In 1111, a new big campaign of Russian princes against the Polovtsi was organized. In March, the Russian army, under the command of the Grand Duke of Kiev Svyatopolk Izyaslavich, the Chernigov Prince Davyd Svyatoslavich and Pereyaslav Prince Vladimir Monomakh, came to the Polovtsian town of Sharukan. The townspeople surrendered Sharukan without a fight, met the Russians with honey, wine and fish. The next city, Sugrov, tried to resist, and was destroyed.
The Polovtsi retreated, but after receiving reinforcements from the Volga and North Caucasus genera, they decided to give battle. March 24 was the first fierce battle at the Donets. Monomakh built shelves, called: "Here death is for us, let us be strong." The Russian regiments stood firm, reflecting one attack after another, then themselves began to oppose the enemy. Towards evening, the Polovtsi were defeated and retreated. But it was not a complete victory. 27 March on the river Salnice began the second, the main battle. Polovtsi had a numerical advantage, "as a great bore and darkness of darkness." Polovtsian troops even surrounded the Russian regiments. Hacked with extreme bitterness, nobody wanted to give in. However, step by step, the Russian rati crowded the enemy. As a result, the Polovtsian troops could not withstand the coordinated direct strike, mixed. Russian captured many prisoners and large booty. After this terrible defeat, the Polovtsy only once approached the borders of Russia, in the year of the death of Grand Duke Svyatopolk, but having learned that Monomah occupied the throne, they were reconciled to him.
Rise of the 1113 of the Year
In April, 1113 fell ill and died Svyatopolk Izyaslavich. Kiev split into two parties. Some advocated Vladimir Vsevolodovich, it was impossible to find a better candidate. His name was on everyone’s lips, he was the largest figure in Russia. However, Monomakh still did not want to violate the rules of inheritance of the Kiev table. According to the system of ladder, the descendants of Svyatoslav — Davyd of Chernigov, Oleg Seversky, and Yaroslav of Murom — were to rule after Svyatopolk. For Svyatoslavich were many of the Kiev nobles, associated with the "Khazar Corporation." The interests of the Jewish community were closely associated with the south, Tmutarakan, and they were defended by Svyatoslavich. For them, Oleg or Davyd were ideal candidates.
The people were outraged, many people remembered Oleg as the initiator of the unrest: “We do not want Svyatoslavich!” In this case, the entourage of the deceased Svyatopolk and Jewry had another option acceptable to them - it was beneficial for them to drag the son of the Grand Duke, Yaroslav Volynsky, to the throne. With him, they kept their former position, posts, incomes. He was even more profitable Svyatoslavichy, when they were inevitable shuffling in power circles. Yes, and Yaroslav was the son of the Grand Duke from the Jewish concubine.
But people were opposed to such inclinations. As a result, the accumulated hatred for the entourage of Svyatopolk and the Jew broke through. Kievans smashed the estate tysyatskogo Putiata Vyshatich, courtyards Sotskih and rushed into the Jewish quarter. The moneylenders survived in a stone synagogue, but their homes were crushed, all slaves freed. Now the Kiev boyars and clergy, the family of the deceased Svyatopolk, in a panic, appealed to Monomakh. They were afraid for their lives, and also wanted to keep their yards and monasteries from plundering.
The common people also called Vladimir. After hesitating, in early May, Monomakh accepted the invitation. As soon as he and his squad appeared in Kiev, order was restored, the rebellion stopped. The population of the city joyfully met the prince. Everyone knew about the justice of the prince. Svyatoslavich were forced to recognize the primacy of Vladimir Vsevolodovich, they could not resist the wishes of the people.
Great reign of Vladimir
The reasons for the uprising were not a secret for Vladimir - the root of evil was in the middle of the usurers. Kiev administration was replaced. The debts of the Kiev merchants and artisans to the Jews were forgiven, sold into slavery for the debts freed. But it was necessary to eliminate the problem once and for all, and not just to remove the consequences at the same time. The great sovereign convened princes and tysyatskih from various lands and cities. The conversation was difficult, but the Kiev prince managed to convince the political elite of Russia that the usurers, enslaving and ruining people, undermined the forces of the princes themselves, of the entire Russian land. An important resolution was adopted - all Jews were obliged to leave the borders of Russia. They had the right to take their property with them, but they had no right to return. Otherwise, they were declared outcasts, deprived of the patronage of the law. It is clear that a part of Jewry chose to “disguise”, formally accept baptism.
