After the next partition of Poland, Galicia went to the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and naturally, the Austrians discovered that not only Poles live there, but also other people, whose representatives the Austrians initially called Russians (Russen) and only then introduced the term "Ruthenes". In addition, the term Rusyns was used as a self-name.
Initially, the Austrian administration attempted to rely on the Poles, who continued to polonize the region, but during the 1848 revolution of the year (occurring, by a strange coincidence, in almost all European countries), the Austrian Poles opposed the shaky central government. Peasants, who hate their oppressors, supported the imperial power, based on the principle of denial of denials: "If the pans are against the emperor, then we are for." Vienna was obliged to somehow note such loyalty, and in 1848, in Lviv, the Golovna Ruska Rada center was created, forming the demands of the Russian population of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and promoting Russian cultural values. Political demands primarily consisted in granting equality with the Poles, cultural demands in granting the right to education, press and office work in the native language. Moreover, the “Council of Rus Scientists” gathered in 1848 the year came to the conclusion that “it is necessary to establish a uniform grammar and uniform spelling for all the Russian people in Austria and Russia”. Newspapers in Russian began to be published, for example, The Word by Yakov Golovatsky. In 1865, a program article appeared in the Word, in which it was argued that the Rusyns were part of a single Russian people occupying the territory from the Carpathians to Kamchatka. That is, there was no talk of a “separate non-Russian” people even in 1848, in the Austrian Galicia!
At the same time, the Austrian administration was not interested in awakening the all-Russian national consciousness among the Ruthenians and, while granting national rights to the Ruthenians, recognized them as some separate people “Ruthenians”, with which the Ruthenians had to agree.
In the 50-ies of the XIX century. Galician Ruthenians, although they recognized themselves in 1848 as a separate people of the “Ruthenians”, more and more penetrated the consciousness of Russian unity, print their books and the newspaper “Zorya Galitska” in a language very close to the common Russian literary language. The then governor of Galicia, the Pole, Count Agenor Goluhovsky, persecutes supporters of the Russian national idea; the editor of the newspaper “Zorya Galitska” receives instructions not to use “Moscow” words, and then the newspaper is shut down altogether. Under these conditions, two currents are gradually forming among the Galician Rusyns: the old Rusorins (“Moscophiles”), contrary to the wishes of the authorities who stood on the old, traditional soil of Russian unity, and the young Russians (“narodovtsy”) who are ready to please the authorities as a separate nation. The latter pressed for the fact that the spoken language of the Galician peasants, which absorbed a lot of Polish, German and Hungarian words for 500 over the years of foreign rule, is a “separate”, non-Russian language.
Of course, the feeling of unity with the Russian people among the Galicians could not help but cause concern to both the Austrian administration and the Polish landowners, who still owned lands in Galicia. Both those and others, having reconciled themselves among themselves, led together with the Uniate Church attack on the “Moskvofil”. Moreover, relations between the Austro-Hungarian and Russian empires soon became noticeably complicated.
The anti-Russian hysteria in Galicia intensified when members of the Polish uprising and offended members of Little Russian culture like Kulish and Dragomanov began to massively move from Lviv to Russia.
This Polish troops instantly launched vigorous activity. On their initiative, the Meta newspaper, which was already conducting propaganda in the spirit of Ukrainian political politics, began to appear, almost completely devoting its political articles to attacks on Moscow and the “Muscovites”. In December, 1863 was published in this newspaper the text of the song “Ukraine has not yet died”. It is noteworthy that it was significantly different from the now known.
Since in 1863 weapon Polish insurgents took it, then, consequently, the poem contained an appeal to the Ukrainians, together with the Poles, to come out against Russia. Thus, the Ukrainophile movement in Galicia became intensely saturated with political anti-Russian content. Polish immigrants aroused an interest in Ukrainophilism in part of the Polish society of Galicia, pointing to the political benefits that can be derived from it for the Polish cause. The Poles began to help the "narodvotsy", and with such strong support, the "narodvites" began to push the "Moskvofilov". The “Enlightenment” association appears, propaganda newspapers are published ... This activity completely suits both the Poles and the Austrians. It was during this period that the “nation” invented was called “Ukrainian” by someone. In fact, after centuries of unsuccessful Polonization of the Rusyns, a much more successful “Ukrainization” began, and the idea of uniting Russia under the tsarist Orthodox crown was replaced by the idea of “uniting Ukraine” under the crown of the Austrian, Catholic ...
But the Russian idea in Galicia was strong. In the 1866 year, on the pages of the “Slovo” newspaper, Mosfvil leaders definitely expressed their recognition of the Russian national idea. They declared that all the efforts of the authorities and the Poles to create a separate Uniate Ruthenian people were in vain and the people of the G-edicia consider themselves part of the united Russian people.
Such a statement of the Galician Rusyns was received with extreme discontent in Polish circles. The “Gazeta Narodowa”, an organ of the Eastern Galician gentry, was especially sharp. The newspaper called for a decisive fight against the “Moscoffs” and set the task of creating an “anti-Moscow Rus” in Galicia. "Such an anti-Moscow Rus, linked by a union with Poland, will be for Austria a defensive wall against Moscow, the basis of its future policy, directed to the East." This meant - on the basis of the Young Russian movement, to organize a Ukrainian-Ukrainian political party with a pronounced anti-Russian orientation, called together with the Poles to oppose the Old Russian party in Galicia, and in the future to serve as an instrument against Russia.
