In August 1941 of the year, except for the pilots, it was decided to financially encourage the paratroopers. 29 August 1941, Joseph Stalin signed the order number 0329 "On improving the leadership of the Red Army airborne troops." According to this document, for each combat landing operation, the command personnel received a monthly salary, and the ordinary for 500 rubles.
Why paratroopers allocated among other troops? The answer is simple. Landing operations were accompanied by great risk and danger, the losses were very high. The command wanted to somehow support the paratroopers. True, it must be said that mass airborne operations during the years of the Great Patriotic War were rare. More often, paratroopers were used as regular infantry.
Then they began to reward and ground forces for the destruction tanks the enemy. For their destruction they paid tankers, artillerymen and infantry. Bonus payments for the destruction of enemy manpower were not provided. The reason is obvious. Firstly, the moral factor. Paying for “scalps” was not in Russian (Soviet) traditions. Secondly, the problem arose of counting the killed enemies and determining who killed them. In the confusion of the battle, when retreats were replaced by offensives, it was almost impossible. The same problem arose with respect to enemy guns. How to count? With tanks it was a bit easier.
First, documents appeared about the cash bonuses for the evacuation and repair of their own equipment from the battlefield. 25 February 1942 of the year issued an order number 0140 "On bonuses of personnel of automotive armored repair parts for fast and high-quality repair of tanks" (Russian archive: Great Patriotic War: Orders of USSR Commissar of Defense. T 13 (2-2). M 2-3). ., 1997). 350 rubles began to pay for high-quality and fast maintenance of a heavy KV tank, and 800 rubles for medium repairs. For the repair of the medium tank T-34 - 250 and 500 rubles; for light tanks BT, T-26, T-40 and T-60 - 100 and 200 rubles, respectively. The order stipulated that for each payment, the commissioner and the commander of the unit were charged with 5%, at least 70% of the total amount was intended for the personnel of the unit, the remainder of the premium was distributed between the manager and the maintenance unit of the repair and restoration unit.
7 May 1942, Deputy People's Commissar of Defense, Lieutenant-General Tank Forces Fedorenko signed an order No. 035733 “on the introduction of cash awards for evacuating tanks ...”. For each tank removed from the territory occupied by the enemy or from the neutral zone, a monetary reward was established: for KV - 5 thousand rubles, T-34 - 2 thousand rubles, T-60 and T-70 - 500 rubles. For tanks of other models also set the amount of rewards: for a heavy tank - 5 thousand rubles, for an average tank - 2 thousand, for a light tank - 500 rubles. It should be noted that the evacuation of their tanks was valued much higher than the destruction of enemy tanks. True, we must take into account the complexity of the evacuation of the wrecked tank from the territory captured by the enemy and the fact that the amount was shared among all participants in the evacuation group.
According to the order number 98 from 31 in March 1942, it was necessary to pay for each repaired guns of corps artillery and artillery of the Reserve of the High Command - 100 rubles for maintenance and 200 rubles for average repairs. Accordingly, for the anti-aircraft gun - 75 and 150 rubles, weapons division artillery - 40 and 80 rubles gun regimental artillery - 30 and 60 rubles gun anti-tank artillery - 15 and 30 rubles, machine gun - 10 and 20 rubles, machine gun and machine - 5 and 10 rubles, for each repaired 100 rifles - 100 and 200 rubles.
1 July 1942, the order No. 0528. According to him, for each enemy tank wrecked, the gun commander and gunner were supposed to have 500 rubles, and the other members of the gun crew, for 200 rubles. At the same time, the commanding personnel of the anti-tank artillery units began to receive one-and-a-half salary, and the junior commanding and rank-and-file composition - a double one. 24 June 1943 of the Year appeared "Order on encouraging fighters and commanders for combat work to destroy enemy tanks" No. 0387. For each enemy tank that was hit or set on fire, the gunner of an anti-tank gun received a reward of 500 rubles, the number of PTR - 250 rubles; the commander, driver, tank gun commander - 500 rubles, the rest of the crew - 200 rubles. A monetary award was established in 1 thousand rubles for each soldier or commander for personally attacking or setting fire to the enemy’s tank using individual means of combat (grenades and bottles of combustible mixture). In the case of group destruction of an enemy tank, the size of the prize increased to 1,5 thousand rubles, it was paid in equal shares to all members of the group.