The “Charter of Vladimir Monomakh” (“The Charter of the Cuts”) appeared, which became part of the extensive editorial staff of the “Russkaya Pravda”. He limited the arbitrariness of the usurers. "Growth" was limited to 20% per annum. If the lender took “tertiary growth” from the debtor three times, with interest he returned his money in interest payments, the debt was considered repaid. The charter defined the conditions of enslavement and, without encroaching on the basis of the feudal system, facilitated the position of debtors and procurements. This somewhat reduced social tensions in society.
As the Grand Duke, Vladimir personally tried to control all matters. The court itself ruled, any person who considered himself offended could turn to him. In everyday life, Monomakh was modest, preferred simple clothes and was moderate in food and drink, while the guests were treated well. It was the perfect ruler - a sensible, brave and formidable for enemies, a fair leader for the people. The reign of Vladimir Vsevolodovich was the period of the last strengthening of the Russian state before the collapse.
The Grand Duke tightly controlled the state, not allowing the seeds of a new unrest to germinate. He took his eldest son Mstislav from Novgorod, he, like Vladimir himself, was his father’s right hand. Mstislav Vladimirovich, nicknamed Great, as well as his father was a skillful and formidable commander. Novgorodians became arbitrary, reduced tribute payments to the capital city, began negotiations with Yaroslav Svyatopolkovich. Were ready to accept and Svyatoslavich, if they give Novgorod the appropriate benefits. In 1118, Vladimir Monomakh summoned the Novgorod boyars to Kiev and took them to the oath, the people of Novgorod promised to pay tribute in full and not to look for princes outside Monomakh's house.
For the final pacification of the steppe, the Grand Duke expelled sons, joined by the squads of other princes. They made two campaigns on the Donets and the Don, took the cities of Bylin, Cheshlyuev and Sugrov, reached the North Caucasus. Here was renewed alliance with the Yasami, concluded the winner of the Khazars Svyatoslav. The daughter of the prince of Jas became the wife of Yaropolk Vladimirovich. Polovtsi migrated from the Russian borders, part of them entered the service of the Georgian king, others left for Hungary. The rest sought to improve relations with the Grand Duke. The descendants of Tugorkan turned to Monomakh and agreed on a union. The younger son of Monomakh, Andrey Vladimirovich, married the granddaughter of Tugorkan. Friendly Rus tribes Polovtsy received permission to settle near the Russian frontiers, trade in Russian cities, they could count on help in case of danger. In addition to the Polovtsy, other steppe dwellers - black hoods and berendeis - were allied with Rus. They served as border guards.
Vladimir Monomakh remembered the positions lost by Russia on the Danube and tried to continue the work of Svyatoslav. The Byzantine emperor Alexey Komninus under Svyatopolk Izyaslavich was accustomed to count Russia as his vassal, through the Kiev metropolis he tried to regulate the politics of Kiev. Vladimir Monomakh resolutely put the Greeks in place. The Grand Duke showed the ability to conduct political games. Around 1114, the Byzantine impostor Lzhediogen II, who pretended to be the long-dead son of Emperor Roman IV - Lev Diogenes, appeared on the Russian land. For political reasons, the Grand Duke "recognized" the claimant to the Byzantine throne and even gave him his daughter Maria.
Vladimir Monomakh helped Leo recruit troops of Russian volunteer hunters, gave friendly Polovtsy. In the 1116 year, under the pretext of the return of the throne to the "legitimate prince", the last war of Russia and Byzantium began. Russian-Polovtsian troops captured on the Danube Dorostol and several other cities. The war developed successfully for Monomakh. However, the Greeks were able to send two killer Arabs to Leo, the prince was killed. After that, the imperial troops were able to squeeze out the Russian-Polovtsian detachments from the Danube and repel Dorostol.
Such a turn of affairs has angered Vladimir. He decided to shake the Byzantine Empire properly. He planned to continue the war - now in the "interests" of the son of the False Gene II - Vasily. In 1119, Vladimir Monomakh organized a big hike, with the participation of significant forces from Russia. By this time, Emperor Alexei I Comnenus died and his son John II Comnenus abruptly changed the policy of Byzantium. He was ready to make peace with Russia at any cost. Emperor Alexey I anticipated the Russian campaign and sent a great embassy to Kiev. The Byzantine Empire made unprecedented concessions - the Greeks presented Vladimir with the title of tsar, handed him a scepter, power, royal clothes, and also, according to legend, the royal crown, the so-called. "Monomakh hat". Byzantine basileus recognized the Russian tsar as equal. In addition, the granddaughter of Monomakh Eupraxia Mstislavna was asked to be his wife to the heir to the throne, Alexei.