Supporters of political Ukrainophilism always diligently disowned the Polish roots of their movement, reacting to any mention of their presence with ostentatious indignation and asserting that all this is an invention of malicious “moskaley”. But the fact is that the Poles themselves at that time did not completely hide their involvement in the emergence and development of this movement.
By the way, Polish leaders who had the intention to create an “anti-Moscow Rus” from the Galician Ruthenians speak of national isolation of the Ruthenians from the “Muscovites” not as an obvious fact, but as something else that needs to be created, moreover with foreign (Polish) help. Consequently, the Poles themselves essentially recognized the idea of national unity of Russia, but, based on their political considerations, were interested in destroying this unity, and therefore hastily created a separate Ukrainian people.
Meanwhile, the relations between Vienna and Berlin became closer and closer, and soon the German and Austro-Hungarian empires concluded a treaty of alliance directed against the Entente (the union of Russia, France and England). In the new conditions, the leadership of Austrian foreign policy has actually passed into the hands of politicians in more developed Germany. In this regard, a plan emerged in Berlin - to use Galicia as a springboard for Ukrainian separatism, which should ultimately lead to the rejection of the whole of Little Russia from Russia and its annexation to the possessions of the Hapsburgs. Accordingly, the information war against Russia sharply intensified, an important part of which was Ukrainian propaganda.
In order to weaken the connection of Galicia with the Russian Empire, the authorities began to actively distort the local dialect, introducing Polonism in large numbers, changing the spelling of words to differ more from the literary Russian language. By order of Vienna, pseudo-historical concepts were created, designed to show that Great Russians and Little Russians are different nations. Any rascal, ready to justify the "separateness" of Ukrainians from Russians, met with a warm welcome and solid financial support in Austria. It is not surprising that all kinds of Ukrainians flew to Lviv like flies to honey.
The names of most of them, as individuals insignificant in history, are forgotten today, but some are lucky. Around one of them in Ukraine, a real cult has been unfolded, his portrait adorns a fifty-hryvnia banknote, and his books are printed in considerable print runs. As you may have guessed, the most successful of planting Ukrainian separatism in the field was Mikhail Grushevsky. A man of very doubtful personal qualities, self-serving and unprincipled, he invented the history of Ukraine. His multivolume opus entitled "History of Ukraine-Rus" was completely criticized immediately after publication. Historians found hundreds of absurdities and frank inventions in this supposedly scientific work, but Grushevsky was not interested in historical authenticity, he created an ideological work. Not surprisingly, certain circles continue to repeat the stories of a bearded science fiction writer today. What is their essence? Very simple: Ukrainians existed in hoary antiquity, just then Ukrainians were called "Rusyns", and Ukraine - Rus, and then terrible Muscovites came and appropriated this name. And then also Ukraine itself conquered and oppressed Ukraine itself with great pleasure.
Grushevsky Mikhailo Sergiyovich
Being a subject of the Russian Empire, Grushevsky in 1891, at the age of twenty-five, moved to the Austrian empire, where he soon became a professor in Lviv. Almost immediately, he becomes an activist of the “Shevchenko Scientific Association”, and from 1897 of the year - and its chairman. Under the new leadership, this organization begins a real crusade against the Russian language and culture. And Grushevsky operates not only in Galicia, but also in Russia, trying to instill Ukrainian into the Little Russia. A mass of propaganda literature was sent to Kiev and other cities, but the “language” march to the east failed. The waste paper published in Galicia (including the books of Grushevsky) was clearly not in demand.
The funny thing is that he, propagandizing the Ukrainian idea, practically did not know the Ukrainian language (which he himself admitted) and did not learn it until the end of his life. Grushevsky's speech was a strange surzhik, which he actively implemented. It came to a comedy: the writer-Ukrainophile Ivan Nechui-Levitsky was forced to publicly oppose the artificial polonization of speech by Grushevsky. I emphasize in particular: Ivan Nechui-Levitsky was a staunch Ukrainian-phil and no less than Hrushevsky wanted to oust the Russian language, but even for him, the speech invented by the Lviv professor sounded gibberish.
Doing subversive work against Russia, Grushevsky still remained a subject of the Russian Empire, often came to Kiev and St. Petersburg. It would seem where the police are looking? An ardent and open enemy of the state freely travels around the country, embarrasses the minds of young people, and law enforcement agencies just do not like it. The shackles would have been an Austrian agent of influence and to Siberia, but imperial Russia was too liberal a state, for which it paid.
By the way, the professor did not disdain the execution of orders from the Austrian and German secret services, which was proved in 1917 year. But soon the revolution began, and he not only escaped retribution, but also found himself ascended to the very crest of a turbid political wave ...
To be honest, you do not want to waste time on describing the activities of this person. All interested are referred to the "Secret History of Ukraine-Rus" Oles Buzin or any other objective research.
