Oleg moved to Murom and demanded that Izyaslav Vladimirovich leave his patrimony in Rostov-Suzdal land (Monomakh's patrimony). Izyaslav gathered an army for the defense of Murom from Rostov, Suzdal and Belozertsev, refused to leave. The army was large, so Izyaslav did not sit behind the walls and rushed to the attack. September 6 The battle of Murom took place on September 1096. Oleg was a more skillful warrior, he threw his best warriors at Izyaslav and his squad. When Izyaslav died, the army collapsed. Murom did not resist. Oleg Svyatoslavich was not limited to the return of Murom, he moved troops to the lot of Vladimir Monomakh. Suzdal took the attack, Rostov surrendered without a fight. Part of the boyars Vladimir Monomakh fled to Novgorod, the rest were captured. In the captured cities, Oleg planted his governors, began to collect tribute from the population.
Vladimir, and his son Mstislav (he was sitting in Novgorod), were amazing people who thought at the state level. They did not take revenge on Oleg, although the death of Izyaslav was a heavy blow for the whole family. Vladimir acknowledged that Izyaslav had no rights to Murom, and in "rats kings and heroes died." He expressed willingness to reconcile, if Oleg returns Rostov and Suzdal, and releases the prisoners. However, Oleg entered, he decided that once they asked for peace, it means that the enemy is weak. He answered rudely and arrogantly.
Kara came quickly. Mstislav Vladimirovich assembled the people of Novgorod, Vyacheslav Vladimirovich was sent to help him with a part of his father's team and allied Cumans. With a sudden blow, Mstislav knocked over the forward detachment of Yaroslav, he rolled back to Oleg. They did not defend Rostov, due to the fact that its inhabitants were unkindly disposed. Oleg retreated to Suzdal, having learned that Belozertsy and Rostovites joined the Novgorodians, he burned the city and went to his inheritance. Mstislav did not pursue the enemy, he offered peace, on the condition of the release of prisoners. Oleg agreed. But it was a military trick. He pulled up reinforcements from Ryazan, Chernihiv land, waited for Mstislav to disband the army. However, an unexpected attack failed. Mstislav was an experienced warrior and did not let himself be held. In addition, received reinforcements, arrived Vyacheslav. In the battle on the river Klyazma Svyatoslavich were defeated.
This time Mstislav went to the lands of the enemy. Yaroslav, left in Murom, did not dare to defend. He surrendered and freed the captives. Vladimirovich occupied and Ryazan. Only after that Oleg agreed to arrive at the princely congress.
Lyubechsky congress. In 1097, in the city of Lyubech (on the Dnieper River) a congress of Russian princes was held. The soul of the council was not the Grand Duke, but Monomakh. He insisted on the termination of strife that ruin Russia. In order to avoid future conflicts, the congress proclaimed the principle of the inheritance of their fathers' lands by the princes (“let everyone have their own fatherland”). Grand Prince Svyatopolk Izyaslavich, as the eldest of the family, received Kiev and Turovo-Pinsk land. The family of Vladimir Monomakh belonged to Pereyaslavl, the border line to Kursk, Smolensk, Rostov-Suzdal land and Beloozero. Oleg, Yaroslav and Davyd Svyatoslavich - Chernihiv and Seversk lands, Ryazan, Murom and Tmutarakan. David Igorevich - Vladimir-Volynsky with Lutsk. Vasilka and Volodar Rostislavich (the third brother - Rurik already died) - Terebovl, Cherven and Przemysl. Transitions to a legal right from one inheritance to another have been canceled. Thus, the cracks that cut through the country were legalized.
Kiev recognized the common property, the throne of the Grand Duke still had to go by seniority, and the younger princes to obey the Grand Duke. All princes took an oath: "Let the Russian land be our common fatherland, and whoever will rise up against his brother, we will all rebel."
The decision of the princes of a fraternal alliance remained a good wish. Immediately after the Lyubech Congress, civil strife began. According to the chronicle version, the Volyn prince Davyd Igorevich envied the riches of the Terebovl prince Vasilko Rostislavich. He colluded with the Grand Duke, who was offended by Monomakh, who believed that he had been cheated at the Lyubech Congress. He could not pass on Kiev by inheritance, and the Turovo-Pinsk principality was not among the richest and most important in Russia. Davyd proposed to eliminate Cornflower, his possessions passed to him, and he became an ally of the Kiev prince against Vladimir Monomakh. Vasilka was invited to visit Svyatopolk, and there Davyd's henchmen blinded the prince, then they drove to Volyn and put them in jail. Such a vile and cold-blooded massacre shocked the whole of Russia. This on the Russian land has not yet been.