In the fall of 1942, the Soviet leadership paid attention to the training of tank drivers. 18 November 1942 of the year appeared the order number 372, he established for the drivers of tanks driving classes. The order noted that successful actions of tanks depend primarily on the skill of their drivers. The following qualification categories were established: tank driving master (he received a monthly additional remuneration in the amount of 150 rubles); driver of the 1 class tank (in addition 80 rubles); driver of the 2 class tank (50 rubles); 3 tank driver class.
The most "monetary" battle
There is no exact data on who exactly carried out the most “monetary” battle during the years of World War II. But it can be a torpedo bomber, Hero of the Soviet Union Mikhail Vladimirovich Borisov. May 4, 1945 aviation The Baltic Fleet attacked the battleship "Slesien" and a group of enemy ships. During the battle, the battleship, the Orion auxiliary cruiser, two destroyers, two minesweepers, a patrol ship and six transports were sunk. According to Borisov, he received 10 thousand rubles for torpedoing a battleship. This is the largest amount received for one combat operation, which is currently known.
And the largest amount accumulated on the savings bank during the war is reported in the memoirs of Nikolai Fedorovich Golovchenko, the navigator of the U-2 navigator. According to him, the salary was 950 rubles, he was added for each flight, nightly, etc. It came out over 3 thousand per month. By the end of the war, about 50 thousands had accumulated. After the war, it was good help to relatives who lived on the verge of starvation.
Encourage inventors. Cash prizes were received not only by the front-line soldiers, but also by inventors, designers. In particular, in March 1943, the inventors P.M. Goryunov, V.E. Voronkov and M.M. Goryunov for the new model 7,62 mm easel machine gun, which in its operational and production characteristics significantly exceeded the analogous machine gun Maxim, received the award for 5 thousand rubles each. Thus, the award of the inventor-gunsmith was equal to the amount received by the pilots of the Heroes of the Soviet Union.
Ruble on the front line
In order to understand the significance of the prizes, it is necessary to know how much generals, officers and soldiers received per month. 27 September 1947 of the year issued an order number 0374, which established an increased salary of content in the category “Senior Red Army”. The gunners of the guns and mortars were paid 15 rubles per month, the first numbers of anti-tank guns and machine guns were 12 rubles. 50 cop., Fighters armed with a submachine gun (automatic) in rifle and cavalry regiments - 12 rub. 50 cop Then, to encourage snipers, it was determined to pay 25 sniper rifles per month, junior sergeants in the first and second year of service - 30 rubles, in the third year - 100 rubles, sergeants -35 and 200 rubles, respectively (Kustov, V. M. Price of victory in rubles. M., 2010).
The minimum monetary allowance received penalty box - 8 rubles. 50 cop Penalties appointed to the positions of junior commanders received maintenance according to the positions they held. In addition to the guilty "variable composition" in the penal connections, those who belonged to the "permanent composition" served as commanders and specialists, they were not guilty of any crimes and were encouraged. So their terms of service in the ranks, compared with the command, the political composition of the usual combat units were reduced by half. In addition, each month of service in the permanent composition of the penal battalion was counted when calculating pensions for six months.
Since March 1943, the following general salaries have been established for the generals: comfronts - 4 thousand rubles, a member of the Military Council of the front - 3,5 thousand rubles, first deputy commander - 3,4 thousand rubles, deputy commander for rear services - 3,2 thousand rubles, front headquarters - 3,2 thousand rubles, commander - 3,2 thousand rubles, member of the Military Council of the army - 2,8 thousand rubles, deputy army commander - 2,6 thousand rubles, army head - 2,6 thousand rubles, air army commander - 3,4 thousand rubles, chief air officer Army - 2,7 thousand rubles.
In 1941, the entire senior, senior, middle, and junior commanding staff in the guards units was set up with one-and-a-half salary, the ordinary composition - double. The commanding composition of the Airborne Forces received an average salary between the salaries of the commanders of the Air Force and the ground forces. Junior commanders and the rank and file of the airborne troops received a cadet ration and a salary of 25% more than in rifle units. In 1942, the commanders of anti-tank units and divisions began to receive one-and-a-half salary, and junior commanders and line-ups - double.