Let's sum up. By the end of the nineteenth century, political Ukrainians with a center in Galicia acquired that ideological "stuffing" that still exists today. From now on, Ukrainians will consistently and fanatically act together with "enlightened" Europe against the Moscow "Asian barbarism." From Galicia will be sent to the actions of the fifth column within the Russian Empire. It is here with the support of Vienna and Berlin at the beginning of the 20th century the paramilitary Nazi organizations Sokol, Sich and Plast will be created, from the militants of which the legion of Sich Riflemen will later be formed. And it is in the works of Galician Ukrainian filos of the last century that the sources of the pathological desire of some modern Ukrainian politicians to join the EU and NATO should be sought.
The relatively calm XIX century became a kind of incubation period, when horrible monster ideas were only born and matured in cocoons. It will take quite a bit of time, and they will break free, filling their path with blood, leaving many dead bodies and smoking ruins everywhere. But then nobody could recognize the monsters in the sweet and intelligent gentlemen of the Grushevsk and Dragomanovs with their Ukrainophilism. And the beautiful-hearted people who lived at the turn of the XIX — XX centuries with affection watched the development of the monsters, instead of turning their necks in time, while there was such an opportunity ... And no one listened to those who saw the danger. Truly scary to be Cassandra, whose insights no one believes. In itself, Ukrainophileism at that time did not represent any political force, and some Russian newspapers made fun of Katkov’s Moscow Gazette, which warned of the danger hidden in Ukrainophilia. However, the forces behind the Ukrainian film and seeking to use it to their advantage, were very real and dangerous. Therefore, Katkov wrote: “Let us be considered alarmists [...], but let's not stop pointing to the danger, if only it is still emerging; we better want to be like that sailor, who, noticing a black spot in the sky, takes measures against the storm, rather than the one that begins to sail when a squall hits. ”
A Sound of Thunder
Demons of Ukrainians, carefully cultivated for many years, broke free during the First World War. With the outbreak of hostilities, all the masks of liberalism, tolerance and European civilization, which the Austrians used to hide behind during the peaceful years, were dropped, and if we remember the atrocities of the nazis today, if the crimes committed by the nazis were condemned, the Hapsburg monarchy’s war crimes are strongly ignored. And you need to remember. At least in order to know what the outcome of indulging national svidomym figures.
RUSSIAN IN CONCLUSION!
Until the 1914 war itself, despite the total anti-Russian propaganda, almost half of the inhabitants of Western Ukraine considered themselves to be part of a single Russian people. This was very unnerving Austrian officials, so even before the war, anyone who showed even the slightest pro-Russian sympathies was put on police records. Austrian gendarmerie kept detailed lists of "politically unreliable". For each there was a folder with compromising information, where, among other things, there were recommendations on how to deal with this person if Austria starts a war with Russia. Arrest was considered the most reliable means. Immediately after the start of hostilities in Lviv alone, about two thousand Muscophiles were immediately arrested. This is despite the fact that at this time all Ukrainian (both Ukrainophiles and Muscophiles) population of the city was 34 thousands of people. That is, every fifteenth was arrested. The official pretext for such actions was the fight against spies, but it is clear that such a number of Russian spies simply could not be. If in Lviv they were mostly arrested, then a wave of bloody reprisals swept through small towns and villages. The soldiers killed the peasants at the slightest suspicion of sympathy for Russia. They shot for the word, spoken in Russian, for a careless glance ... Hungarian soldiers were especially cruel. Do not stand aside and Ukrainophiles, who played the role of scammers. Student of Lviv University V.R. Vavrik, arrested by the Austrians on the denunciation of Svidomo Ukrainians, went through all the circles of hell and left detailed memories of the bloody orgy that the Austrians committed. His book “TEREZIN AND TALERGOF” became the most complete evidence of the crimes committed against the Russian people in Western Ukraine. It is available online. Everyone who still believes in European values, do not be lazy, read ...
4 September 1914 was opened in Talerhof (Austria-Hungary), the first in Europe concentration camp with the aim of genocide of the local Russian population.
How to name the actions of the Austrian authorities and Ukrainians who actively helped them? Genocide? Yes! Genocide! There is no other definition. And this is proved by another census, already Polish, 1931 of the year. According to her data, since the beginning of the century the number of Poles in Lviv has more than doubled - to 1 9 8 thousand, Jews - by 66% (45 thousand). And only Ukrainians after all the “demographic” explosions remained almost as many as there were in 1900, - 35 thousand. 173 people. The consequences of the Austrian stripping is obvious!
Soon all the prisons were overcrowded, and the most terrible act of the drama began. Austrians, specifically for the maintenance of Russophiles, were forced to create two concentration camps - Talerhof and Terezin, to which dissidents were brought from Galicia, Bukovina and Subcarpathian Rus. Who remembers today tens of thousands of people who were tortured in concentration camps in the center of civilized Europe? Starved, starved for disobedience, killed just for fun ... But this happened to people who were not even charged! All their fault was that they were Russian. They gave their lives for the preservation of their national identity, for the right to speak their native language. Today they are ordered to forget about them in Ukraine ...