Vladimir Monomakh, Davyd and Oleg Svyatoslavich led the troops to Kiev, the Grand Duke demanded to give an answer. He was scared, began to shift the blame on Davyd Igorevich. Svyatopolk was ready to flee the city, but he was not allowed to be surrounded. The clergy was divided. Pechersk monastery denounced the crime. A new metropolitan, Greek Nicholas looked at the situation differently. In Byzantium, such cases were a matter of ordinary, they say, the sovereign has the right to punish his subjects. He attacked Monomakh and Svyatoslavich with criticism, accusing them of setting up new strife. Princes gave way and agreed to leave Svyatopolk alone if he punished Davyd Igorevich.
This led to a cook in Volyn. Przemysl Prince Volodar Rostislavich has already made a campaign against Davyd and secured the extradition of his brother, and then the extradition to death of the advisers of the Volyn prince, who were guilty of the crime. Rostislavich began to revenge, smash the land of Davyd Igorevich. Volyn prince fled to Poland, began to look for help there. Soon he returned to Vladimir-Volynsky, but when the army of Grand Duke Svyatopolk Izyaslavich approached, he gave pride. Kiev Prince Svyatopolk decided to clean Volyn and put his son Mstislav there. Sviatopolk set his sights on rich Carpathian region, wanted to seize the lands of Vasilka and Volodar. Rostislavich not scared and brought their shelves. In the battle of the Hornfield, the army of Svyatopolk was defeated.
The Grand Duke Svyatopolk did not calm down, sent his son Yaroslav for help to the Hungarian king Koloman I. The Hungarians responded, deciding to gain a foothold in Carpathian Rus. The Hungarian king led a large army, with bishops, to baptize the population into the Roman faith. Volodar and Vasilko took defense in Przemysl. At this time, returned Davyd Igorevich. He made an alliance with the Polovtsian Khan Bonyak. All three princes were faced with a strong enemy and decided to forget the insults, to speak at the same time. In 1099, in the battle on the Vagra River (Vagre), the Polovtsy Bonyak and Igor’s squad lured a more numerous Hungarian army into an ambush and almost completely destroyed it. A huge number of Hungarians died during the persecution, drowned in Vagre and Sanaa. Rostislavich defended their Carpathian possessions. Davyd Igorevich beat off Vladimir and Lutsk. During the battle for Vladimir-Volyn killed the son of Grand Duke Mstislav.
Congress in Uvetichi (Vitichevsky Congress). In August, 1100, on the initiative of Vladimir Monomakh in the city of Uvetichi on the right bank of the Dnieper in the vicinity of Kiev, there was another princely gathering. At the first meeting - 10 (17) of August, Svyatopolk, Vladimir Monomakh, Davyd and Oleg Svyatoslavichi "created the world between themselves." Everyone understood that the grand prince was the main culprit of the conflict, but they decided to leave only Davyd Igorevich as the extreme. He was deprived of Vladimir-Volynsky, the son of Svyatopolk - Yaroslav was put there. The cities of Buzhsky Ostrog, Duben, Chartoryysk and Dorogobuzh, as well as the virus in 400 hryvnias from the rest of the brothers (200 from Monomakh and 200 from Svyatoslavich) were singled out to Davyd. They wanted to deprive the table and Vasilka, apparently due to his incapacity. Volodar was asked to take his brother to himself or send him to Kiev, where they promised to take care of him. However, Rostislavich refused to comply with this requirement, and Vasilko remained lord Terebovlya to death. The Grand Duke wanted to insist on the implementation of the decision of the congress, but Monomakh refused to start a new war. Looking at him, Svyatoslavichi did not interfere either.
Russian princes make peace in Uvetichi. Painting S.V. Ivanova.
Prestige Svyatopolk was extremely low in Russia. After the failure of harassment in the Carpathian region, he wanted to plant his son Yaroslav in Novgorod, and give Volyn, devastated by the war, to Mstislav Vladimirovich. But the Novgorod ambassadors declared to the grand duke: “We do not want neither you nor your son”. Svyatopolk tried to insist, Novgorod rested: "If your son has two heads, let him come." Kievan lord had to concede. He did not have the power and authority of the former great princes.
Svyatopolk, losing power in Russia, tried to find support abroad. Daughter Sbysslaw gave for the Polish king, Predslava - for the Croatian king. In relations with Byzantium, he acknowledged the loss of the principality of Tmutarakan, agreed to be considered a vassal of the emperor. According to one version, after the death of his Polovchan wife, he married a Greek woman, Varvara Komnine. The relations of Svyatopolk with Jewry continued to increase. This period was compiled set of "Tale of Bygone Years", in favor of the Grand Duke and his Greek and Jewish "friends" chronicle greatly reworked. In particular, almost all information about the war of Svyatoslav with the Khazaria was deleted. Jewish moneylenders received complete freedom in Russia. They were put by tax collectors, were given a tribute collection.
