Military Review

How Yermak Siberia conquered

2
Conquest of Ermak Siberia. Vasily Ivanovich Surikov

Art critic at the fashion show in the performance of Arkady Isakovich Raikin:

"Let's take, kovina, kaitin Suikova" Rest in Eymakom Sibi ". On the left - Cossacks, Spyava - Tatai. The Cossack samopaly - bang-bang-bang are bursting. Tatian shooters whistle - Whack, Whack, Whack. Everything got drunk, everything is in motion! Just a minute - yaaaa! Sibius is reposed! ”


A precipice to the river. Under the cliff along the coast is a huge number of foot Tatars. On the water under the banners of the Cossacks in the boats (and someone has already jumped into the water) shoot out muskets. Boats are moving to the shore - you need to disembark. On the precipice a group of horsemen, a few horsemen jump to the descent to the river, some do not shout, encouraging those who are under the cliff, or pray.

To the left, in the distance, one can see a fortress with watchtowers and some kind of building with a high spire and gilded makovka.

Under the flags - Yermak, he is in a shishak, in chain mail and in armor, shows with his hand towards the coast, apparently hurrying disembarking.

Right down from Ermak - shooting gun, rapid-fire squeak. Another gun lies breech to the viewer at the bottom of the boat. The boats are small, four people hardly fit in them. In addition to people in the boat there is some kind of keg, bags.

Judging by the fact that there is not one lying on the shore (wounded or killed), the Cossacks just started shooting.

So the great artist depicted the beginning of the great battle (the battle was great not by the number of participants on both sides, but by the results - Siberia became a Russian patrimony).

For the viewer, the result is predetermined by the name of the picture. And since the majority are not at all inclined to analyze what the artist wrote, our idea of ​​conquering Siberia is very similar to what is in the epigraph: one more minute — and Siberia is ours.

In fact, all this was, to put it mildly, quite different.

First, Yermak with his fighting squad are Cossacks-robbers. They hunted for robbery on the Volga for several years (at that time Yermak was the ataman of only one gang), plundered local residents, robbed ambassadors, who were sent from Central Asia to Moscow and from Moscow with various gifts. In general, they lived - they did not hurt. Naturally, when the troops began to pester the troops of the Russian Tsar, they were settled in the villages, where they probably had both wives and children.

Gradually, the king brought order, the Cossacks went farther north and north until they reached the Stroganov possessions. And here what happened was that the Cossacks turned from gangsters into watchdogs: the Stroganovs invited them all, who came from the lower reaches of the Volga, to repel the attacks of the Tatars, who from time to time ruined everyone in the district and took people into slavery.

Secondly, the Siberian Khanate did not leave the district alone. It was possible to stop such an outrage only by defeating the Tatars, depriving them of the opportunity to be based in the cities and collect tribute from the surrounding inhabitants.

These two circumstances came together, and the Stroganovs, with the approval of the king, equip the Cossacks to smash the Siberian Khanate. The expedition gathered a detachment led by Yermak, who, apparently, seemed to be a responsible Stroganov man whose word he could rely on.

840 people on 25 planes, equipped with muskets and rapid-fire masters, equipped with everything necessary for a long hike, with translators are sent up the Chusovoy and further. Hike Ermak lasted several months. During this time, the detachment met with a hostile population. He had to fight, there was nowhere to wait for help. And ammunition, too, was nowhere to get. All necessary for the combat actions of the warriors were carried with them (or carried when they were on boats). Cossacks moved on strug up to 12 meters and a displacement of up to 6 tons, designed for 20-25 people.

They did not go at random (not as a sailor Zheleznyak, who was going to Odessa, but went to Kherson). They knew where the portage would be the shortest, and dragged all of their vessels from one river basin to another. And by water they reached the capital of the Khanate, the city of Isker. This is where the battle to which Surikov dedicated his canvas took place.

The Irtysh bank in this place is a cliff near 10 meters and a narrow strip of land under a cliff. Apparently, Yermak staged the landing and forced the Tatars to descend to the shore. The ships of Ermak at this time lined up along the coast. And when the Tatars descended - Yermak's artillery began to shoot shrapnel. This forced the Tatars to flee to the fortress, and the Cossacks landed and went to Isker (the capital of the Khanate of Kuchum).

The picture described is version only. None of the documents of those times preserved the description of the fights of Ermak - at that time nobody was interested. But under this version there is a purely quantitative rationale: such a small detachment could not defeat the desperately brave Tatars with a swoop. Apparently, the Tatars were still unfamiliar with the canister and rapid-fire artillery. That is what decided the outcome of the fighting for Siberia.

Now a few words about the details of the picture. Surikov did not just fantasize, the picture was preceded by a tremendous work on the study of historical material. Musketeers and muskets and equipment of Ermak are depicted with almost complete accuracy. But there are things that do not correspond either to the situation or to reality.

Tatar right in the center of the picture - in formal clothes. It is unlikely that even a Murza would put on such a solemn outfit for a fight.

The rower in the boat in the foreground framed the defenseless back under the arrows. The musketeer reloads the musket - it is also open to arrows. Yermak, I think, valued every Cossack of his squad and could not allow his soldiers to behave in this way.

Landscape: on the horizon a fortress with watchtowers and a central building. The building has a spire, which is absolutely not consistent with Muslim architecture.

Shuttles (boats on 5-6 people, one of whom is drawn by Surikov) were intended for landing on the shore, and there should not be any barrels or bags on them.

The artist, who had conceived a picture of the events of two centuries ago, could not neglect the information that had been accumulated by that time, primarily in museums. His canvas reproduces clothes weaponrites As for the likelihood of the battle of Yermak with the Tatars - the author here says best:

"AT historical After all, the picture doesn’t need to be so, but to have the opportunity, so that it looks like it was. The essence of the historical picture is guessing. If only the spirit of the time is observed, you can make any mistakes in the details. And when everything is point to point - even disgusting. "

And what Ermak? In front of us is a portrait of a great commander! Neither the rear, nor the friendly environment, nor the human reserves, with the 840 anarchist squad against tens of thousands of Tatars - and go through several battles without significant losses! What sort of perceptions, what strength of mind, what ability to subjugate people to their own will and control them in any situation was possessed by this Cossack who had learned military craft in robberies!
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  1. Lee
    Lee 24 December 2010 00: 26
    0
    "Yermak's artillery began to shoot shrapnel" - very funny !!!
  2. datur
    datur April 19 2011 14: 22
    0
    CARTWORK !!!!