How to manage the money?
Some veterans generally deny the fact of bonus. This was partly due to the conditions of the war, when often, especially in the initial period, it was difficult to establish a normal supply of troops. Not in all parts began to pay cash rewards immediately after the signing of the relevant orders. Often the payments depended on the disposition of commanders and military financiers in the units.
In addition, in this difficult time for the country were unscrupulous people, and just nasty people who were responsible for financial affairs. They used the fact that the military simply did not know about the prizes, or did not defend their right to them, or died; as a result, in the memoirs there are reports of entire bags full of money, which some commanders had.
The tankman Boris Zakharov gave a very characteristic answer for a man of that era: “They say it was supposed to. I, frankly, did not know what my cash content was. When they arrived at the formation, he came to the head of finance, signed. For what he gave me money - I do not know. The certificate I issued the mother. Yes, it was not before! Alive and well, and more money or less is not so important ”(Internet site“ I remember. ”Memories of veterans of the Second World War).
Many military sent money to parents, relatives, made out certificates for them. In the rear, food security was worse than at the front line. This supported the families of the military. Others transferred money to the families of the dead fellow soldiers. Often such decisions were collective. In particular, the tank crews of the 233 Tank Brigade did this. Someone saved money, received a lump sum at the end of the war. Many voluntarily, or as they like with us, voluntarily-forcibly transferred money to the Defense Fund. It is clear that someone was drinking premium, people are people. It is hard to save money, knowing that tomorrow may simply not come.
Providing military families
28 April 1943 was issued by the Resolution of the Council of People's Commissars No. 462 “On providing families of generals and senior officers of the Red Army of the dead, dead and missing at the front without a trace”. Lump-sum allowances were relied upon for wives if there were no disabled persons in the family who were dependent on the military, spouses of generals - 50 thousand rubles, wives of senior commanding officers (majors, lieutenant colonels and colonels) - 10 thousand rubles. If there is one disabled 75 and 15 in the family, thou. respectively; if there are two or more disabled in the family - 100 and 20 thousand rubles.
At the same time, the families of the generals and the senior officers of the dead who died in the battles, or missing, were assigned a housing area, which they had previously occupied. And if the area was temporarily occupied by the enemy, the family was provided with the appropriate housing area in the place that she chose to reside. Pupils received a pension before graduation, regardless of age, excellent students received a pension regardless of the payment of scholarships. Generals' families were provided with lettered food (on the highest level) and supplied with food and manufactured goods along with the families of generals who served in the Red Army. The wives of the generals were included in the number of persons who were entitled to a pension, regardless of working ability and age.
Families of privates and sergeants of the Red Army and fleet received a monthly allowance. On June 26, 1941, a Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Council was issued on benefits for families of military personnel of junior command personnel and rank and file in wartime. Allowances were given to families drafted into the Red Army, Navy, border and internal troops of the NKVD, except for families of extra-military personnel. If there are no able-bodied people in the family, the amount of the monthly allowance was as follows: if there is one disabled, 100 rubles; two disabled - 150 rubles; three or more - 200 rubles in the city and 100 rubles in the countryside. If there are two children in the family under 16 years old, with one able-bodied in the family, 100 rubles in the city and 50 rubles in the countryside. Apparently, it was believed that in rural areas it would be easier to feed a family.
After the end of World War II there was a massive demobilization. The demobilized military was entitled to a lump-sum monetary reward, which depended on the time of service. Ordinary all types of troops and services received an annual salary for each year of service. Ordinary special units, which received high maintenance during the war, received a semi-annual salary for each year of service. Sergeants of all types of troops and services - semi-annual salary within 300 - 900 rubles for each year of service. In one year of service during the war, the command personnel received a two-month salary, two years a three-month salary, three years a four-month salary, four years a five-month salary.
In addition, in areas heavily affected by hostilities, banks were required to issue loans to demobilized people in need for the rehabilitation and construction of residential buildings in the amount of 5 - 10 thousand rubles with a loan maturity from 5 to 10 years. Generals and senior commanders who had served 25 in the Red Army for more than 10 years could also get a loan for individual housing and country house construction. Generals could get a loan in 35 thousand rubles, and senior commanders - 20 thousand rubles. Maturity - 10 years.