War with Polovtsy
Monomakh proposed to carry out a major campaign against the Polovtsy who had fled. Svyatopolk decided that he would further strengthen the authority of Monomakh, and rejected the idea. It was decided to convene a general congress of princes and Polovtsian khans, to negotiate peace. In April, the Russian princes made peace with the Polovtsy on 1101. But a year later, Bonyak's troops devastated the environs of Pereyaslavl, the villages on Sul, crossed to the right bank of the Dnieper, marched through the Kiev principality. Svyatopolk and Vladimir Monomakh raised their squads, but it was too late. Polovtsi with rich booty gone.
Dolobsky congress. At the beginning of 1103, a new princely council was held near Dolobskoye Lake near Kiev. The Grand Duke agreed with Monomah and gave him the initiative in preparing the march. Vladimir outlined a campaign for early spring. A feature of this congress was the participation in it of representatives of the princely squads. Kiev boyars tried to object, time was inconvenient. It was necessary to collect horses from the farms in the midst of work, which led to losses. But Monomah managed to convince them. A large army was gathered: the people of Kiev, Chernigov, Pereyaslav, Smolensk, Volhynians, Novgorod. Brought from Rostov army ustsy Georgi Simonovich. Even from the Polotsk land led the squad Davyd, one of the sons of the deceased Vseslav. Only Oleg, he now ruled in Novgorod-Seversky, did not lead the soldiers.
A. D. Kivshenko. “The Doloby Princes’ Congress is a meeting between Prince Vladimir Monomakh and Prince Svyatopolk. ”
Battle of the Suteni River. The general collection of troops took place in Pereyaslavl, from where, in boats and horses, they went to the island of Khortytsya on the Dnieper. Then the infantry was unloaded, and the 4 army of the day was heading east. Polovtsi knew about the campaign and decided to give battle. Most of the khans believed that having destroyed the Russian army with one blow, they would be able to take unprecedented loot in Russia. The oldest of the Khans, Urusoba, offered to begin peace negotiations, but his opinion was rejected.
Princely squads destroyed the guard units of the Polovtsy under the authority of Khan Altunopa. 4 April 1103 year on p. The Russian army found a shade of incalculable Polovtsian army, "like a forest, and there was no end in sight." It was not for nothing that the Russian princes took the infantry, it took upon itself the blow of the Polovtsian cavalry, stopped it, then from the flanks struck the prince's squads. Polovtsi could not stand it and ran. Began one-sided slaughter. The fact that 20 Khans were killed in the battle speaks about the enormous losses of the Polovtsy. One Polovtsian prince Belduz surrendered, promising a huge ransom. But Vladimir, remembering Beldyuz, how many times he broke the oath, ordered him to be executed. After the destruction of the Polovtsian army, the princely detachments marched through the enemy’s camps.
After this terrible defeat, the Polovtsi were silenced for three years. But it was a lull before new battles. The forces of the powerful Bonyak, whose possessions were located at the Dniester and the Bug, and Sharukan on the Don, were not undermined. In 1105, 1106 and the beginning of 1107. Bonyak troops conducted minor raids. It was reconnaissance. Bonyak was preparing the invasion, and Sharukan joined him.
Battle of the Sule River (12 August 1107 of the Year). In the summer, Pereyaslavl again gathered an army, this time there were only horse guards of Svyatopolk, Vladimir, his sons. Oleg Sviatoslavovich also came. In early August, the combined army of Bonyak and Sharukan besieged Lubny. Part of the Polovtsian army scattered around the district, gaining full.
The blow of Monomakh's army was abrupt. Polovtsian army did not have time to prepare for battle. The troops that stormed the fortress did not even have time to return to their horses. Brother Bonyak Taz with several other princes was killed, Sugra and his brother were taken prisoner. Bonyak and Sharukan saved at the cost of their death their personal guards. They covered the ford and fought to the last, winning time for their masters. This was the second terrible defeat of the Polovtsy from the Russian troops under the leadership of Monomakh.
This battle forced the Polovtsian princes to think seriously about the world. Khans Aepa Osenevich and Aepa Girgenevich sent embassies. They offered eternal peace and union, and also offered to intermarry, to give their daughters to princely sons. Vladimir Monomakh was not against the union and the wedding. In Russia, the Polovtsian red girls were valued. There is a perception that the South Russian steppes in this period were inhabited by “narrow-eyed, dark-haired Mongols,” but this is a myth. The Polovtsi, like the Pechenegs, were typical representatives of the white race (Caucasians), the heirs of Scythia-Sarmatia, like the russians of Chernigov or Kiev. Polovchanki were great amazon riders, participated in the battles, became loyal and loving wives. The son of Oleg Svyatoslavich Svyatoslav and the son of Vladimir Monomakh Yury married the Polovtsian princesses.
To be continued ...