Domestic navy pays for the mistakes of the Soviet admirals
Against the background of the launch of the Yaroslav the Wise escort ship, the beginning of sea trials of the Yuri Dolgoruky SSBN, the successful completion of the state tests of the Nerpa submarine of Project 971, an equally important event for the Russian Navy went unnoticed. The composition of the Black Sea fleet On January 17, the first and only modern modern anti-mine ship (PMK) was enlisted - Vice Admiral Zakharyin, a marine minesweeper (MTSC), of Project 02668. Several promising PMKs of Project 12700 Alexandrite are under construction.
"Sleep" continues ...
However, this only underlines the general unsatisfactory condition of the mine-sweeping forces of the Russian Navy. Its mine capabilities are so low that they call into question the fundamental possibility of ensuring the deployment of Russian Navy forces from their bases under the conditions of the modern mine threat.
Today, our fleet, so far formally - in terms of combat potential - is second in the world, in terms of mine forces, is significantly inferior even to such “powerful naval powers” as Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Poland, Pakistan.
The 266М MTSch project of the Russian Navy, the base minesweepers of the 1265 project, the 10750 raid minesweepers of the 70 project are morally outdated at the time of construction, they are able to effectively deal only with anchor mines, and even then in a simple situation. This situation arose because of gross errors in the military-technical policy of the leadership of the Soviet Navy in 80-80-s. Then, in the West, the mass construction of a new generation of the PMK was launched, which the command of the Soviet fleet actually “slept through”. Alas, this "dream" still continues. For example, in our Pacific Fleet there is not a single (!) Minesweeper at all with the only relatively effective, though outdated, Russian GAS MI “Kabarga” (developed by the end of the XNUMX).
The high protivotralny resistance of modern samples of bottom mines (or, for example, anchor mines) practically eliminates the effective fight against them by “classical trawling”. Mines have become "smart", with several detection channels (including hydrodynamic - almost impossible to imitate) and complex processing of target signals.
At the same time, it should be noted that today, in the course of hostilities in a number of cases, mines with a deliberately reduced antiretral resistance can also be used. However, this primarily depends on the desire or unwillingness of the parties to the conflict to take into account the limitations of international law, according to which “... the warring parties must do everything possible to remove the mines, and each side must remove its own mines”. For example, when blocking the ports of Vietnam with mines aviation The US Navy used precisely such mines, since the Americans understood well that they themselves would have to remove them later (which was done as soon as possible).
It should also be noted that modern multi-channel fuses are widely available on the world market, and the development of anti-mine forces must be made in view of this fact.
What is a modern PMK?
The ideology of the modern PMK was developed and implemented as early as the UK at the beginning of the 60-s: the minesweeper was equipped with an effective MAS MAS providing for the detection of a mine (or a min-like object). To classify and destroy an object from the PMK, an uninhabited anti-mine device (NPA) is produced, which performs an additional search and examination of the detected object (with a camera or its GUS). Mines are destroyed by the mine apparatus. To ensure high effectiveness of mine action, the PMK was equipped with an automated mine action system (PMD), as well as a precise positioning and positioning subsystem. At the same time, the search for PMK mines is conducted ahead of the course (that is, he no longer needs to “walk around the mines”). To improve mine performance, this standard scheme is often complemented by towed underwater vehicles or skidless boats equipped with high-resolution side-scan sonar (HBO). This type of PMK received the name of minesweeper-seeker mines (TCHCHIM).
The overwhelming majority of foreign naval fleets from the 70-80-ies are LEADING - both new built and modernized from obsolete minesweepers. In this case, the presence or absence of trawls (contact and non-contact) becomes secondary. However, taking into account the need to combat broadband mines (they have a long target detection range and a warhead in the form of a torpedo or missile to hit it) installed in the bottom position at great depth (which is especially important for us in the north), and with deployable underwater lighting systems (including anchor buoys), a specialized PMS requires a deep-water contact trawl, which ensures the work of the trawl unit at a minimum distance from the ground.
The use of modular anti-mine systems has become a new direction in the development of anti-mine forces, and equipping them with surface warships of the main classes, boats and submarines gains the ability to conduct effective independent anti-mine actions without needing to provide specialized MVS. The most interesting anti-mine RMS AN / WLD-1 NPSA is the US Navy, which is a semi-submersible remote-controlled (and integrated into the ship's SQQ-89v (15) system) towed with HBO (serial sample from the helicopter anti-mine system AN / AQS-20), capable of long time to conduct an independent search of mines at a considerable distance from the carrier. The release and lifting of AN / WLD-1 are carried out by a regular ship lifting and lowering device. Serial deliveries are carried out, just before 2011 of the year it is planned to purchase 47 AN / WLD-1.
The development of modern means of search and destruction of mines has led today to a significant increase in search performance and effectiveness of mine forces. According to Hector Donahue (Australian Navy), a member of the Persian Gulf demining in 1991, from the 1238 mines that were cleared by coalition mine forces, were destroyed: STIUM - 93%, by divers - 3%, “by other means” - 1% (possibly, “ among them "explosions in the mines of the cruiser" Princeton "and the helicopter carrier" Tripoli ").
During the operation “Shock and Awe” in 2003, disguised Minzagi vessels were captured by Allied special operations forces (MTR), destroyed by NLA and divers around 100 of Iraqi mines (at about half a thousand of mined objects).
Attention is drawn to - mine action today has moved away from “highly specialized” ones and has become complex with the involvement of diverse forces and means: the theater situation lighting, reconnaissance, and MTR systems.
With the first XCUM project 02668 (developed by Agat CMCS), the fleet today received a ship equipped with a modern anti-mine complex including GAS MI Livadia (with ship part and GAS anti-mine NPA) —developed by JSC Aquamarine, anti-mine NPA, AMS PMD ( developer NPO "Mars"), promising contact trawls and trawl simulators. However, despite the successful completion of the MTShch "Vice-Admiral Zakharyin" state tests, today he is alone in the Navy! For comparison: in the Polish Navy - 3 modernized with XCHUM project 206FM, Estonia - 5 LEADING, Latvia - 5 LEAD. Comments are superfluous.
The fleet begins with a minesweeper, and in conditions where even the minimal escape of fleet forces from bases is not ensured, the construction of surface ships and submarines of the main classes naturally raises questions. Today, effective mine action is provided even by civilian systems, including those mass-produced in our country. For example, they are conducted to survey the route of the “Nord Stream” by “Gazprom”. Given the importance of the fleet for Russia, including the role of the NSNF, the current archaic and antediluvian anti-mine forces of the Navy actually call into question its combat effectiveness.
In this regard, the following measures are necessary:
- the serial construction of the promising PMK of the 12700 project should be one of the most priority projects of the Navy;
- modernization of obsolete PMKs in service with equipping them with modern anti-mine weapons;
- equipping ships of the main classes in the shortest possible time with modular container anti-mine systems - installation of standard 371, 1390 and new types (rigid inflatable boats BL-820 and BL-680) on regular ship launches to search for and destroy mines to solve the problems of raid minesweepers (ensuring the release of fleet forces from bases);
- the development and adoption of NLA for submarines and ships of the main classes, including the ability to combat the threat of mine in ice conditions.
Fleet starts with minesweeper
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