakhs that Orenburg, Omsk or Astrakhan - Kazakh lands appear only after some bawdy from Russia starts yelling about the return of the "primordial Russian" lands that are part of Kazakhstan. When there are no such provocateurs, not a single Kazakh would think to talk about "historical lands".
      In a word, calm down, then you will not see Kazakhs "sharpening their teeth".
  10. VadimSt
    VadimSt 15 May 2013 21: 01
    Quote: MIKHAN
    The borders with Kazakhstan are not covered .. (some beautiful outposts built up ..)

    Did not know. But, if this is true, then it pleases, because the foundations are laid for the permanent deployment of units, and if necessary, it remains only to carry out the engineering equipment of the area at the border.
    Not everything that is done is done recklessly and badly.

    As for Nazarbayev’s policy, time will judge and put everything in its place. The main thing is that Russia does not forget its role and place in the post-Soviet space!
  11. individual
    individual 15 May 2013 22: 11
    Without good neighborly relations with Belarus in the west and Kazakhstan in the south, there will be no peace for Russia. So, as these countries are a buffer zone with threats of a territorial geopolitical threat. If from the west the borders are conditionally closed, then from the south they are conditionally open. 7512 km of land border with Kazakhstan is not realistic to block. Collaboration is mutually beneficial.
    God himself, or Allah ordered them to unite.