The Grand Duke agreed for peace. True, in territorial terms, Russia lost. Vladimir was forced to retreat from the claims to the Danube lands. Tmutarakan also remained for the Greeks. According to the principle “everyone has his own patronage,” Svyatoslavichy, and not the Grand Duke, should have made claims against her, this was their patronage. However, the Novgorod-Seversky princes did not fight for the land, which Oleg had previously given.
Vladimir Monomakh, through his sons, completely controlled 3 / 4 of the territory of Russia. Turovo-Pinsk land was obtained by Monomakh after the death of Svyatopolk as a Kyiv parish. Distemper began in the Polotsk land. After the death of Vseslav Brjachislavich, the Polotsk land was divided into several lands. Older brother, Davyd Polotsky, began to converge with Kiev, recognized the supreme power of Monomakh. But the second, Gleb Minsky, began to make an assault. He attacked Davyd, in 1116, he started a war with Monomakh, carried out predatory raids on Smolensk, Turov-Pinsk land, and burned Slutsk. Vladimir stopped this disgrace. Monomakh with his sons, as well as with Davyd Svyatoslavich, sons of Oleg Svyatoslavich, Smolensk and Novgorod moved to Minsk. Monomakh's army captured Orsha and Drutsk, laid siege to Minsk. The prince of Minsk asked for peace, and the grand prince, not wanting to shed Russian blood, agreed to peace and left Minsk to Gleb. True, already in 1119, Gleb launched a new war, attacked Novgorodchin and Smolensk. Mstislav Vladimirovich captured the robber. Gleb again vowed to live in peace. But he was no longer listened to. His possessions were given to more reasonable relatives, and the prince was brought to Kiev, where he died.
Another hearth of unrest was suppressed in Volyn. Yaroslav Svyatopolchich initially tried to live in peace with the powerful Kiev prince, even married the daughter of Prince Mstislav Vladimirovich. Gradually, however, his court became a "snake ball", where his father's henchmen, deprived of warm places and income in Kiev, as well as expelled Jews, "financiers", found their place. In Russia, they did not have support, so they began to look for external force. The Hungarian lord Istvan II, who wanted to capture the rich Carpathian region, expressed his desire to help. The Hungarians agreed to build Yaroslav on the throne of Kiev, in exchange for the Carpathian region. Jewish merchants allocated money for the operation.
However, you can not hide a sewed bag. Monomakh was alarmed, called Yaroslav for explanations. Instead, the Volyn prince and the Hungarian king declared war on Kiev. Yaroslav even sent his wife away. Monomakh raised troops and in 1118 year he moved them to Vladimir-Volynsky. Yaroslav was ousted from Vladimir-Volynsky, Roman Vladimirovich became the prince of Volyn, and after his death in 1119, Andrey Vladimirovich. Jaroslav also asked for help from Poland. In 1123, a huge army entered Russia - Hungarians, Poles, Czechs. Enemies have imposed Vladimir-Volyn. During the siege, the Russian soldiers trapped Yaroslav, who went on reconnaissance, showed the enemies the weak points of the city, and killed him. As a result, the operation failed. Since ancient times, the West has loved to have a “legitimate” reason for war. Hungarians and Poles came to defend the “rights” of Yaroslav, and he died. The Polish king wanted to storm the city. But he was dissuaded. Approaching with the troops Mstislav Vladimirovich. The enemy army is gone.
Monomakh reminded of the power of Russia to its north-western and eastern neighbors. The sons of Vladimir with Novgorod and Pskov several times went to the Baltic states and Finland, "reminded" the local tribes of the need to pay tribute. Yuri Vladimirovich, who ruled the Rostov-Suzdal land, in 1120 led a big campaign against the Volga Bulgaria (Bulgaria). Bulgars raided Russian lands, capturing people for sale in slavery in the southern countries. Moreover, in 1117, the Bulgars tricked the father-in-law of Yuri, the Polovtsian prince Aepu, into a lie. Khan and his warriors were poisoned. Russian flotilla defeated the Bulgar, captured a large booty. Bulgaria was forced to make peace.
Vladimir Vsevolodovich died in May 1125 of the year. After himself, he left a mighty and united Russia, which was feared and respected by neighbors, and the idea of a strong, autocratic power.